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Weever : — " Alas ! our own noble monuments and pre-
cyouses antiquyties wych are the great bewtie of our
lande, we as little regarde as the parynges of our nayles."



^ Scu Arcltavluykul Journal, vol. vi, p. ~ A similar figure at Tewkesbury has

354. lizards and other reptiles creeping about

the body.



DR. SCHLIEMANN'S TROJAN COLLECTION.

BY BERTRAM FULKE HARTSHORXE, S. A.

Few persons can have anticipated that the wild and nninliabited
plateau of Hissarlik would surrender to the excavator such treasures as
are now exhibited at the South Kensington Museum. The history of
Dr. Schliemanu's discoveries on this memorable site is well known to
all archasologists, but the fruits of his successful labours can at length
be fully realized and appreciated. The collection which^he has gene-
rously brought to England for exhibition fills twenty or thirty cases,
and consists of about one-twentieth part, but that by far the most
important portion of the total number of objects brought to light.

It will be remembered that below the remains of the Greek city,
Ilium Novum, the strata of four separate cities were found one below
the other, the native rock being only reached at a depth of fifty-two
feet from the surface. The earliest of these cities extends upwards for
nineteen feet, tlius occupying in the series of the strata the space lying
between the depths of thirty -three feet and fifty-two feet from the
the present surface soil.

The principal objects discovered in this stratum consist of highly
glazed black vases with two vertical tubular holes for suspension,
funeral urns of black clay, brooches of bronze or silver, indented Hint
knives, spindle whorls of clay with or without incised ornaments,
needles of bone and ivory, whetstones, stone hammers and axes, hand-
mill stones, black and highly glazed hand-made pottery, with incised
ornamental patterns filled in with white clay, and a glazed red goblet
with one handle, closely resembling the Mycenaean goblets. All these
remains afford evidence of a very early, but not of the rudest, stage of
civilization. They are, indeed, the relics of the city, which, according
to the tradition preserved by Homer, underwent destruction at the
hands of Herakles himself.

' Og TTore Civp eXOiovive'^ iinriov Xaonkoovroq
Cjt, oiyg aw vr]vai Kai avcpuai TravpoTepoiaiv
IXiou i^aXaTra^s iroXiv, yJ]pioat S ayviaq

II. V, 642.

" With but six ships, and with a scanty band,
The horses by Laomedon withheld
Avenging, he o'erthrew this city, Troy,
And made her streets a desert."

Lord Derhjs Translation.

The next succeeding city, which Dr. Schliemann identified with
the Troy of Homer, reaches upwards, from the depth of thirty-three
feet to the depth of twenty-three feet. The discoveries made in this



292 DR. SCHLIEMANN's TROJAN COLLECTION.

stratum probably attract the most general interest. They may at once
be readily distinguished, OAving to the simple and convenient method
of classification which has been adopted, whereby each individual object
in the entire collection is marked with a printed label, shewing the
depth at which it was found. In this city, the second from the
])ottom and the fourth from the top, was brought to light that Avhich
Dr. Schliemann called the "Treasure of Priam," and which is here
designated the ''Trojan Treasure." It has already been rendered
familiar to English readers by the excellent illustrations given in his
well known work " Trou and its Remains,^' and it now forms the contents
of two large glass cases. Most conspicuous among the numerous
golden ornaments are the two diadems, severally identified by Mr.
Gladstone, with the ttXeictt] ava^ea/nr] such as Homer describes
Andromache to have M'orn. Either of them may possibly be the very
one which she tore from her head in her grief at the death of Hector.

Tf/Xe S airo Kparog jSaXe otCjiioTa a/yaXotiTo,
' AfiiTrvKa KtKpv(f)a\6v re ihl ttXe/ctijv avaoea-|tiJjv
Kprj^ijiivov o pa ol SCok^ y^pvaer] A(ppooi.Tr].

II. xxii, 470.

" Far off were tlung tli' adornments of her head;
The net, tJie fillet, and the woven bands ;
The nuptial veil by golden Venus giv'n."

