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could press upon the mind of a statesman and a general,
Aurelius composed the First Book of his Philosophical
Meditations.' The war in which he was engaged lasted
twelve years with little interruption, a.d. 1G8-180, and
was the result of the most formidable combination of the
barbarians, which the Romans had hitherto encountered.''
It is said to have included the Germans, Scythians, and
Sarmatians, but, whether this statement is exactly true or
not, tliese protracted liostilities on the frv)ntier diffused
the civilization of the south more widely through central
and northern Europe. Accordingly, we find among
existino- remains in Scandinavia evidence of more active
relations with Home after tliis war with the Quadi and
Marcomanni. If my interpretation of the word Grannus
be correct, and the date of the vase, as inferred from
coins, be assigned to the second century, a remote pro-
vince of Sweden supplies an object which may be re-
garded as commemorating an illustrious personage and
the commencement of the death-stuggle between tlie
Gothic I'aces and tlie Roman empu-e. Another expla-
nation of Grannus derives it from a Celtic origin, and
makes it equivalent to Grian, the sun, with whom Apollo
is often identified. Tliis may, perhaps, l)e the same as
Brian, which occurs in Temple Briaii, a place in the.
county of ('ork, wliere a central stone was discovered,

' M. Antoiiiiii 7)r /-(/^((.s ,s7^/.v, [.ib. i, liii. wider the Enipiri', XiA. \\\, p. oS4, note 1,
Tj« iu Kovxooig tt^o; tu V^xvovu. where the north(n'n nation-^ are eniinie-

- Morivale, Jliatorij of llir Romans rated.


and others round it. supposed to be the remains of a
temple for heathen Avorship.^

The Roman antiquities in Denmark, taken collectively,
are more interesting than those of Norway and Sweden,
but they require less notice, because they have been fully
described in the English language by Dr. Engelhardt.
As might have been expected from the geographical
position of North Jutland, very few denarii have been
found in that province, while, on the contrary, they are
abundant in Sleswig or South Jutland, and the islands,
Sealand and Fyen.'- Tlie peat mosses of Thorsbjerg and
Nydam have yielded specimens of the Roman silver
coinage from Nero to Macrinus, A.D. 60 — 217. Two
handles of bronze vessels bear makers' stamps, disA/cvs f.
niCtELLIO f. resembling potters' marks, in which the
abbreviation f for fecit frequently occurs.^ On the tangs
and blades of iron swords we find native names expressed
in Latin characters, and sometimes \Aath Latin termina-
tions, the letters being raised on sunk plates, e.g., pjcvs,
RicciM, cociLLVS, TASVIT.^ ' The last name is evidently
barbarian ; it may l^e compared with Tasgetius, mentioned
by Caesar as King of the Carnutes, and Tasciovanus, the

^ Armstrong's Gaelic Dictionary, and ejus sabulosvim est magna sui parte."

O'Brien's Irish Dictionary, s.v. Grian. In the Breton language grouan means

Smith's nistorii of Cork, vol. ii, p. 418, gravd ; in the dialect of Vannes this

contains an engraving and ground-plan becomes gro3n. It has been conjectured

of an ancient heathen temjile at Temple that Grannus is another form of Gryneus,

Brian. This word is said by Celtic which occurs in Virgil as an epithet of

scholars to be a corruption of Grian. Apollo {^tx. iv, 345, cf. Eel. vi, 72), but

Gruter has nine examples of Grannus, this seems very doubtful,
p. xxxvii, Nos. 10-14, p. xxxviii, Nos. - Engelhardt, Bnimarh in the Early

1-4 ; the last is from Enderask, which Iron Age. See map opposite, \). 8, sho\\ -

appears to be intended for Inveresk, near ing where objects from this period have

Edinburgh; compare Hiibner, Inscrip- been found. The mark -J- denotes Ro-

tiones Britannicce LaHixe, p. 190, c. Ixv, man coins.

where this monument is given more '^ Compare Roach Smith, Boman Lon-

correctly. Grannus occurs also in Bram- don, p, 89, marks and names of potters

bach's Inscriptiohes Ehenance, No. 484, impressed upon the handles of amphorae ;

in the iluseum at Bonn, found in that pp. 99 and 101, engravings of these

city. No. 566 found at Erii in the district stamps ; pp. 102-107, potters' marks on

of Cologne, No. 1614 in the Royal Col- Samian ware discovered in London; pp.

