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downwards. Beneath this slab was found a stone coliin, said to be of
a lucdiajval type, full of human bones, mixed together indiscriminately




Tlie i'l.ilims liiyrCiSUi-,— ^K'iiU\\ earmuulli Chuvth.







Sci.iikhv;il Sbl>
fuiLiid ^il .Mi,]il<wcannoulli Cliuixli.



PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS 01- THE INSTITUTE. 299

with upwards of a dozen skulls. This sepulchral slab was four feet
loug by two and a half feet wide.' It was covered with a cross in
low relief, and on either side of the cross was a Latin inscription, in
letters carcfull}' cut by some skilled Avorkman, well defined, and very
perfect. Tlie shape of the cross is that of a rare and early Anglo-
(Saxon type, of, I should think, the seventh or eighth century. An
ancient sepulchral slab, with an incised cross approximating this
shape, was, in the year 1833, discovered at Hartlepool. This slab,
bearing a IJunic inscription, has been considered by Professor Stevens,
of Copenhagen, to be of the seventh centur3^

"In the famous Gospel, called the Grospel of St Chad, now preserved
in Lichfield Cathedral, and supposed, from the paleography, to have
been Mritten about a.d. 700, is an illu:nination which exhibits in
outline much the same form of cross as that on the sepulchral slab
found at ^Monkwearmouth.

'• The inscription on this slab, which is peculiar, is as follows : —

Hie in sepulchro requiescit
corpore Herebericht PEB

The three last letters with the line over forms the abbreviation of the
word "Presbyter."

" Venerable Bede or Beda died and was buried at Jarrow, a. d. 735.
In the twelfth century, a.d. 1104, his remains were translated to
Durham Cathedi-al. AVilliam of Malmesbury, one of our ancient
Chroniclers, who fiourished in the early half of the twelfth century,
gives us the original epitaph over the tomb or grave of Beda at Jarrow.
The first line of which is as follows : —

Presb3'ter hie Beda requiescit carne sepultus.

" On comparing this inscription with that on the slab at Monk wear-
mouth, we may at once perceive how nearly they coincide. One
indeed appears to have been a plagiarism on the other. For if "w
sepulchro'''' we read " sepultus ," and for "corpore^' we read ''came,"
the rest is a mere transposition of words.

" But who was Herebericht, of whom this sepulchral slab at Monk-
wearmouth was commemorative ?

"Beda, in the fourth book oihis Ucclesicfsticdl His fori/, chap, xxix,
A. I). 687, tells us of a companion to St. Cuthbert of this name, ' Erat
enim Presbyter vita) venerabilis nomine Hereberct.'

"There was a certain Priest of venerable life called Hereberct."
" Then the legend goes on to state that he died on the same dav as St.
Cuthbert, the 11th of the kalends of April (20th March}, a.^d. 687.
This Hereberct lived a solitary life on an island in the lake of Derwent-
water, but as he was accustomed to visit St. Cuthbert every year, and
paid his accustomed visit .shortly before the death of the latter, it is
probable he died at a distance from his liermitage. To this Presbyter
Herebericht I would assign this sepulchral slab, n'hich, if I am correct,
is probably the earliest Christian sepulchral monument in this country,
to which a precise date can be assigned.

" The discover}^ of this slab, therefore, the form of the cross, the
latinity of the inscription, the formation of the letters by a skilled
hand ; carrying us back probably to the days of St Cuthbert and to

' Aiiotli(.'r accmuit fjtiitc'i it to liiu e been furty iuclic^ loiiy by twenty iuchc,< wido.



300 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

those of venerable Beda — to a somewhat remote period in our Anglo-
Saxon ecclesiastical history, is a matter not devoid of importance.

"The name of Herebericht occurs in the Durham Liber Vita, but at
what period this Herebericht lived I am ignorant ; the entry in that
book is said to have been of the ninth century, but I think the slab is
of an earlier period. There is, however, room for a difference of
opinion.

" Unable during the last summer and autumn, to visit Monkwear-
mouth, as I had lioped, I feel under obligations to Mr. li. Danks, of
19, Olive street, Sunderland, for having most courteously answered
several of my letters of inquir3^ To him, also, I am indebted for
photographs of the sepulchral slab, and of the Anglo-Saxon doorway
of the Porticus ingressus of the church, of Moukwearmouth, published
by Mr. x\. M. Carr. Bridge street, Sunderland."

^ntiqutu'cs antj JKHofh^ of ^rt ©xljt'bitEli.