Lord Derby's Translation.

They appear bright and perfect as if newly made, whilst the inge-
nuity and regular workmanship shewn in their construction, at once
gives them a liigh ai^tistic value. The larger one of the two consists of
sixty-one small chains, formed by leaves of repousse work, and evidently
originally suspended from a flat golden band or cijuttu^, which would
have encircled the head of the wearer. >Seven of these chains, at either
extremity of the band, are about ten inches in length. They would
probably have fallen over the sides of the head, whilst the remainder
formed a sort of fringe, four inches long, over the forehead. At the
bottom of every chain hangs a peculiarly shaped flat piece of gold,
stamped with a line down the centre and two dots on either side,
forming, as Dr. Schliemann thinks, an unmistakeable representation
of the T\avKMTnq h.B)]vr\.

In the other diadem the corresponding pendants of the chains are
difi'erently ornamented, but it is possible to observe in them a conven-
tional configuration of the human form.

The beautiful golden cup with two handles is one of the most striking
and the most interesting features of the Trojan Treasure. Its intrinsic
value is also considerable, as may be inferred from its weight, one
pound and six ounces. Until quite reeentl}^, Dr. Schliemann was of
opinion that it had been cast in a mould. It now appears, however,
that this is not the case, for it has been discovered that the body of
tlie cup is composed of two separate plates of gold welded together by
the hammer, (T(bvpu\aTov. In this respect it answers to the description
of the cup or disli given by Achilles, for the fifth prize in the games
celebrated after the funeral rites of Patroclus : —



DR. SCHLIEMANN's TROJAN COLLECTION. 293

II. xxiii, 270.

"Forllie fifth, a vase
'\"\'itli double cup, untouched liy fire, he gave."

Lord Derhys Translation.

There can be no doubt that it is, as Dr. Schliemana says, the
Homeric geVac d/ncpiicvireWov, and that the meaning of these Tvords is
not, as was formerly supposed, a double cuj) with a common bottom in
the centre, but a cup with a handle on either side, an interpretation
supported by the analogy of the word dwpKfyopivc , and more consonant
witli the idea implied by the word a'^i^i. It is suggested that the
mouth at one end, being larger than that at the opposite end, may
have been used for pouring libations, and that the worshipper after-
wards drank from the smaller end, as when Achilles poured a libation
to Zeus from the cup which he treasured tip in his chest. The cup is
not, however, here called a/.i(f)iKVTrsX\ov ; none ever drank from it
save Achilles himself, and he poured libations from it to Zeus alone.

£v9o Of Ol S^TTCIQ SaKi T^TVyj-dvOV, OVck TIQ uWoQ
OvT aVOfJiOV TTlViGKiV UTT (IVTOV aiBoTTa olvOV

OvTt Te(t) airevSeaKe Oeiov, oti /.u) Att TraTpi.

II. xvi, 227.

"There lay a goblet, richly clias'd, whence none
But he alone, might drink the ruddy wine,
Nor might libations thence to other Gods
Be made, .=ave only Jove.

Lord Derby's Translation,

A passage in Yirgil seems fully to illustrate the use of a cup of this
nature : —

"Dixit, et in niensam laticuni libavit honoreui
Priina(|ue, libato, suninio teuus attigit ore,
Tuni Bitiaj dedit increpitans ; ille inipiger hausit
Spuniantem paterain et pleno se proluit auro,
Post alii proceres." M\\. i, 740.

Here Dido first poured the libation and then drank herself, handin"-
the cup on to Bitias, who in turn passed it on to the other chiefs.
The two handles would seem to be necessitated by the shape of the
cup itself, and they would be convenient for the j)urpose of sending it
round at the banquet from one person to another.