lection at Stuttgart, No. 1915 in the 107, 103, a of preserved in the

Library at Strasburg. Eckhart, Bis- Museum at Douai. In these collections

sertatio de ApoUinc Qranuo Mogoiiiio in the abbreviations F for fecit or factu.s, M

Alsatia nuper deticto, contained in the for manu, and or OF for officina, are

Analecta Hassiaca, Collectio lii, \>. 220 frequent. Worsaae, Korditke Oldmgtr,

seqq., con.siders Grannus connected with Jernaldereii, i, 308. Brud.stykke af Han-

the Welsh gro and grajan, the French ken til et Broncekar, med romersk Fabrik-

ijrave and graritr, and the German stemjjel.

Griess — words signifying gravel ; so he ■* Engelhardt, PI. vii, Nydam, figs. 18,

explains Aquisgrannum, " tpiia solum 20, 21.



father of Cunobeline, who figures so prominently in our
legendary and numismatic annals. Taximagulus also
occurs, a king of Kent when Cfesar arrived in Britain,
and Moritasgus, a king of the Senones. From these
analogies we may infer, with a high degree of probability,
that TASVIT was a Cimbric chieftain.'

With respect to Roman inscriptions Denmark is inferior
to the other two Scandinavian kingdoms, as the longest —
if we exclude coins — consists of only two words ael.
AELIANVS on the boss of a shield, which may be the name
of the owner or of his general.^ A head-stall, found at
Thorsbjerg, is remarkable, as the only object of this kind
that is left from antiquity in tolerably good preservation.
It is made of leather and decorated with bronze studs, of
which the heads are silver-plated, so that it resembles
the harness of the ancients, as we see it on the Antonine
column. These ornaments, called phalerse, were not only
worn on the breast by men as military distinctions, but
also used for the trappings of horses ; so Juvenal describes
in almost the same terms the soldiers and the animals
pleased with their phalerre.^ But a breast-plate from the
same find is still more worthy of notice on account of tlie
mixture of classical and l3arbarian art. We have here
Roman Medusa's lieads, hippocampi and dolphins, a semi-
Roman figure of a seated warrior, and barbarous repre-
sentations of horses, fish, and mythical animals.^ The

^ The murder of Tasgetius iti related Trajano Aug. Germ, ob bellum Daeic,

by Caesar, Be Bell. Gall., v, 25. For the torquib. armill, phaleiis, corona vallar.

coin.? of Tasciovanus see Akermau'.s Nit- Cf. ih. Nos. 3, 6, 8, 10. In the Trajan

«ns;na^ip il/r^;«««/, pp. 219-224, and Evans' column the barbarian auxiliaries -who

Ancient British Coiits, pp. 220-245, Plates served as cavalry are without headstalls

V, No. 7 — vi, No. 9. Taximagulus occurs or bridles, Fabretti, s. 197, PL xxxii, ; on

in Ciesar, ib., c. 22, and Moritasgus, c. 54. the contrary, the Romans may be easily

Tasconus F., Tascilla, and Tascil M., are distinguished by their pad saddles, capa-

amongst the jiotters' marks found in lisons, and reins.
London, Roach Smith, p. 106. •* Engelhardt, p. 46, Thorsbjerg, PI. 6,

- Engelhardt, p. 49 and note ; p. 76 fig. 1 : PI. 7, fig. 7. With these engraving.s

index to the Plates ; and PI. 8, Thorsbjerg, of breast-plates compare Thorsbjerg, PL

Nos. 11, 11a, lib, lie: in the last en- 11, fig. 47, where there is a representation

graving a full size fac-simile of the in- of an object that seems to have decorated

scription is shown. a helmet ; the figui'es ujion it are a hippo-

•M']ngelhardt, p. 61, PL 13, Thonsbjerg; camp, Capricorn, boar, bird, and fox or

Rich, Latin T>\QiioivAvj, phalcrce, pitalc- wolf. As the fii-st two are types common

ratus. Juvenal, xi, 103, Ut jihaleris in classical art, I cannot agree with Dr.