By Professor Chuiich. — A silver-gilt mounted and inscribed Mazer
bowl of knarled root- wood of maple, six and a half inches in diameter
and two inches high. This had been loug preserved in private hands
at Cirencester, where a tradition of a somewhat indefinite character,
states that it belonged to one of the hospices of a religious guild in
that town. It was taken to Gloucester and purchased by Professor
Church in the spring of 1878. It has no Hall mark, but is undoubtedly
of English manufacture, and may be compared with a cip/ius of the
same period, which it greatly resembles, belonging to Mr. Fountaine,
of Narford Hall, Norfolk, engraved in the Archccologia, vol. xxiii, p.
393. The date of the Narford Mazer may be safely placed at 1532,
and the Cirencester example cannot be much earlier, although the
monogram in the bottom, consisting of two interlaced A's, engraved
upon a circular plate two and a half inches in diameter, has been
attributed to Alice Avening, a local benefactor, who was alive in 1501,
but who Avas probably not living after that year. On the outside of
the rim, which is one and a quarter inches deep, is the following
inscription in letters seven-eighths of an inch high : — " Miseremini •

MEI • MISEEEREMINI - MEI • SALTEM • VOS • AMICI • MEI."

These letters appear to be about thirty years later in date than the
monogram. The groxmd is engraved in zig-zag lines, technically
called " nurling," like that of the inscription on the Narford bowl.
The field of the monogram is partly ornamented in the same way, and
partly ndth chevron punctures.

Successors of the Drinking-horns (which are still in use in German
University towns), the tv);/// munri, were made of hard or knotty wood
of maple, walnut, ash, or chestuut ; and were in common use among
all classes of society in the middle ages. They were hooped and
mounted or "harnessed" in silver; special names were given to them
by their owners, and they are mentioned in ancient inventories among
the most costly objects. Physical properties were attributed to the
various kinds of wood ; and the inscriptions or sentiments round the
silver rims vary in character from grave to gay. Thus the fine mazer
in the possession of the Ironmonger's Company bears the following
inscription: — "Ave • Makia • gra' • plena • d'ns • tecum •

B'NDIOTA • TU • I • MULIERIBZ • T • BENEDICTUS • FRUCTUS " while




.^







mViM









SSrt o a « rt rt 1 o 9 ■-• rt ■• ^oS SooS,

!;

-), a oi'^*'' "^ ''S' ;-? 3 ^ ? ^ a ^^ ^ ^ '^ t*



.IP^:









British Sword.




UTT/nu. s>



AH dd.



^'"' ^- Fi?. 2. Fi-. .1.

I'.ronze Weapons from the Led of ihe Thame';.
One tiuarler full size.



THE ROYAL ARCH^OLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 301

Mr. Shirley's well known example of the time of Eichard II, allures
the reveller in the following words: — "In • the • name • of •

THE • TRINITE • FILLE ■ THE • KUP • AXD • DRINKH • TO • ME."

Mazer bowls were of all sizes, some with covers like a hanap, others
with feet like Archbishop Scrope's Indulgence Cup at York. The
expression "harnessed in silver," was a common one in the middle
ages. In the Vision of Patriclc's Purgatory, by William Staunton,
(Eoyal MS , 17, B 43), he relates how he saw people in 1409 with
"harneist horns about their necks;" and in the will of Thomas
Raleigh, of Farnborough, Warwickshire, who died in 1404, he
bequeaths to his son AVilliam a sword "harnessed with silver."

Mazer bowls were in use in the time of Pepys, and with his usual
appreciation of anything of a convivial kind, he does not fail to men-
tion in his Diary, 1659-60, that when he visited the almshouses at
Saffron Walden, "they brought me a draft of their drink in a brown
bowl tipt with silver, which I drank off, and at the bottom was a
picture of the Virgin with the Child in her arms, done in silver." This
mazer still exists. The custom of giving a bowl of spiced wine to
criminals on their way to Tyburn was evidently a remnant of the use
of drinking vessels of this kind.

By Mr. T. Layton. — A large collection of bronze weapons and imple-
ments, chiefly from the bed of the Thames. Among these objects was
a sword or dagger (see plate), found in the Thames ballast off Mort-
lake in 1861, and pronounced by Mr. Bloxam to bo British. This
was an iron blade, rusted in -a sheath, formed of thin overlapping
plates of brass, rudely rivetted at the back, where also the sockets for
the suspending loops remained. Several fine leaf-shaped sword blades
of bronze, in remarkably good condition as regards the edges, were also
exhibited. Figure 1 represents an example found at G-reenwich. An
empty sword sheath of bi'onze, and another rusted on to a blade, found
in the river off Isleworth in 1865, (fig. 3) were specially noticeable.
Many of these blades had been greatly bent and twisted by violence,
but the tenacity and cohesion of the metal was well shown by the
absence of any cracks or flaws in it. Among the many examples of
spear heads was a verj'- elegant one (fig. 2). A number of celts,
chisels, gouges, and other implements found at Hounslow and in the
neighbourhood, also came from Mr. Layton's collection.

