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days of the Empire, apparently issuing from a building that might
have been designed by the office boy in Palladio's studio. Now, thanks
to that noble band of discoverers of Avhom Dr. Schliomann, though
latest, is anything but least, Greek is no longer as Eoman, nor heroic
Gfreek as Athenian Greek ; now even the arms which Agamemnon bore
and the type of face which he exhibited have burst into the light of
day. With such helps, the men and women of those great poems are
again the men and women of their age, and not merely abstractions or
the dull creations of ignorant draftsmen earning the wages of Paris
or Leyden engravers. He prophesied for classical literature, thus
brought face to face with life itself, a deeper rooted popularity and a
stronger grasp of intelligent sympathy.

A general discussion ensued, in which the President, Mr. Greaves,
and Mr. Tucker took part, and the meeting closed with the usual

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Xoticcs of "^ilrdjccolorjical Publications.

INDUCTIVE METROLOGY; or, the Recovery of Ancient Measures from the
Monuments. By W. M. Flindkks Pktrie. (London : Hargrove Saunders.)

The object of tlie author of this book is to obtain from existing
monuments the standard measures used in ancient times. For this
l)urpose he employs three or four modes to ascertain the ratios between
the different measured lengths ; and from these ratios he derives the
probable number of units of which the lengths are formed.

It would seem, however, that, as a graphic method is employed in
planning, and an analogous method in setting out for construction all
buildings and monuments, that the standards of measurement used by
the ancients would be more easily arrived at, especially by those who
are not mathematicians, by adojDting such a method in order to trace,
from actual measurement of the monuments, the units employed. For
instance, in the example of the Cypriote Tablet from l)ali, the readiest
mode of proceeding would be to mark off to scale, on a straight line,
the measurements 1-45, 2-15, 2-92, 3-24, 5-77, 25'49, and 44-2 inches;
then, it will be readilj' seen, by dividing off the lengths with a pair of
compasses, as near as may be into multiples of the smallest measure-
ment, that if 1-45 was the unit of measure used, there were respectively,
1, H, 2, 2J, 4, 17J, and 30^ units in the different measurements given ;
or, to do away with the fractional multiples, if -^^-^ was the unit, there
were respectively 2, 3, 4, 4^, 8, 35, and 60 units.

It may also be seen by setting the compass to the length of 5" 7 7
inches, that the difference_ between 44-2 and 25'49 or 18-71 is very
nearly equal to 3 x 5-77 + 1"45 and 25-49 is very nearly equal to
4 X 5-77 + 2-15 or in terms of units 44-2= (3 'x 8 + 2) 4-
(4x8 + 3) units=61 units instead of TO as given in Mr. Petrie's
results. If 44-2 is divided by 61 it gives the unit -7245, if by 60 it
gives -7366 as the unit. The latter multiplied by 35, 8, 4^, 4, 3 and 2,
gives the lengths 25-78, 5-89, 3-31, 295, 2-21 and 1-47, while the
former gives 25.36, 5-80, 3-26, 2-90, 2*17 and 1-45, which evidently
agree much better with the actual measurements; and as Mr. Petrie
proposes that surveyors and others who have opportunities for
measuring ancient monuments should furnish plans as accurately as
possible of them, it would bo well, in order to have their assistance
in obtaining the different standards of measui-es, to add for their
guidance in more detail than is possible in a short review, a descrip-
tion of such a method as that indicated above, and any result they
might obtain could afterwards be proved by calculation, whereas on
the other hand, where the units have been obtained by calculation, as
in his book, they could easily bo checked by the graphic method.

If the standards found by the inductive method arc sufficiently


accurate, as they ought to be, they should, where any literary record
exists, receive full confirmation.

The second and third chapters of the book give the application of
tlie doctrine of probabilities in order to ascertain the limits of error,
and treat also of the sources of error in the mean units found, and
here xhe author very justly remarks that the number of mean units
resulting from his investigations is not astonishing. Even in our own
day, in Avorks of a building or of a monumental character there would
probably be a large number of mean units arising from any attempt
to find theoretically the standards of measures used, and this would
appear of necessity to be the case in all works which do not require in
a high degree accuracy of measurement.