Other cups of gold and of silver, together with golden bracelets and
earrings and an immense number of small gold jewels, also form part of
the Trojan treasure, as well as six flat blades of pure silver, which
Dr. Schliemann thinks are most probably Homeric talents ; tliej' con-
sist of three pairs, differing in size, the largest pair weighing about
one pound, and the smallest pair about one ounce less. Their several
values theref(n-e would not have been uniform. Irrespective of the
Trojan treasure, the principal relics of the Homeric Ilium were
numerous hand-made vases and wheel-made dishes, many of the
former bearing the owl-headed or the human typo, idols or figures of



294 DR. SCHLIEM Ann's TROJAN COLLECTION.

boue, marble, clay or common stone with incised owl heads, funeral
urns witli human ashes, spindle whorls, either plain, ornamented, or
bearing inscriptions in Cyprian characters, lyres of ivorj', needles of
bone or ivory, silver broodies, and immense jars of baked clay ; and,
as in tlie lowest stratum of all, indented flint knives and hammers and
other stone implements were found along with bronze weapons.

i^.moug the remains of the city next above this Homeric Ilium, hand-
made pottery was also discovered, but it was infei-ior in character to
that of the older and lower city ; spindle whorls, owl vases, and stone
hammers were common, but goblets in the form of hour glasses were
peculiar to this stratum.

In the next succeeding city, the remains of which extended from the
depth of six and a half to thirteen feet from the surface, the buildings
were chiefly of wood, a fact now attested by the vast layers of ashes
which have taken their place. Here, the implements were mainly of
flint, and the level of civilization generally indicated is lower than that
of either of the two preceding and older cities.

This curious concurrence of stone and bronze instruments in the
older cities, couj)led with a i^rogressive decadence in the social arts,
betokens perhaps somewhat of an anomaly, but as Mr Philip Smith,
the learned editor of the English edition of " Troy and its Ite mains,''''
has pointed out, it demonstrates the impossibility of fixing by a hard
and fast line, at any rate in this locality, the respective ages of stone
and bronze.

The collection of j)ottery is very large, and it embodies a great
variety of shapes and forms. Some of the long narrow necks and
spouts closely resemble the wares which are made at the present day
at Chanak Kalessi, tlie seaport town, about fourteen miles from the
site of Homer's Troy. The representations of the Ilian goddess, the
0£a yXavKbJTTig ''AOrjvr], are quite evident in many of the vases or jars,
jiarticularly in that splendid example discovered in the palace of
Priam, wliich now stands in the case where three human skulls are
shown. It forms illustration No. 219, at p. 307, of " Troi/ and its
Bemains.'''' Occasionall}', tlie lid or covering of a jar is made in imita-
tion of the (paXog or helmet, as may be seen in illustrations No. 19.5,
at p, 2S3, No. 207, at p. 294, and No 173 at p. 2o8 ; but there are
other examples in which it is less easy to discover the cliaracteristics
of the owl countenance, whilst in two instances at least the whole
human face is clearly delineated — see No. 185, p. 268, and No. 74, p.
115. In cases where the sharp beak and large eyes of the owl are
unmistakeable, the addition of the breasts and oixcpaXog in the same
figure is of course inconsistent with the view that it represents the
Oea yXavKtoTTiQ Adiivt], unless it is conceded, as regai'ds the age
to which these examples must be assigned, that this expression
signifies '' Athene, with the face or countenance of an owl," and not
merely '' with large or bright eyes." In this connexion it is interesting
to note that Dr. Schliemann, in 1872, anticipated the subsequent
discovery of the image of the |3ow7r<c 'H|Ojj upon idols, cups, or vases
at Mycenre (Troi/ and its Remains, p. 113) and a few specimens from
that place, exhibiting the cow's head and horns, one being beautifully
engraved as a seal on a piece of agate, are added to the Trojan collec-
tion at South Kensington.