By Mrs. Fitzpatrick. — A marble slab, from the Catacombs of St.
Calixtus, in Eome, incised with a dove bearing an olive branch.

By Mrs. Jackson Gwilt. — A Eoman lamp, found in Paternoster
Eow ; a similar object from Southwark ; a lachrymatory from Italy;
a piece of painted glass, representing a man's head, from Lacock
Abbej' ; rubbings of sixteenth century brasses ; one of a priest holding
a cup and wafer, in the Chapel of Merton College, Oxford ; and
rubbings from the well known brasses of " Sire Johan D'Abernoun
Chivaler," about 1277, and Sir John D'Abernoun, who died in 1327.
In remarking upon the figure of the "Chivaler," Mr. Waller said it
was the earliest example of a sepulchral brass, not only in England,
but also on tho Continent, and the only instance of a knight bearing a
lance. He remarked upon the large size of the blue enamel plates on
the shield, which were contained in shallow copper trays, let into the
slab. Mr. Hartshorne made some observations upon the costume
exhibited on the brass of Sir John D'Abernoim (1327), and the number



302 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINC4S OF

of garments which were worn, including the cyclas, a rare military
vestment, and of which so few instances occur in monumental effigies
and brasses. The fluted bascinet, also of very infrequent occurrence,
and which was compared with a similar example on a wooden effigy
at Paulersperry, in Northamptonshire, and the distinct kinds of mail
shown, all tended to prove that mediaeval sculptors not only worked
from actual armour but also represented their patrons accurately " in
their habits as they lived." Mr. Waller called attention to the
engraver's marks — a mallet and a mullet — and explained the most
probable method of construction of "Banded Mail," so long the crux
antiqtiariorum.

By Mr. A. Saavyer. — A curious self-feeding breech-loading gun,
which had been converted from a matchlock, with the name, " Robert
Smyth " on the lock, and a scrap-book containing portions of illumin-
ated MSS.

It was reported that two Roman pottery kilns had been discovered
at Lexden, near Colchester, on the property of Mr. P. 0. Papillon,
who was kind enough to offer facilities to any members of the Institute
who might wish to inspect them.

May 4th, 1877.
The Lord Talbot de Malahide, President, in the Chair.

At a meeting of the Council of the Institute, held on April 14th,
1877, it was proposed by Stephen Tucker, Esq., Rouge Croix, seconded
by Sir J. Sibbald D. Scott, Bart., and imanimously resolved that the
Diploma of the Institute and congratulatory addi-esses be offered to
Dr. and Mrs. Schliemann on May 4th. In accordance witli this reso-
lution a large and distinguished company assembled in honour of the
great explorer. Among those present were the Lord Acton, A. J. B.
Beresford Hope, Esq., M.P., Sir J. Sibbald D. Scott, Bart., Sir W. H.
Drake, K.C.B., 0. Morgan, Esq., Canon Venables., C.T. Newton, Esq.,
C.B., C. S. Greaves, Esq., C. Drury E. Fortnum, Esq., John Hender-
son, Esq., AV. Jeremy, Esq., J. Bonomi, Esq., H. G. Bohn, Esq.,
R. H. Soden Smith, Esq., S. Tucker, Esq., lloiKje Croix, Col. Pinney.,
John Stephens, Escj., H. Yaughan, Esq., The Rev. J. Fuller Russell.,
H. T. Church, Esq., Capt. Malton., The Rev. C. W. Bingham., J. G.
Waller, Esq., Sydney Hall, Esq., A. Dryden, Esq., etc. Mr. Crladstone
was prevented from attending by a prior engagement.

Lord Talbot de Malahide, in introducing Dr. Schliemann to the
meeting, spoke in the highest terms of his discoveries, which had
placed him and Mrs. Schliemann in the first ranks of explorers. The
noble Chairman then read the following addresses : —

"To Dr. Hexry Sculiemann,

Honorary Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, &:c., &c.,

"We, the President, Vice-Presidents, and Council of the Royal
Archfcological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland,

"For ourselves, and on belialf and in the name of the Society we
represent, beg to tender you our heartiest welcome here, and our
warmest congratulations on the great achievement in antiquarian
investigation and discovery by which you have placed your name in
the foremost page of archoeological history and distinction.