Mr. Petrie appears to have made his investigations with great care
and precision, and the case of the Eoyal Egyptian cubit is worth
noting, where the mean derived from twenty-eight monumental
examples agrees almost exactly with the mean of about a dozen
examples of cubit rods which have been discovered.

Edited by John Fethiorston, F.S.A. (Harleian Society).

This valuable Society has recently issued to its members another
sumptuous Volume of more than 460 pages, inclusive of the full Index
of Names, being the " V-'isitation of the County of Warwick" made
by William Camden, Clarencicux King of Arms, and his deputies in
1619. The greater part of the MS. from which it is j)rinted is in
Camden's own handwriting, nevertheless it does not appear to be the
original record, neither is the official copy preserved in the Herald's
College. Both are transcripts. In the British Museum (Harl. MS.
1195) are some of the original loose papers signed by the representa-
tives of the families whose pedigi-ees are recorded. Of these signatures
Mr. Fetherston gives fac-similes at the end of his volume. The last
Visitation of Warwickshire wf.s made in 1682, the only MS. of which
extant is in the Herald's College. An alphabetical list of the pedi-
grees recorded at this last Visitation, made by the Editor some twenty
years ago through the courtesy of a Herald now deceased, is printed
in the Preface to the work before us.

The volume appears to have been very carefully edited, and all the
Arms are engraved in outline, the blazon being supplied underneath.
It would, however, we think, have been better had the tincture marks
been shewn on the shields, so that the blazon of the Arms might have
been read at a glance.

The same objection obtains with respect to the appropriation of the
quarterings. If, instead of this information being given in a table
preceding the pedigrees, the names had been inserted under the arms,
or had been introduced, within parentheses, in the blazon, it would have
been far more convenient. In some cases this has been done. AVe
do not know, however, if, in this respect, the Editor has followed his
MS. We annex the engraving of the arms of Digby (p. 16) as an
example of the manner of treatment.

Arms — Quarterlj^of six. 1. Azuir, a ficur-de-lia
nr(j(nt, in dexier chief u cfescent fur dijf'crencc.
2. Gules, a fesH ermine. 3. Arr/enf, on a hend
f/idesj flircc rnnrilefs^ or. \. Ar([cnt on a fcss
betiveen three birds sable as man// }indlef^ af ihe
Held. 5. Ermine, on a hend fjulcs fico cherioiis
'>/'. (!. As Jirxf.

CitESX — Ah Ostrieh proper, in it^ heal: a horse-
shoe (untinctaredj.


^frcljarologtcal IntelUgencf.

The Koman Fokum. — The 2Iomiment of 3farcu-<< Auirlixfi. — '\^'e are
indebted to tlie courtesy of Mr. S. Russell Forbes, of Eorae, for tlie
following communication : —

"In excavating the open space of the Comitiura upon the Forum in
the summer of 1872, an interesting discovery was made of two marble
screens or balustrades sculptured on either of their sides, the one being
some historic scene, the other representing animals. At the time, and
since their discovery, many suggestions have been offered as to their
siguitication and use ; but none seemed satisfactory ; at least to us.
After considerable thought, examination of the ground, and putting
this and tliat together we Jiave arrived at an estimate of their use and
meaning entirely different from the hitlierto received opinion ; in
which we are supported by their construction and the classic passages
relating to them.

" From this it will be seen that we have made an imjiortant discovery
bearing upon the topography of the Forum, which will be of interest
not only to classical students biit to every one interested in the word

" We have discovered that tlie reliefs on the screens upon the
Comitium in the Forum portray scenes from the life of Marcus
Aurelius, showing in their back grounds the buildings occupying two
sides of the Forum ; and that these marble balustrades led up to the
statue of that Emperor ; the space where it stood can be plainly
traced upon the pavement, and that is why these pictures refer to
epochs of his life. The statue is still existing, and now stands in the
square of the Capitol, where it was erected by Michael Angehi, who
brought it from the Lateran in 1538, where it had been placed about
1187, when it was removed from the Forum near the column of
Phocas, where it had long been looked upon as a statue of Constautine,
and is so called in the Regiona Catalogue, hence its preservation.