gauderet eipius : xvi, 60, Ut laeti ]iha- Engelhardt's assertion that there is here

leris omnes et torquibus omnes. W. not the least trace of Roman influence,

Froehner, La Colonne Trajane, Appen- thoixgh it must be acknowledged that the

dice, Inscriptions relatives aux guerres style of execution is quite barbarous.
Daces, No. 1, donis donate ab imp.


hippocampi or sea horses in the border are so small that
they might escape attention ; however, an antiquary
should not neglect details because they are microscopic.
This type appears on the denarii of the gens Crepereia,
and on large and second brass of Mark Antony's praefects
of the fleet or admirals, in which case the device is
peculiarly appropriate.' Again, we may trace a connec-
tion with British numismatics, and observe that our
ancestors, like the Scandinavians, imitated Italian art
in their own rude fashion. The coins of Amminus and
Tasciovanus show the same marine monster, though his
form varies in the Roman, Danish, and British exam]:>les ;
in the two former his hind- quarters are those of a fish,
in the latter they retain more of the equine shape.
Whether this emblem was simply copied without any
special significance, or intended to rejoresent maritime
and insular position cannot now be easily determined.'
Hippocampi and d(jlpliins are often engraved on gems,
sometimes carrying Cupid, sometimes drawing him in a
shell instead of a chariot ; they are also naturally
associated Avitli Neptune, Nereus, Doris, Galatea, Triton,
and other marine deities.^

But we may go further and remark that amongst these
antiquities some vestiges may be observed of a civilization
older than the Roman ; even here, in the neighboiu-hood

^ Cohen, MtdaUles Consulnins, PI. xvi, i, p. 341, s.v. Ii;)pocam2jo, gives two

Cnpereia, Nos. 1, 2: PI. Ixi, Oppia, 7; examples from Eraporiie, in the i^rovince

PL Ixvi, Scmpronla, 6, 7. Mr. Evans, of Tarracona, with Celtic legends, which

Ancient British Coim, p. 259, mentions are therefore jieculiarly apposite for our

Mark Antony's P;'ffc/«'<s, but has failed to present jiurpose. The hippocamjj also

observe that these officers commanded occurs in Pompeian paintings, and accord-

the fleet, which is specially ^\■orthy of ingly has been introduced among the

notice in connexion with this maritime decorations of the Pompeian Court at the

device on their coins ; the legend contains Crystal Palace,

the abbreviations praef. class. ^ Gori, Gvmmne Antiqiiae Mmii Floren-

- For the coins of Amminus see Evans, tin>, Vol. i, Pis. Ixxvii and Ixxviii, p. 153,

p. 211, PI. V, No. 2, and PI. xiii, No. 7. Cupidines cymbula, vel delphinibus vel

Ih., pp. 258-260, PL vii, 9-11, the coins of hippoc;impo vecti per mare; Vol. ii. Pis.

Verulamium are described, which exhibit xlvi — li, Ixxix, pp. 99 and 127, Circi

the same type ; the letters TAS for Tascio- aliqua prieci])ua oniamenta, delphines, In etc. 'Kiwg, Antique Gems and Itlugs, \ij\.

some of these cases it is difficult to decide ii, PL liv. No. 10; copper-jilates of

whether the device is a hii)poc;xmp or a miscellaneous gems, PL iii, No. 4, Cupid

Capricorn ; its origin may be explained by steering a dolphin by the sound of his

comparison with the Greek; Combe's pipe ; No. 10, Cupid driving, with trident

Catalogue of the Hmtterian Collection, s.v., for whip, a marine team of hippocamjn,

Syracusie, p. 298, etpius niarinus ad yoked to a great shell for a c;ir ; a parody

sinistram, cf. tab. liv, fig. 15. Fr. De un the usual Victory in her biga ; compare

Uomiuicis, I{c2)ertorio Xuniismalico, Tome Nos. 12 and 15.


