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recorded. At " Copped Wood Hill," close to Goodrich,
a large collection of coins of the Lower Empire was dug
up about 1817 [Wanderings of an Antiquary, p. 14);
and in 1855 a deposit of many thousands, of the same
period, were found during draining operations in the
Coombe Wood at Aston Ingham, in the south-east
corner of the county, on the Gloucestershire border.
They appeared to have been dep(jsited in two chests,
and ready for transpoit. Thirty-se\'en of them (now in
the Gloucester Museum) were exhibited at the Gloucester
Meethig of the Institute by I. Irving, Esq. They were
all small brass, and were of the reigns of Maximianus,
Maximinus Daza, Licinius, Constantine the Great, his
wife Fausta, Crispus, Constantine II, and Constantius II.
The most singular fact connected with the disco'S'ery is,
that near the spot where the coins were found " there is
a gate, and according to local tradition the spot was
considered to l^e haunted, and after nightfall persons

' It was aniKjimeed a few months since tliis altar tu the Hereford Mu.seum, but I
that the present rector of Tretire, the am not aware whetlier thisi intention has
Kev. E. F. Owen, was about to present been carried "ut.


preferi'ed taking a long circuit to venturing tlirougli tlie
gate." — Catalofjue Gloucester Temporary Museum, p. 10.

At LongtoAvn, close to the Roman road leading to
Abergavenny, there is a spot called " Money Farthing
Hill," wliich has, no doubt, derived its name (as is the
case elsewhere) from either the discovery of a large hoard
of coins, or the fact of their having been for a long period
occasionally picked up.^

The Roman camps in the county, or such British
camps as were subsequently occupied by the Romans, in
addition to that at Brandon, already described, must now
claim attention. The first of these is the great camp at
Credenhill, probably originally British, and after its caj)-
ture converted by the Romans into a summer camp to the
station at Kenchester. Situated on the summit of a hill,
at about a mile and a half fi'om the latter place, it is of
an oblong shape, with the exception of one of the shorter
sides, that to the south-west, being rounded. It encloses
an area, of about eighty acres, and has an entrance on
each side, but, instead of their being m the centre of the
sides, they are all near the angles. Generally a single
rampart and ditch sufiices, but in weaker places there are
two. The rampart is from ten to twelve feet high in
places. Roman coins and other remains have been found
Avithin the area, and at the south-east angle is a covered
way, leading to the Roman road from Magna to Bra-
viniu'm. The close proximity of this immense camp to
Kenchester, and its intimate connection with it by means
of the covered way, and the fact of the latter station
being only about one-fourth the size of the camp, seems
to have been the origin of the name '^ Magna.'' — the
Romans considering them both as one large town. In
all [)iobability the suburban buildings of the castriiiii
(like similar cases on the Roman Wall) reached from the
latter to Credenhill camp. This seems confirmed by the
fact that, in the cuttings for the Hereford and Brecon
Railway, near (^ledenhill, (piantities of coins, pottery,
horse shoes, and various otlier articles, were reported as

^ Ml-. IJaiik.s, ill (le.sci-ibiiig tlie .site (if ueiir W;ilfonl, and that fragments of

Jlrcvi/n/im, at Lcintwanliiic, says tliat pottory -.we <ifton tiu-ncd uji in a tiokl

'■'aliuut twenty ycai-.s ago a ((uantity of a little liiglior up the valluy, ojipuiiite to

Jvoniaii c<iiiis wore foun<l on the (h'ainage Coxall KnuU,'
of part of the Urauipton Ijiian estate,


luu'iug" been turued up ; also a lioraau road running from
Kencliestev to Credenliill, which tlie engineer (Mr.
Iloberts) reported to have been cut through transversely
about two feet Ijelow tlie surface of the ground. {Mr.
Jas. Davies, in Hereford Tliues, Aug. I7th, 18G7, re])orts
these latter facts.)

At Acconbury Hill, four miles south of Herefoi'd, is
another large Roman camp of a square form ; the rampart
on the east side is comparatively peifect. At Dinedc>r
Hill, three miles south east by south of Hereford, there is
another conspicuous Roman camp — the one alluded to l)y
the Rev. J. Pointer as " Oyster hill." It is also called
" Oster hill," and has been said by various writers to have
derived its name from Ostorius Scapula, one of the Roman
governors of Britain. There is not the least probal)ility
of such an origin of the name. Far more likely, that, as
is usual on most Roman sites, quantities of oyster sliells
have been discovered, and the hill afterwards called
"Oyster hill"

At Bishop Eaton, about four miles west from Hereford,
another Roman camp occurs on the banks of the Wye.
It is from thirty to forty acres in extent, and is situated
on the banks of the Wye; with a single rampart and ditch.
The area is undei' cultivation. Vestiges of another occur
at Eardisley, five miles south by east from Kington.
Britton and Lewis both report the existence of a small
square camp at Pyon Grove, in the township of Yatton,
parish of Aymestrey, seven miles north west from Leomin-
ster, It overlooks the Watling street, on the opposite
side of which is the large British camp of "Croft Amljrey."
Lewis says that '' the embankments of both are well worth
the visit of the antiquary."