DR. SCHLIEM Ann's TROJAN COLLECTION. 295

Dr. Schliemann's summary of the arguments, with his final conclu-
sions, regarding tlie respective meanings of the epithets yXavKOJirig
and BoroTTig will be found at page 22 of his most interesting work
upon his discoveries at Mycen.io. "No one," he writes, *:' will for a
moment donbt" that these Homeric epithets shew tliat Hera and
Athene were severally represented at one time with the face of a cow,
and with the face of an owl, but that in the history of the two words
there are evidently three stages in which they had different significa-
tions. In the first stage the ideal conception and the naming of the
goddesses took place, and in that naming the epithets were figurative
or ideal, that is, natural. Hera, as deity of the moon, would receive
lier ei^ithet 3oCjTrig from the syinbolic horns of the crescent moon and
its dark spots, which resemble a face with large eyes ; whilst Athene,
as goddess of the dawn, received the epithet yXavKonrig, to indicate
the light of the opening day. In the second stage, to which the pre-
historic ruins of Hissarlik and Mycenae belong, the deities were
represented by idols in which the former figurative intention was
forgotten, and the epithets were materialized into a cow- face for
Hera, and an owl- face for Athene. The third stage, in which the
Homeric rhapsodies are included, is when, after Hera and Athene had
lost their cow and owl faces, and ruceived the faces of women, the cow
and owl had become the attributes of these deities, and the ancient
epithets (SoioTrig and yXavKU)7riq continued to be used probably in tlie
sense of " large-eyed" and "owl-eyed." An unprejudiced and careful
examination of tiie present collection will tend to confirm this theory.
It will further illustrate the general anthropomorphous tendency of the
prc-Homeric as well as of later ages in regard to culture and the arts.

The projections wliich at the sides of some of the vases are mani-
festly meant for ears, as in illustration No. 102, p. 171, and
No 18-5 at p. 268, appear in others in an altered shape, and are
affixed to the sides so as to serve merety as handles or ledges for
lifting the vessel, as in illustration No. 136, p. 171 ; hence we meet
with such an expression as Tpiiroda wrw£vra, II. xxiii, 264, of which
an admirable representation may be seen on page 1-52, No. 106, or
p. 229, No. 161.

Numerous specimens of terra cotta cewa u/LKpiKvirsWa, of exceedingly
graceful shape, are grouped together in one case, each with supports
to keep it in the proper position for holding licj^uid, for the bottom
terminates in a point which would not preserve equilibrium. Some
belong to the stratum of tlie Homeric Troy, wliilst others of similar
design and character come from the latest Greek city, having been
discovered at a depth of about only six feet from the surface. Spindle
whorls of terra cotta were found in great numbers at all depths at
Hissarlik, and several hundreds of them are exhibited. They are of
innumerable kinds, and display great diversity of ornamentation.
Rude figures of animals or representations of lightning, or of the stars
of heaven are here and there plainly discernible ; several small round
balls of terra cotta are marked in a somewhat similar manner. One
which is suspended in order to show the whole of the design upon its
outer surface is described thus: "The Ilian Minerva, in form of an
owl, with two hands (one of which has three fingers) rising to heaven,

VOL. XXXIV. 2 Q



29 G DR. SCHLIEM Ann's TROJAN COLLECTION.

having to .^ler right a wheel symbolical of the sun, to her left the full
moon, and between the sun and moon the morning star. On the
reverse, the hair of the goddess is distinctly engraved." No. 2579.

The actual purpose served by the spindle whorls is not very clear,
unless they were, as Dr. Schliemaun suggests, ex voto offerings ; this
explanation however does not seem to be founded upon anything but
supposition, nor does it account for the reason why these offerings
should have assumed so peculiar a character in such numerous
instances. They do not appear to have been, in any case, vised for the
practical operations of spinning as they show no signs of friction or
marks of wear and tear. In shape they answer to the description of
the acbovSvXoi, given in the tenth book of Plato's Republic, § 616,
where the Spindle of Necessity, the mother of the Fates, is said to
revolve to the songs of the Sirens as a new cycle of mortal existence
is prepared for the departed spirits.