"Sympathising as we naturally do. in all such objects as that in which



THE ROYAL ARCH^OLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 303

you have been so honorably and successfully eugagod, we need not say
that we have watched from the first, with the most profound interest,
the i^rogress of the great work upon which j-ou entered, and which you
pursued Avith such indomitable energy and ability, and we feel that
we are not emploj'ing the hyperbole of complimentary address when
we say that to j'ou is due one of the greatest antiquarian discoveries
which has j'et been chronicled, and Avhich, by reason of its classical
associations, has conferred a benefit and diffused an interest through-
out the whole educated world.

"It is our privilege to number you amongst our members this day,
and we are sensible how much their list is honored by the addition.

" In conclusion we wish you " Grod speed " in your return to your
labors, and we hope that it may be at times an encouraging and
gratifj'ing reflection to you to remember how entirely those laboiu's
are appreciated by your friends in England, and how sincerely they
will welcome their completion and your presence again amongst them."

" To Mrs. Hekey Schliem.v>'x.
Madam,

"We, the President, Yice-Presidents, and Council of the Eoyal
Archa?ological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland,

"Beg to tender to you the homage of our most respectful admiration
in the work in which you have proved yourself, in its truest sense, a
help-meet to ycur distinguished husband. AVe who know and honor
him here are loth to detract in any way from the merit we ascribe to
him, but we are justified by his own affectionate testimony to your
devoted and chivalrous aid, in what will ever be accounted as your
joint work, to associate you in our congratulations and thanks, and to
ask 3'ou to permit us to enrol your name on the list of our Honorary
Members.

"It is a disappointment to us that we are deprived of the greater
pleasure of receiving and personally honoring you here ; but you will
be at least assured by this and the other testimonials you will have
received, that the essential part you have taken in the unprecedented
discoveries of Troy and Mycena; is fully understood and gratefully
appreciated by numberless sympathising friends in this country. As
the first lady who has ever been identified in a work so arduous and
stupendous, you have achieved a reputation which many will envy —
some may emulate — but none can ev^r surj^ass."

These were signed respectively, in behnlf of the Eoyal Archaeo-
logical Institute, by the Lord Talbot de Malahide, A. J. B. Beresford-
Hope, Sir J. Sibbald D. Scott, Bart., C. Drury, E. Fortnum, 0. S.
Morgan, John Henderson, W. D. Jeremy, E. H. Soden Smith, 11.
Yaughan, H. T. Church, Sir W. H. Drake, k.c.b., S. Tucker, John
Stephens, A. Hartshorne, and W. Brailsford.

The Diplomas, engrossed and illuminated upon vellum, sealed with
the seal of the Institute, and contained in a morocco leather box, were
then presented by the noble President to Dr. Schliemann, who spoke
as follows : —

"My Lord President and Gextlemex,

" I warmly thank you in my own name and in that of Mrs. Schliemann

for the high honour you confer upon us by these diplomas of honorary

membership, and I assure you that we shall endeavour to the utmost

of our abilities to render ourselves worthy of them. You are aware that

VOL. XXXIV. 2 R



304 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

Avo havo a JinjKin for tlie coutinuatiou of our excavations at Troy, and
that we intended to resume them at once, but unfortunately, as long as
the war lasts, it is impossible to return to the Troad, for my servant
writes me that Mount Ida abounds now witli deserters from the army,
Avho have turned robbers to satisfy their hunger. In Mycenae, I think
I know for certain the exact place to which tradition pointed as the
sepulchres of Clytaemnestra and iEgisthus, but I will not divulge it
to the Greek Government, for they think that nothing is more easy
than to find treasures at Mycenoc, and consequently the Greek Parlia-
ment has voted 50 m. dr., 45 m. fr. annually for continuing my
excavations by their own officials and without me. But an ex-
perienced pickaxe is necessary to discover treasures ; thus I expect
they will not find anything, and that after having worked in vain for
six months, and after having spent one thousand pounds, they will get
tired of it and will beg me to continue the excavations for them, which
I shall gladly do. But meanwhile, I may go to the island of Ithaka,
because, except the small excavation which I made there in 1868, it is
virgin soil to archroology. In the Odyssey, the town of Ithaca is
merely called ^o'?i;;, and there are two places in the island which may
claim the honour of being identified with its site. One of them is a valley
still called tto't^i^, and the ancient ruins we see in it can leave no doubt
that a city once stood there. The other place is at the foot of Mount
'AsToi, and in fact all over the small isthmus by which the southern part
of the island is joined to the northern one ; here also once stood a city ;
the deep accuuudation of debris proves this "nith certaintj^ A man
who buys a house must, before he concludes the bargain, carefully
inspect it ; in the same way, ho who wishes to explore an ancient site
ought, before anything else, to examine into the state of the debris in
order to see whether it is worth his while to undertake the excavation.
This is easily accomplished by sinking a few shafts down to the virgin
soil, because each shaft must necessarily bring to light the remnants
of all the houses which stood on the site since the first settlenient. If
then the explorer sees, by the monuments he brings to light, that the
pi'ospects hold out encouragement, he mu&t as soon as possible get well
accjuainted with the underground topography, and to this end he at
once sinks a large number of shafts in all the most promising parts of
the site, and according to the residt ho arranges the exploration. But
the archajological researches, whether on a vast or on a very small
scale, should be made with tact, system and plan, and unless monuments
are found which prevent the explorer from digging deeper, all excava-
tions should invariably be made down to the virgin soil, and the
debris which are thrown out should be removed to a place where they
can never be in our way. He who throws the debris on the site he
has to excavate invariably makes himself double and treble labour.
Wheelbarrows should only be used where the distance does not exceed
one hundred feet ; if the distance is longer man carts should be used,
and invariably horse carts if the distance exceeds two hundred and
forty feet. Tramways are only useful if the distance exceeds one mile.
"My Lord President and Gentlemen, I again warmly thank you.''
On being called upon by the President, Mr. Newton said that " the
irue value of Dr. 8chliemann's discoveries at Myccnio coidd hardly be
appreciated yet. It would be necessary carefully to compare the
objects found at Mycenie with specimens of archaic art extant in
various musoums, and by such comparison to fix, if possible, th