A little to the south west of the village of Michael
Church is a large S(j^uare camp ; the turnpike road to
Hereford runs through it. It is marked in the Ordnance
Map as " Camp Field," and is known in the locality as
" Gaer Cop." This is close to Tretire, where the altar
Avas foiuid. At Burghill, four miles north west of Here-
ford, Mr. Britton says that a square camp exists. This
probably is a reference to the earthworks adjoining the
churchyard at Burghill, A\'hich ai'e well defined, and to
which the " Portway " seems to have led. They were

;368 HUMAN HEllEl*'01lD«HiRE.

visited by some of the members of the Cambrian Archae-
ological Association, on 15th August, 18G7. Britton
reports the existence of another square camp, three miles
to the north Avest of this, and about a mile from Canon
Pyon. T have no information as to it. On Bradnor
mountain, near Kington, tliere is a square camp of small
size. In the Golden valley, on an eminence above Vow-
church, there is another small square Roman camp, with
extensive views to the south east. This overlooks,
thoui>-li at the distance of two or three miles, the Boman
road from Magna to (rohannlum (Abergavenny). Further
to the south there is another camp overlooking the
line of this road. It is about a mile to the west of the
railway station at Pandy, on a spur of the Black mountains.
The original camp is rectangular — 485 feet by 240 ; but
attached to its south east side is a similar sized camp, of
a semicircular shape, and having a double ditch and ram-
part. At nearly two miles nortli east of this, there is,
above Walterstone, another camp ; which, I presume, is
the one referred to by Mr. Davies, as containing a tessel-
ated pavement. Its shape, however, being circular, it
must have been merely occupied, and not made, by the
Bomans. About a mile north of Brockhampton there is
on Caplar Hill, another large camp, probably occupied by
the Bomans ; whilst three miles further northward is
the camp at Blackbury, clearly made, as I think, by that
people. Mr. Duncomb, in his History of Herefordshire,
vol. ii, p. 23 G, from information derived from the MSS. of
Silas Taylor, says that in the jjark of the Bishop of Here-
ford, at Wliitbourne, there was a Boman intrencliment,
(;ind on the opjxjsite side of the valley a British camp,
Avhich was circular). Another fine sijuare Boman camp
exists aljout a mile east south east of Upper Sapey.

On the line of the Boman road from Kenchester into
AVorcestershire thei-e exist some traces of a square camp
at Stretton Grandison. Baxter in his Glossarium Anti-
quitatiua Bntannicarum, from this circumstance, placed
the Boman station Cicutio — named, with five others, by
the anonymous Bavennas in liis Chorograpliy as existing
Ijotwcen Caerleon and Kenchester — at this s])ot. Mr.
James Davies (in several papers), from the sb'ght dis-
coveries of pottery, &c., made on the site, promulgates


the same idea, for which I cannot see tlie shadow of a
foundation. Nothing- hut future discoveries of inscrip-
tions can decide the situation of any of the ahove named

In addition to these Ronuoi camps, I thhik there is
httle doubt, from the course of the Roman roads, that the
British camps at Sutton Walls (three and a half miles
north of Hereford and containijig thirty acres) at Risbury,
St. Ethelbert's camp ahove Mordiford, another camp
formerly existing (if not at present) half mile north of
Fownhope, and the great camp at Thornbury called
'" Wall Hill," were occupied at one period or another l)y
the Romans. It is possible that there may l^e otlier
decided Roman cnmps in the county, but unless that
at Ivington be classed as one I am ignorant of any others ;
however, in such a case, some local antiquary may be able
to supply the omission.

Having thus considered the Roman stations, camps,
^allas, u'on w^orks, and other remains in the county, it is
necessary to sj^eak of the means of communication between
them in the shape of roads.