" The four ends of the screens or balustrades are finished, showing
that they could not have been attached to any building. It is worth
while to 'look into the details of these reliefs. Commencing in their
historic order, we see the Emperor standing on the Rostra Julia,
which fi'onts towards the Fig-tree and Mars3-as, he is holding in his
left hand a roll and addressing the peojile below ; the two foremost
figures are holding up their togas with their left hands, whilst their
right hands are held out with fingers extended, five by one, three by
the other, thu> making eight ; the number of years Marcus Aurelius
had been away and the number of pieces of gold which the}' demanded.
Just above the hands of the Emperor and of one of the figures, which
nearly meet, are two small round pieces of marble which could not be
connected with the roll, as one is not in its line, and the other is



separated from it by one of the extended hands. The highest is the
attache of the Emperor's hand. May not the other represent the
money given by the Emperor ? One of the other figures of the group,
further back, likewise has his arm extended. The head of the
Emperor is unfortunately gone, and the others are very much
damaged. The next scene represents a female figure approaching
a man seated on a curule chair, behind which four people are standing.
The female figure had evidently a child on her left arm, the usual arm
to carry a baby, whilst by her right hand she leads a child up to the
Emperor, to thank him for founding the orphan schools in memory of
Faustina, the fragment of whose head is far more like the head of
Marcus Aurelius than anj'one else. Then we have the Eicus Navia
and the statue of Marsyas, whose pedestal still stands upon the
Forum. The next relief commences with the Fig-tree and Mars3'as,
so that if it were turned round it would form one with the other.
There we have represented figures bearing packages and depositing
them in a heap upon the ground, to which one figure is applying a
torch, which is just discernible. At the end, just a fragment remains,
showing the old Rostra which looked towards Marsyas and the Fig-
tree, in the opposite direction to the other, the marks where it stood
can be traced on the Comitium, upon which we may presume the
Emperor stood to witness the burning, whilst in the background was
seen the Temple of Concord, but this piece is unfortunately missing.

"Thus we have two scenes of history, one taking place between the
Eostra Julia and the Fig-tree and Mars^-as, the other between the old
Rostra and Marsyas and the Fig-tree.

"The whole group was evidently erected in honour of Marcus
Aurelius, and in commemoration of the important events in his life
depicted on the screens, as recorded b}^ Dio (Jassius ;

" Giving the donation of eight pieces of Gold.

"Roma, or perhaps Faustina, thanking him for the Paellas Faus-

" Burning the -IG years' arrears of taxes.

" After he had come back to Rome, as he was one day haranguing
the people, and speaking of the number of years he had spent abroad
in his expeditions, the citizens with a loud voice cried out 'Eight.' at
the same time extending their hands to receive as many pieces of gold.
The emperor smiling repeated 'Eight,' and ordered every Roman
eight pieces, which was so considerable a sum that so great a one was
never given before by any emperor."

"After that he remitted all that had been due to the Public and
Imperial Treasuries for the course of 'JG years, M'ithout including
therein Hadrian's reign, and ordered all the papers of claims to bo
burnt in the Forum." — Dio Cassim.

"This was on the marriage of his son Commodus with Crispina.

"From a long and careful study of has and ff/i^o reliefs we are convinced
that the buildings lepresented in their back grounds actually existed;
this is borne out when we compare these designs with the remains and
Avith the buildings as shown on coins. Reliefs generally present to
our view some historic scene — in fact, they are pictures in stone ; and
v.'lion there were so many ancient monuments for the artist to depict,
perhaps in the neighbourhood of which the scene took place, there
would bo no occasion for him to draw upon his fancy for buildings to
fill up his back ground. To demonstrate our idea we will notice some


reliefs, wliicli after study and comparison present to lis the buildings
surrounding three sides of tlie Forum Eomanum.