THE ROYAL ARCIT.EOLOaTCAL INSTITUTE. 305

period to -whicli they belongecl. His impression was, that the result
of such a comparison woukl be to shew that the Myceuajan antiquities
belonged to a very remote antiquity, tliat they were probably pro
Homeric. But in making tliis remark he would carefully guard
against too hasty an assumption that these antiquities from tlie M}'-
cena^au Akropolis could be identified as belonging to tlie tombs of
Agamemnon and his companions, which Pausanias notices. It must
be borne in mind that the dynasty of the x^treidtc can hardly be re-
garded as an historical one. This line of Pelopid kings, projected on
the blank background of an unknown past, seems to the sceptical eye
of modern historians hardly more substantial than that shadowy pre-
cession of kings shewn to Macbeth by the witches, or to take a more
modern illustration, it might be likened to one of Mr. Whistler's
portraits in the Grosvenor Gallery. And even if we admit that the
Greek belief in a Pelopid dynasty rested on an historical basis, how
are we to decide how much in the legend of the Atreidfc is true, and
how are we to disengage this residuum of truth from the mystical
compound in which it is involved. He who attempts to solve such
problems as these, finds himself constantly at fault, he is for ever trying
to steer between the quicksands of specious pseudo-historical myths
and the shifting shoals of an uncertain chronology. But, admitting
that the problems raised by Pr. 8chliemann's discoveries are yet to be
solved, let us not forget liow deep is the debt of gratitude which we
owe liim for what he has achieved. Those who have been engaged in
cnterprizes similar to his, can testify how much of ungrateful labour,
anxiety, and weariness of spirit has to be gone through before success
can be achieved. To parody well IcnoxMi lines, he would say,

" How little knowest thou wlio hast not tried,
What toil it is in digging long to bide,
To speed to day to he put off to-mori'ow."

"He would then hold up the enterprize of Dr. Schliemann as an
example of single minded and disinterested devotion wliich has no
parallel in the annals of arehasology. And here, addressing an
Institute specially devoted to kindred research, he would exhort the
members present to aim at a discovery which it would be in the
power of any of them to make. The discovery wliich he had in view,
a discovery, the ultimate value of wliich to archaeology might be almost
incalculable, would be to find, somewhere in tlio rank and file of
British millionaires, — some of whom are so rich that their money is a
burden to them — some one whoso enthusiasm, intelligence, and love
for archceology would entitle him to rank as another Schliemann."

Mr. Beresford Hope begged to be allowed to add his thanks to Dr.
Schliemann, as himself one who desired the alliance of classical
archceology and classical literature, for the eminent explorer's dis-
cover}-, not only of the topography, but to so great an extent of the
very -ways of living in tliose far off daj's, aye and of the household
stuff and of the cunningly wrought bidlion TroXixpt^ ooio Mt/Kiium of the
Mycenpe, — not only of Homer but of iEschylus. It was not so long
since that even the most accomplished scholars would read those
wonderful descriptions with eyes blind and minds dead to all tlie
living accompaniments. The learners were not so lazy, perhaps,
and they turned to the frontispiece of their well-thumbed books
only to realize Agamemnon as a ruffianly Eoman soldier of tlie later



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