" TT)v ^e Tol3 a(f)Ov^v\ov (pvaiv nvai TOjavSe, to /.dv ayjiixa o'lairsp
XI Tov evOa^i' vo'i]<7ai St Set tL, lov eXiye, roiovcs avrov £ivai, (xxrwsp
av ei ev tvi /.leyuXu) crepovBvXio KoiXto /cat escyXu/tijHevw oiafiinpeg
aXXoQ TOiovTOQ eXoVtwv lyKtoiTO apiiioTToJv, KaOairep oi Kaooi oi eig
aXX{]XovQ api^iOTTovTiQ' Kai ovTLO 01] rpiTOv aXXov KCll TiTOprOV KCll
uXXovQ TBTTapaQ. Oktu) yap fivai tovq ^vpnavrag a(l)OVCvXov(,,
IV aXXi]Xoiq kyKBipivovQ kvkXovq avcoOev ra \iiXri (paivovrag, viotov
(Tvve^eg n>og g(j>ovSvXov cunpya'Coj.iivovq Trepi ttjv i]XaKaTr]v iK:iivi]V
be cici iA£(TOV tov oycoou cicipiriplg tXi]Xaa9ai.

Or, as Professor Jowett translates, "Now the whorl is in form like
the whorl used on earth ; and you are to suppose, as he described,
that there is one large hollow whorl which is scooped out, and into
this is fitted another lesser one, and another and another, and four
others, making eight in all, like boxes which fit into one another ;
their edges are turned upwards, and all together form one continuous
whorl. This is pierced by tlie spindle which is driven home through
the centre of the eighth."

It should be added that among the patterns engraved upon these
Trojan whorls, and other terra cotta objects, is frequently found the
Swastika, one of the most ancient emblems of the Aryan race, a
circumstance which would seem to indicate the common Aryan descent
of all the successive inhabitants of the site of Hissarlik, before
the age of the Gfreek city Ilium Novum. But the chief point of
interest in the whorls is the discovery of inscriptions upon some of
them in ancient Cyprian characters ; it is not improbable that one
of these has been correctly deciphered by Professor Gomperz of
Vienna, who reading frora right to left, made out the characters to
represent the Greek words rayw St'w, "to the divine commander."
Tliis interpretation cannot be utilized at all as a key to the solution of
the meaning of the other marks or characters which can be traced
on whorls or vases, terra cotta balls, or other objects ; still it is suffi-
cient, as Professor Gomperz maintains, to prove that although no direct
mention of the art of writing is made in the poems of Homer, still the
Greeks before that epoch were acquainted with a written language.



©n'gmal ©ocumrnt.

Communicated by JOSEPH BAIN, F.S.A. Scot.

This document -u'as noted some time ago in consequence of hearing
and in due time reading Mr. G. T. Clark's interesting memoir
on Guildford Castle {Archceoloyical Journal, vol. xxix, pp. 1 et
seqq.) There is no date or signature, nor is the name of the
king given. So these particulars can only he guessed at from
the persons who are suggested as fit gaol-deliverers for the
counties of Sussex and Surrey. William Brayboef appears as one
of the Justices itinerant at Winchester in the Octaves of Hilary,
1280-1 {Calendar of Documents, Ireland, by Mr. H. S. Sweetman. iS'o.
1778). AVilliam de Braybof, possibly the same person, appears a little
earlier in letters of attorney, directed to the king's bailiffs in Ireland,
about 4th June, 1278 (lb., No. 1458). William de Wintreshill is a
witness to a deed by Thomas de Clare on aOth March, 1270 (lb., No.
867). From Brajdey and Mantell's Surrey (vol. ii, pp. 31 and 53,) it
appears that William de AVintreshull was a landowner in the Hundred
of Woking in 1270, and died in April, 1287. And though his brother
Justice, W- de Braboef, is not mentioned by name, yet as there was a
manor of Brabeuf or Brabief, near Guildford, which was owned by
Geoffry de Brabeuf and his descendants from the 16th of Henry III
(1232) for 130 years, it is more than probable that this Justice was also
a Surrey landowner (lb., vol. i, pp. ^02-3). Sir William de Wynters-
hylle and other Justices are found sitting at Winton, in August, 1271
(Luard's Annates Jlonastici, Eolls' Pub., ii, p. iii). I do not find auy
mention of Sir Dauid de Jargovile, so far as I have been able to look.
It may thus be concluded that the document is, in all probability, to
be referred to the end of Henry Ill's reign or beginning of his son's.
And as the keep of Guildford Castle, doubtless the "prison" referred
to, does not seem to have been converted to that use before the 51st of
Henry III (1267), (Brayley and Mantell vol. i, p. 320,) it would appear
that it was very soon found to be defective in its accommodation ;
though, as we learn from authorities, it continued for upwards of two
centuries to be the common gaol for Surrey and Sussex, till the
inhabitants of Sussex, making a strong representation to Parliament
(3rd of Henry VII., 1488), obtained the prayer of their petition, that
their county gaol should be at Lewes (Brayley and Mantell, vol. i, p.
321). The contractions of the original are supplied. It is seven inches
long by two deep, and forms No. 4692 of the collection of Eoyal, &c.,
letters in the Public Eecord Office. Mr. W. D. Selby of that Office
has kindly decyphered several doubtful letters in the last sentence,
shewing that the matter was very urgent.