" We will take first, the relief No. 43 from the stairs of the Palazzo
dci Conservatori, which represents the Emperor Marcus Aurelius in
his chariot passing in triumph along the Via tSacra, in front of the
temple of the dei^ed Julius and arch of Fabius ; the second, the
marble screen in the Forum nearest the arch of Septimius Severus ;
third, the other marble screen ; and fourth, the relief over the left
hand archwa}' of the arch of Constantino facing the Colosseum.
Placing them in the order mentioned we have a panoramic view of
three sides of the Forum presented to ua. The first building shown is
a temple on a lofty basement with four Corinthian columns in front
and a pilaster at the side ; this agrees with a coin representing the
temple of the deified Julius, the rem.ains of which are at the lower
end of the Forum. Next is represented the Foridx Fabius, remains of
which were found in making the excavations between the temples of
Cajsar and Castor. The second relief represents the same arch, as can
be seen by comparing them. The next buildiug shows a temple
approached by a lofty flight of steps with Corinthian capitals, exactly
resembling the remains of the celebrated temple of Castor and Pollux.
Then wo have a space marking the line of the Vicus Tuscus which
turned out of the Via Sacra between the temple of Castor and Basilica
Julia, which latter is represented by the arcade of Doric columns. At
the end of this relief is the Fig-tree planted by Tarcj^uinius, in memory
of Attius Navius cutting the whetstone in two with a razor ; and the
figure of Marsyas, the emblem of civic liberty. The next relief shows
the same Fig-tree and Mars3'as in the same position, but the relief is
to the right instead of to the left, as in the other. This shows that the
same line of buildings is continued ; and, carrying on our story, the
first building represented is the remainder of the Basilica Julia. This
was confirmed in rather a singular manner. When the Basilica was
excavated Signer Eosa found one of the columns of the arcade in frag-
ments, which he has had restored in situ ; and a fragment of this relief
was found afterwards broken from the rest, which, when fitted into its
place, exactl}' represented the restoration made by Signer Eosa. In
the next building we have a temple shewing six Ionic columns in
front ; this agrees with the ruin of the temple of Saturn. Next
further back is shown an arch ; this is one of the closed arches of the
portico of the Tabularium, the lines of which arch can still be seen
between the Temples of Saturn and Vespasian when viewed from our
standpoint. Next in order is a Temple with Corinthian columns
agreeing with the remains of the temple of Vespasian. Unfortunately
the remainder of this screen was not found, which would have shown
the temple of Concoi'd; this we have restored from a coin. The
fourth relief represents the buildings along the head of the Forum at
a lower level. First, the Doric columns of part of the Basilica Julia,
agreeing with the other reliefs and the fragments ; then the arch of
Tiberius, which spanned the Vicus Jugarius, and which is not yet
excavated ; then the third Rostra (ad Palmam), showing the statue of
the Genius of Eome, Constantino (minus his head), addressing the
people, and the statue of Claudius II. Remains of this rostra, which
should not be confounded with the first rostra, still exist with the
Umbilicus Roma at one end, whilst the Milliarium Aureum stood at
the other end^ under the temple of Saturn. The last building repre-


sented is the arcli of Septimius Severus, with which it corresponds, as
comparison will pIiow.

"In our lectures upon the Forum we have demonstrated this many
times, and when pointed out our audience has agreed with us tliat it
must be so, the remains corresponding with these pictiires in an
extraordinary manner, the Eomans themselves having left us a graphic
sketch of the buildings on three sides of their principal Forum.

" Upon the inner sides of the avenue are represented on each balus-
trade, a boar, a ram, and a bull; the animals offered at the tiiple
sacrifice or Suovetaurilia (from sus, ovis, taurus), which was performed
once every five years, or Lustrum, for the purification of the city.

''It was an institution of Servius TuUius, the ceremony consisting
in leading the boar, ram, and bull, thrice round the assembly of tJie
people, and then offering them to Mars. There is a similar represent-
ation upon a relief of Trajan on the arch of Constantino and upon a
pedestal at the entrance to the Palace of the Caesars, found near the
arch of Septimius Severus.

" AVe were ourselves present at the discovery of tliese remains of what
must have been a grand and unique monument ; a tower of the middle
ages being built over them, this was destroj'ed, and the stones of the
balustrades fitted close together, they having fallen somewhat apart ;
and a new piece of marble was inserted under them, so that they do
not now rest upon the travertine as when found, but they are exactly
in the same position. Close by, was found a piece of an inscription,
evidently referring to this monument ; but it has been placed upon one
of the restored bases of the Basilica Julia, (the last to the right). It
is in beautiful characters filled in with red.