The first road, which was probably also formed earlier
than the others, and now bears the name of " Watling
street," enters the county at its north-west extremity
from Shropshire near Marlow and runs to the station
Bravinium at Leintwardine, past its summer camp at
Brandon, by Wigmore, past the small square camp at
Pyon Grove, through Aymestrey, and Mortimer's Cross,
]3ast Street Court, through the parish of Eardisland, to
Bainstree Cross, and Stretford. Thence it runs through
the valley between Dinmore and Canon Pyon to Burghill.
Here it bears ihe name of the Portway, and turning to
the south-w^est it passes through the village of Credenhill
imder the camp, and so on to Kenchestei-. As the autlior
of the Itinerary considers the road south-west from
Kenchester to Abergavenny and Caerleon to be a con-
tinuation of this one, it is best to consider it as such in
the present instance rather than treat it as an indepen-
dent road. After leaving Kenchester it proceeds to tlie
bank of the Wye, crossing that river near the " Old
Weir," and runs south-west by Wormhill to Wyddyats
Cross at Madley. Here it is very conspicuous, and has


long been known as Stone or Stoney street. Thence it
proceeds by Brampton Hill, but is much obliterated
beyond ; traces of it are, howevei', found at Abbey
Dore and Ewyas Harold, at which latter ]3lace we find
the name " King street " applied to it. It then passes
near Old Castle, by the cainps at Walterston and Pandy,
and immediately afterwards enters Monmouthshire and
proceeds to Abergavenny (Gohannium). This road, part
of the twelfth Iter of Antoninus, is decidedly, from its
remains, one of the Higher Empire. The other road
mentioned in the Itinercwij (thirteenth Iter) enters the
county from Gloucester, somewhere in the neighboiu'hood
of Aston Ingham (where the find of coins occurred), and
proceeds to Bury hill {Ariconium). It is iiow altogether
ol)literated. Its direction after leaving Ariconium is
uncertain. According to the Itinerary ifc led to a station
called Blesfium, eleven miles from Ariconium, which has
been fixed at Monmoutli, though upon no sure grounds.
In any event its course through tlie southern part of
Herefordshire is a short one. Another fine Roman road
coming from Builth, eastward, crosses Oifa's Dyke, near
Down's hill, and running soutli of Bishopstone enters
Kenchester, upon leaving which it j^roceeds by Stretton
Sugwas and Holmer, crossing the Lug at Lug Bridge,
past the " Black Hole " by Moor-end and Purbrook to
Street lane, and on to Stretton Grandison, after which,
passing Frome hill, it enters Worcestershire, nmning
by Malvern and Worcester. Near the "Black Hole"
another Iloman road appears to cross it, which, in a
southern direction, passes by Hagley and Bartestre
Chapel, and points towards Mordiford. Sir P. C. Hoare
traced this road southward to Ariconium. It apparently
went l)y Fownhope, under the large camp on Caplar hill,
by Brockhampton and How Caple to Bury hill {Ari-
conium). In vol. xxvii of the Journal of the British
Archaeological Association, p. 381, Mr. James Davies says
that there was a road from Braviiiium branching off the
Watling street at Wigmore, by Croft, Stockton, Ashton
to Corner Cop, "thence to a place called the ' Trumpet,'
l)y Stretford, and along a lane called Blackwardine lane,
under Ilisbury Camp to ' England's Gate,' and so on to
Stretton Grandison, where Cicutio 'u:as situate. This is


the only road in Herefordshire whicli is not noticed by
Sir Pi. C. Honre, l)iit there is the evidence of nomenclature
in support of it in many localities."

As far as " Eno-laud's Gate " I can endorse Mr. Davies's

remarks, but, instead of leadincr thence to Stretton Gran-

• • • 1

dison, I think he will find that it is a continuation north-
wards of the road I have just described as starting' from
the cross at tlie Black Hole. Northwards this road leads
through Withington, and just beyond this is called
" Duck Street," pointing direct (through Preston Wynn)
towards "England's Gate." Bnt another road may be
traced south-east from Stretton Grandison, leading veiy
straight through Ashperton, Pixley, east of Aylton, and
Little Marcle, ^\diere it is only a mile from the Putley
villa, and a short distance from the large camp at " Wall
Hill," near Ledbury. It then enters Gloucestershire by
Preston and Newdiouse Bridge, leading through Dymock
to Newent. About a mile from the latter town a " Gold
Arbour " occurs upon its route.

From the occurrence also of " Street Field," near the
great camp at Thornbury (Wall Hill), it is probable that
a Roman road ran in that direction, but if so it has not
yet been traced.