of the Cimbric Chersonesus, the Greeks have left a
witness to oriental philosophy and mysticism. On a
female skeleton, dug up near Svenborg, in Fyen, there
^\^as discovered, among other ornaments, a crystal ball
inscribed with the word abaaoanaaba, which has been
translated — " Thou art our Father " — a Gnostic invoca-
tion often occurring on gems, which was derived from
the Syriac, and afterwards corrupted into the Latin
Abracadabra.' But another example is still more in-
teresting for the following reasons. The object itself
belongs to an earlier age, viz., the l^ronze, which preceded
the iron ; it is copied from a more ancient original ; it
reproduces a beautiful device of classic art ; and lastly, it
resembles the old British coinage. A kind of cover or lid
has been found in Denmark, shaped like a funnel reversed.
On one of these a figure appears, which is doubtless a
barbarous imitation of the charioteer in the stater struck
l^y King Philip II of Maceclon. The same type is
frequent in the Gallic coinage, and may be traced
through its successive stages of deterioration by means
of Fairholt's admirably executed plates illustrating Mr.
Evans' work above-mentioned."

^ Wtirsaae, Xordiske Oldsager, Jernal- cuin and two barbarous imitations ;

dvnn. i, p. 87, fig. 379, engraved of the according to MM. Montelius and Han8

actual size. Engelhardt, Denmark in the Hildebrand these last were fabricated

Earhi Iron Age, p. 13 and note. It is towards the close of the Bronze Age.

stated that tliis is the only crystal ball If we take a comprehensive view of the

found with an inscription on it ; cf. King, antiquities discovered in the three Scan-

The Gnostics and their Remains, p. 81. dinavian kingdoms, we cannot but come

TheinvocationABAAQANAABA accompanies to the conclusion that during the earlier

the pantheistic representation of the god Iron age an uniformity of style pervaded

Abraxas, with the head of a cock or lion, their art, manners, and customs, and that

the body of a man and the legs of an asp. it was deeply imbued with Eoman influence.

Ulr. Fr. Kopp, ralctorjrapliia Critica, Vol. Abundant corroboration of this statement

iii, pp. 681-690, gives many varieties of may be found by studying the annual

this formula, and discusses at great reports of the Norwegian Society for

length its origin and meaning. It seems the Preservation of Ancient Monuments

connected with the New Testament (ForeningentilNorske Fortidsmindesmer-

phrases 'A/3/3« 6 TrctT'/j^, Mark xiv, 36, kers Bevaring) and Worsaae's Illustrated

Rom. viii, 15, Gal. iv, 6, and Ma^ava^a. Catalogue of the Muscmn at Copenhagen.

1 Cor xvi 22. For the Latin word The Danish Branch of this subject has a

Jhrncadabra, which was used as a charm special attraction for the,

acainst diseases, and written in the because it has been mvestigated with the

form of an inverted cone, see Forcellini's greatest zeal and care by the local savans,

Lexicon s v. Bailey's translation. and discussed with a view to establish a

« Conrires International d' Anthropoloqle rational system of pre-historic chronology.

etd-JrcMologie Prehistoriqnes,'&tock\\o\m, Mr. Fergusson, Rude Stone 3Ionumcnts,

1874 8>ir les Commencements de VAge dn p. 275, says, " The Danish antiquaries

Fcr en Europe, par M. Hans Hildebrand, ha%'e been so busy in arranging their

Toiue ii W 600, S(i. Engravings are microlithic treasures m glass cases that

given of A Macedonian stater, a Oallic they have totally neglected their larger


II. Byzantine art had an extensive and lasting influence,
overspread southern and central Europe, and left indelible
marks even in the remote corners of the north and west.
At fii'st sight we may feel surprised that a style so con-
ventional and rigid, debased by luxurious tyranny, and
enslaved hj hierarchical prescription, should have exercised
dominion over various races and through many centuries.
But the difficulty disappears, if we consider the circum-
stances, which were particularly favourable to Greek art.
Constantinople was the only great city not taken and
pillaged by barbarians till the close of the dark ages ;
the Lower Empire had retained many forms of the old
chissical period to which Christianity imparted new life ;
and Byzantine symbolism was widely diffVised, because it
alone satisfied the instincts and embodied the aspirations
of humanity.' But, whatever may have been the cause,
it remains an undoubted fact that the peculiarities of this
school are as clearly visible in Scandinavia as in Italy or
Greece itself The coins of Magnus I, who reigned 1035-
1047, show us a seated figure, like that of Christ, with a
glory round the head, the book of the Gospels on the
breast, and the right arm raised in benediction. This is
clearly a Byzantine type, and may be seen on the solidi
of emperors who were nearly contemporary, viz., John
Ziraisces, the Armenian, and Nicephorus III, Botaniates.
Even the patterns of the richly ornamented robes worn
by Greek sovereigns re-appear on the persons of Danish
and Norwegian kings. Magnus is dressed like Justinian
in the mosaics of S^''' Sophia at Constantinople, or San
Vitale at Ravenna.' Similarly, before the profile of St.