"Por ce que la prison de Guildeford est plaine et grant mestier et
auroit de deliurance nos vos prioms cj^ue vos voillez grantor que mon
sire Willaume de Braiboef Sire Willaume de WintreshuU et Sire Daui
de Jargonuile ou un [ou] deus de eus par autres cheualiers que il
porront acompagner a eus — des Contes de Sussey ou de Surrey,
poussent deliurer les prisons des deus Contez. Aussi ceus qui [sont]
rete de mort de home com dautre ret. Ceste chose vos prioms nos a
ceste foiz despecial grace."

[No Endorsement.]



Pi'Ofeetimgs at iHrrtmgsi of tbe iRopnl ^^rdjaeological

April G, 1«77.
The Lord Talbot de Malahide, President, iu the Chair.

A paper, by Mr. Gr. T. Clark, ou Norliam Castle, was read, in the
absence of the author, by Mr. Brailsi-ord. The value of this careful
account of the celebrated "Castle Dangerous," of the Marches, Avas
spoken of by the noble CiiAiR?*rAX, who expressed his great satisfaction
that this interesting building had found such an accomplished exponent.
The author had added one more to the long list of the valuable
memoirs which had proceeded from his pen. A cordial vote of thanks
was passed to Mr. Clark for his paper, which is printed in vol. xxxiii,
p. .'307, of tlie Journal.

Mr. M. H. Bloxam then read the following notice : —

'*0x an Ancient Inscribed Sepulchral Slab, eound at Monk-
wEAii:M0UTir, IN THE CouNTY OF DuRiiAM. — Of the Original church of
the ancient Monastery of Monkwearmouth, near Sunderland, iu the
County of Durham, erected by Benedict Biscopius, a.d. 674, ten years
earlier than the foundation of JarroAV, which took place a.d. C84, no
part of the structure now exists, except the tower.

"Interesting particulars of the foundation of Monkwearmouth Monas-
tery, and of the erection of the church, are given by Venerable Beda.
He, indeed, may be considered as a contemporaneous writer. The
workmen Aveio from Caul, brought over expressly by Biscoj)ius. The
windoAvs were glazed, and the walls covered with paintings and other
decorative embellishments.

"Biscopius himself was the first Abbot. He died a.d. 690, and was
succeeded in the Abbacy by Ceolfrid, who died a.d. 716, Avhen
Iluaetbertus became the third Abbot.

"This Monastery was destroyed by the Danes about a.d. 869, and
again a.d. 1070. The church has been recently restored, and was re-
opened for divine service a.d. 187-5.

"On the 24tli of September, 1866, the Porticiis inffrcssus, forming the
lower or ground stage of the towei', was excavated under the super-
intendence of Canon Grreenflrell, the Eev. J. F. Hodgson, and other
members of the Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumber-
land. In the excavations which then took place — the rubbish, which
covered the floor of the portions — was cleared away, and about eight
feet below the external surface the labourers raised with their jjicks
an oblong sopulcluMl slab of sandstone, which had evidently been
removed from its original position, as the inscribed face had been laid



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