I also incline to the opinion that a crucifoim earthwork
at St. Margaret's, described in the Archceological Journal,
vol. X, p. 358, and vol. xi, p. 55, w^as a Roman hotontinus
similar to several found in recent years in Yorkshire, and
described by Mr. Monkman, of Malton, in the Yorhhire
Archceological Journal.

Such, as far as I am able to trace them, are the foot-
prints of Rome, in the county of Hereford. I by no
means assert that I have reached perfection m the matter.
Far othei'wise. The subject is a difficult one ; and local
antiquarians may be in possession of much information
which it is impossible for a non-resident of the district to
obtain. If so, I would ask them, for the benefit of
archaeology in general, to make puV)lic whatever know-
ledge of the subject they may possess. In the meantime,
I trust that my imperfect endeavours to mould into shape
and form, the scattered fragments whicli we possess of
" Roman Herefordshire," may not 1)0 without interest to



the members of the Institute, when meeting in the city
around which they radiate,

Mr. Thomas Wiight, in his Uriconiam, p. 48, makes
the branch road which I have noticed as passing through
" England's Gate," run to Brodert's Bridge, near Worfer-
ton, and adds—" l\\ fact, Blackwardine appears, by the
great quantities of Roman remains found there, to have
been some rather important station."

Since then I have made several important enquiries as
to this place, and find that it takes its name from the
black colour of the soil, different to all the land around
it, like the site of many other Boman stations. I cannot
hear of any foundations being discovered, but Boman
coins of brass, silver, and copper have been found, among
them those of Augustus, Trajan, Constantine the Great,
and coins of the Urhs Roma type, with the reverse of
Bomulus and Bemus being suckled by the wolf; also
great quantities of Boman pottery, bones of animals,
human bones, and various other relics. Several local
antiquaries make the road, passing this station, fall into
the Watlino- street at Wio^moi-e.



" The glory of children are their fathers," we are
tuld ill the well-known motto of the Harleian Society,
and the men and women of Herefordshire may be fairly
congratulated on their glorious ancestry, and the long-
array of noble and historic names they have added to the
roll of fame and the annals of our common country. If
our pride of ancestry gives place in any degree, it is to
that courtesy and " simple faith " of which the Laureate
sings as being superior to "Norman blood." In Hereford
we have met with courtesy, and have seen so many
manifestations of simple faith, that we may fairly say
that the fathers of the land are not disgraced by their
children, who have received us so hospitably during the
present Meeting.

It is not my purpose to give a general disquisition
on the fathers of Herefordshire, but to trace out the
stream of life of one family as far as possible, and to
show how it has had its volume increased by other
streams, and how it in its turn has lost to a great
extent its distinctive name, which, though not unknown
at the present time in our midst, is no longer associated
with the historic sites, lordly castles, and baronial halls
which once resounded with their names and were filled
with their retainers. Many families of renown yet
quarter the white roses on the red bend crossing the
gold and azure bariy of six of the family of Lingen, and
consider it a honoui' to do so. The Princes of Powis no
longer wage war against the Lords of Sutton Walls, for in
the veins of the descendants of Sir John Lingen, living
when Hereford gave a title to the reigning khig, the
blood of both families flow in harmon}'- and in peace.
The story of the family of Lingen, with its Ljves, its
tragedies, and romances, can hardly be separated from


the places which they made their own, and some of which
are inchided in the programme of the Meeting.

At a time when the City of Hereford was in its infancy,
and its distinctive name was hardly known, a family of
some importance resided in the chattellany of Wigmore,
a place afterwards renowned as the seat of the Norman
family of Mortimei'. Tlieir early history is involved in
doul)t, but at the time <jf the Domesday survey one
Turstin (the Fleming) de Wigmore, who married Agnes,
daughter of Alured de Merleberge, held the manor of
Lingen, on the iDorders of Shropshire, under the Mor-
timers. Tt is worthy of note that many Flemings had
settled in South Wales previously to the Conquest, and
in the course of the next fifty years large colonies were
formed in Pembrokeshire. This Turstin is admittedly an
ancestor of the Lingens, who assumed that patronymic in
the reign of the first TUchard (circa 1190), when Ralph
de Wigmore founded the Priory of Limebrook. This
adoption of a fresh surname is not uncommon, a well-
known instance occurring in the case of Turchill, the
Sheriff of Warwickshire at the time of the Conquest,
who, on being dispossessed by the Conqueror, retained
certain manors under the Norman earls, and assumed the
surname of Arden, from the forest land in which the
estates were situate. The coat armour of the early
Lingens was argent, charged with three chevronells
sable ; or, as an old pedigree has it, three greyhounds ;
but a change of coat armour Avas not uncommon, for the
ancient flunily of Shirley changed their simple pales of
or and sable in the same manner, when the distinctive
lines of Norman and Saxon became merged into one
general English nation, and the laws of heraldry better