monuments outside;"" — and again, ji. 297,. ffrrcii, pp. 20-2-1, esi)ecially p. 23 and note

" In Denmark anything that cannot be 4. Ligner byzantinske Praeg fia Johannes

put into a glass case in a museum is so Zimisces og Nicephorus Botaniates, se

comialetely rejected a.s vakieless that no Banduri, Numismata Imj^. Kom. ii, p.

one cares to record it." Those who can 738 og 748. It is worthy of remark that

read the elaborate work of Kornerup, the earlier jiieces of this king have a

with preface by Worsaae, on the Ttnrjal crowned bust on the obverse, but the

3/o<<««?.$ (KongeliQiene) '/< J(///V/(7 will find later a sitting figure, which is {^I'obably

therein sufficient proof that the Danes do St. Olaf in the likeness of Christ. This

not deserve the censures with which they device seems to have been adojjted on

have been S(j severely visited. account of the assistance ^\hich the saint

' Kugler's Hamlhook of Pninfing, edited was supposed to have afforded to Magnus

by Eastlake, Vol. i, pp. 46-91, The Byzau- at the battle (jf Lyrskov. The Byzantine

tine style. dress on the Noiwegian coins may be

- For the coins of Magnus I see Schi\e compared with the robes of Justinian and

and Holmboe, Nvrgcs Mi/uter i Middclal- Theodora and attendant courtiers, a,? they


Olaf, Ave have a cross raised on two steps, wiiicli also was
derived from Byzantium ; amongst many other instances
the coinage of Heracliiis and Constans II may be cited.'
At this period the course of trade seems to have been
from Asia to Constantinople, overland thi'ough Russia to
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, and thence to Great
Britain and Ireland ; somewhat later the crusades must
have impelled traffic still more in the same direction, in
consequence of hostilities prevailing through the Mediter-
ranean. These commercial relations between Asia and the
north of Europe during the epoch of the Vikiiigs from the
eiglitli to the eleventh century are proved by thousands
of Cufic coins discovered in Sweden and Denmark, which
are now deposited in the national Museums of Stockholm
and Copenhagen.-'

We shall find the same influence in the architecture of
the north ; the forms of the capitals and sculptured deco-
rations in relief equally exhibit it. A good example is
supplied by the church of Vaage, in Gudbrandsdal, the
long and picturesque valley that leads from the Miosen
lake to Trondhjem. The tracery of interlaced serpents,
which characterizes Scandinavian art, and afterwards
appears on Irish crosses, only reproduces Byzantine sym-
bolism, typifying the Fall and Bedemption.^ Another

appear in the mosaicH at Ravenna (Liibke, worn in the same way, Nos. 399-iOl.

Gnmclriss dcr KiinsU/cschichte I, 263, fig. Dahl, DeuhmiiUr eincr xehr umgehiUlvtCH

176. V<jn den Mosaiken aus San Vitale), Holzlmiihunst cms deii fruhcstoi Jahrhnn-

of which large coloured copies may be seen dertcn in dcii inncrn Landsch'iffeu Nor-

iu the South Kensington Museum. The tver/ais, says that at the nuptial ceremony

seated Christ occurs frequently in the the brides wore crowns on which were

art of the Lower Enijnre; so Eckh el, Z^OfV. hung Byzantine gold coins, bracteates,