" At the time of their discovery it vins stated, and this has been the
received opinion, that the scenes referred to events in the lives of the
Emperors Trajan and Hadrian ; and that it represented the burning of
the bonds which Hadrian had remitted. We could not accept that
opinion, because the Fig-tree represented to our mind a scene in the
Eoman Forum and not Trajan's Forum, where the bonds where burnt
under Hadrian. The Fig-tree, planted by Tarquin. gave us the key to
our important discovery of the scenes here depicted, and of the pano-
ramic view of the Forum left us by the Eomans From the accounts
lianded down to us of this act of Hadrian we shall see that it does not
agree with the scene before us.

"As soon as he entered Eome, Hadrian released all that was due
from private men for sixteen years together, amountiiig to 900,000,000
sesterces (£8,541,666, 13, 4), both to the private treasury of the
Emperor and to the public one of the Eoman people." J)io Cassius,

" Hadrian remitted ir.numerable simis which were due from private
debtors to the privy purse of the Emperor in the city and in Italy,
and even in other provinces ; he collected the bonds of the sums
remitted ; and for greater security he enclosed them in oak boards and
burnt them all in the Forum of Trajan ; and he forbade any of the


money that had been forgiven to be received into the public treasury."
Sparfinniis in Uadrinno.

"As we have demonstrated, the scene on the relief is an act taking
place in the Forum Eomanum, and not Trajan's Forum ; and further,
the bonds, as here shown, are only tied together, not "enclosed in oak
boards," as Hadrian's Avere. Marcus Aurelius, it is true, only followed
his example ; and according to y/«.<«o;i;H.«, Grado actio 21, the Emperor
Gratian did the same. This scene is represented on a coin of Marcus
Aurelius ; as is also the act of Hadrian, upon a medal of his time.

" The orphan schools founded by Marcus Aurelius had special refer-
ence to Eome, whilst those of Trajan were for the whole of Italy. They
were endowed by him in the form of loans to the landed proprietors in
the different districts, the}' pa3ing the yearly interest. Coins and
inscriptions still present this subject to our view. Near Piacenza a
bronze tablet was found 10 ft. by 6 ft. containing 670 lines of the
mortgage deeds on the sums lent by Trajan in this neighbourhood for
the maintenance of these schools, the interest being 5 per cent. Part
of a similar inscription was found at Beneventum. Hadrian Antoninus
Pius and Marcus Aurelius followed this wise and good example, and
in A. D. 177 the latter Emperor founded orphan schools in Eome in
memory of his wife, and called them after her name, PuelhB Fausti-
niana). Upon the walls of the Villa Albani are two small reliefs,
representing processions of girls called the ori:)hans of Faustina, but by
what authority, or where they were found we cannot discover.

"It has been asserted that such good sculpture, as these reliefs
evidently were, was not made after the time of Hadrian, and so they
must be of his time ; such a statement could hardly be made by any
one who knew anything of art in Eome under the good Emperors.
The reliefs from the arch of Marcus Aurelius, his equestrian statue,
his column, numerous busts and statues, ecpial anything we have of
the time of Hadran. Sculpture did not fall so low in the short space
of twenty-five years, that these balustrades could not have been
executed. Their style is very similar to the reliefs from his arch,
perhaps they are by the hand of the same master."

Mr. Eussell Forbes has arranged a most interesting photograph,
giving a panoramic view of the Forum as shown on ancient reliefs.

" The fore-ground of our photograph we have filled up with a plan of
the Comitium, in order to show the i")osition of the two marble balus-
trades, Marsyas, and the Fig-tree. This tree has been confounded by
many writers, both ancient and modern, with the Euminal Fig-tree
which grew upon the south west slope of the Palatine ; and whicih had
nothing whatever to do with the tree on the Comitiuni, which was planted
by Tarc[uin, in commemoration of Navius Attius cutting the whet-stone
in two with a razor ; these being buried at the spot where was erected
the prajtor's seat called Puteal Libonis. This is represented on a coin

Online LibraryBritish Archaeological Association. Central CommitThe Archaeological journal (Volume v. 34) → online text (page 31 of 54)