By his marriage with Agnes Merleberg, Turstin ac-
quired the manor of Much Cowarne, and his son llalph
appears to have married Joyce, the daughter of Sir Jasper
de Croft, of Croft Castle, a family long and honourably
distinguished in Plerefordshire history. He appears to
have left two suns, the first Sir William AVigmore, who,
like his father-in law, became ;i kuiglit of the Holy
Sepulchre, and married Uose, the daughter of Sir Walter
I'cdewardiue, but left no descendants. His brother llalpli


succeeded to the estates and founded the Priory of Lime-
brook as before mentioned. His eldest son, Sir John
Lingen, first bore the Lingen arms, l)arry of six or and
azure, on a bend gales, three roses argent. We have no
record of who his mother was, or whom he married. His
brother Brian became a secular canon in the monastery
of Wigmore. We have no record of the doings of the
Lhigen family during this period (circa 1086 — 1250), but
as the Lingen estates were held of the Lords of Wigmore,
and the Mortimers were busy now against the Welsh,
and now opposing the Empress Maud, these feudal
vassals would follow their fortunes and engage in the
crusades. This Sir John Lingen appears to have left
four sons and one daughter — a daughter renowned among
the romances of Herefordshire, and whose name in the
family pedigree is surrounded by a gilded band. Con-
stantia Lingen married in 1253 Grimbald, son and heir
of Richard Pauncefort, a name not unknown in Leicester-
shire pedigrees, and her marriage settlement is dated
1253, by which John de Lingain gives to the bridegroom's
father, Ilichard de Pauncefoit, " sexies virginti et decern
marcas, duodecim boves et centum oves " and the manor
of Much Cowarne. Richard de Pauncefort gives his son
Grimbald ''centum solidates terras m maneris de Hatfield
de quibus dictus Grimbaldis dictam Constantia dotabit ad
ostium Ecclesiae quando ipsam desponsabis ; " he also
promises to settle further property as a jointure. This
dower shows the wealth and ])osition whicli the family
had acquired. Tliis lady is said to have been not only
very beautiful, but noted for her conjugal attachment,
which is vouched for by the following anecdote : —
" Li 1720 Giimbaldis Pauncefort joined Prince Edward,
son of Henry III, and Louis TX in the ninth and last
crusade. He does not appear to have reached the Holy
Land, but to have been captured by the Saracens at
Tunis, about the time that Louis IX was struck down
by the plague. The infidels demanded for the ransom of
their captive no less a price than a Imib of his wife
Constantia, of whose beauty and constancy they appear
to have heard. The present rector of Much Cowan, the
llev. J. G. Graham,' has thus embodied the incident in

' Formerly Curate at IK'ly Triuity, Coventry.


his niuniuir of Much Cowarne Church : —

No sooner hears Constantia that no less
Will free her husband than her sever' d hand,
At once she decides with love's promptitude
To fulfil the hard condition. when
Did hardness e'er deter w^oman from deed
Of kindness '? The hardness which others see,
>She sees not ; or rather heeds not : true love
Shall conquer all. Like the fair Godiva
She laughs at hard conditions which depend
On her alone. Or, like that lady brave
AVho gave her arm to serve for bolt to guard
The precious lives of those she lov'd so well.

But to our tale. The limb is lopp'd and sent ;
The captive is set free, How can we think
But that he hastens home as fast as horse
And ship can bear him ? Let Prince Edward ' win
His bootless honours — love is more to him
Than aught on earth — though he be belted knight,
Honour lies now in speeding to his home.
AVe can almost mark the spot — almost track
The winding lane 'long which Grimbaldus rode —
The very spot on which these lovers met.
For who henceforth would love as they ?

We may smile at this legend, romantic though it is,
notwithstanding that Duncumb, in his History of Her e-
fordahire, tells us that Constantia Pauncefort's heroic
conduct is confirmed and proved by the fact of her
husband's altar-tomb, with their recumbent effigies, once
existing at the east end of the south aisle of the church,
the latter cross-legged, and habited like a Norman knight,
the former exhibiting her left arm couped above the
wrist. The battered and defaced remains of Grimbaldus's
effigy have alone survived the ravages of time, and now
lie on the north side of the chancel, a precious relic of the
past. When and why it was placed there the writer has
been unable to ascertain. Duncumb informs us that the
dispersed fragment (alas ! we have now to use the singular

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