Num. TcL, viii, 257, s.v., Eiidocia says, and solidi of the Middle Ages.
Chrlstus svdcns more solUo. Ltibke, ih., - Archaahykal Congress at Stockholm,

fig. 177, Mosaik aus der Vorhalle der tome ii, 9-32 et sq. Arclxvol. Journal,

Sophienkirclie, which shows the Christ iv, 199-203, contains some interesting

enthroned and the court dress of the remarks by Worstuie on the course of

Greek emperor. trade through N(n'ogorod in Russia and

1 Nuryes Mynter , pp. 14, 15, tab. i, Wi.sby in Gotland. The great importance

No. 16. Eckhel, viii, 223, Crux insistens of the latter as an emporium is attested

grndibus, and ib. 225. The coins of by coins and seals, and still further con-

Romanus I and Christ(jphorus afford firmed by the number and magnitude of

examples both of the seated Christ and arcliitectural remains, unparalleled in the

tlie cross on .steps ; -Sabatier, Description north of Europe. Bergman and Save's

gi'nerak des monnaies Byzcuitincs, \A. book is the best authority for the anti-

xlvi, 12. quities of Wisby ; it is written in Swedish,

AVorsaae, Nordiske Oldsager, Jcrnul- and accompanied by lithographs. The

derm, ii, p. 95, gives examples of Byzan- earlier work of Peringskiold may also be

tine gold coins used as ornaments, sus- advantageously consulted,
pended from the neck, Nos. 397, 398a, '' Nicolaysen, Norsko Bygninger fra

398b, and of gold bracteates, ^^•hich were Fortidcn, p. 3, pi. v. Wornum, Analysis


20 1

instance occurs in the church of Urnes, where the Avood
carvings bear a strong resemblance to the ilhistrations in
the Bible of Charles the Bald and Greek manuscripts of
the ninth century.'

The great variety and irregularity in the sculptures of
these wooden churches must strike even a superficial
observer. It is easy to explain, if we call to mmd the
Varangian body-guard of the Greek emperors.- The
Scandinavians must liave often seen in the south ot
Europe buildings for whose construction columns, archi-
traves, and friezes of jDagan temples had been used
without any regard to architectural symmetry, — hence
they repeated this confusion when they returned to their

of Ornament, ]}. 66. '■ The cross planted
(111 the serpent is fmind sciiljitiired on
3Iount Athos, and the cross, surrounded
liy the so-called Runic knot, is only a
Scandinavian version of the original
Byzantine image — the crushed snake
curling round the stem of the avi-ngiug
cross," &c. Besides the churches men-
tioned in the text, many others contain
curious specimens of wood carving ; good
engi'aviugs of them may be seen in the
following works: — OixLil and Aardal in
Norske Bygningcr, Hedal in the Mlnde^,-
merher af Middvlaldenns Kunst i Xortjc,
both by Nicolaysen; Hittcrdal, Borgund
and Vang in Dahl's book cited above.

The affinity between Irish and Scandi-
navian art is evident, if we compare ^^•ith
t'.iese monuments O'Neill's Sculptured
Crosses of Ancient Ireland, and the Fac-
similes of National Manuscripts of Ire-
land, photo-zincographed by Major-
General Sir Henry James. According
to some writers this style, of v.-hich
interlaced ornament is the chief charac-
teristic, originated in Ireland, and wa.s
thence diffused into other countries ; but
I think a careful examination of the facts
will show that it came from Constanti-
nople, underwent many modifications in
Scandinavia, and finally was carried into
Ireland by the victorious Norsemen. A
friend reminds me that the testimony of
the Hiberno-Danish coins corroborates the
opinion that the so-called Irish art is
essentially Scandinavian.

^ This name is also spelt Ornes and
Urnaes. The termination naes is common
in Norway, and corresponds to the Eng-
lish ness and naze. Tliis church, wliich is
not mentioned in Murray's Handbook, is
ituated on the promontory of Urnes, that

juts out into the Ly.ster Fiord, the ex-
treme north-e; branch of the Sogne
Fiord ; Korske Bi/gninger, pp. 1-3, Plates

Seroux d'Agincourt, Histolrc de V Art
par les Monuments, Vol. iii, Plates xl, xlv,
gives several engravings of the illustra-
tions of tliis manuscript, wliich he calls
the Bible of St. Paul from the Benedictine
monastery, in which it wa.s formerly pre-
served. The title page exhibits a king or
emperor sitting on a throne, with a glolje
in his hand as a sj-mbol of jjower. The
name Charles occurs in a monogram as

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