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115G), and one in Worcestershire (No. 1157). All these,
except the last, belong to the Roman road between
Lincoln and London.

One is preserved in Trinity College, Cambridge, but the
exact point at which it was found is not known. It is
inscribed to the Emperor Crispus, and is of the date
a.d. 3 17-320; and the lettering rude. We gather from

- Sec Pafkev's Forum Itomanum. " It - The Itinera which Ijcgin or tei'ininate

was tlu; intention of Angustns, wlien he iit Londiniiun are seven in number, viz.,

erected tin's milestone (k.c. 28), to have iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii, ix. This is sufficient

had all the milestones on the carriage to .sliow the im])ortance of the city in

roa<ls measured from this point, but the Roman times, although it does not seem

design was never carried out." to have been the capital city of Uritain.



" ROMAN' M[L[ARIES " FOUND IX BRITAIN. 31)9

it 110 luime of a place or distance, but simply imperial
titles. And tliis is the case Avitli that found three miles
from Cambridge, on the road to Huntingdon, which seems
to ])e of the same date as that found at St. Hilary in
Cornwal], some tune between A.D. 808-337.

Anotlier was found at Casterton, near Stamford. It
is inscribed to ^r . annio . floriano . a.d. 27G.

Worcestoi'shire has yielded one, found at Kempsey,
inscribed —

^" A L . C O N S T A N T I N O
P ■ F E . I N V I C T . A V G.

And Herefordshire one, found at Kenchester, on the line
of Ivoman road from Caer Leon to Chester, inscribed to
the Emperor Numerianus (a.d. 282), and apparently
ending with uncertain letters, which may probably be
read " Bono rei-publica3 nato."

A " Miliary " with tliis inscription, found at Urico-
nium (Wroxeter), is preserved in the museum at Shrews-
bury, and the fragment of another, which I made a sketch
of in 1854, used to lie in the rectory garden. The letters
remaining ^veve apparently

C II N
N L L I A N

very badly formed, and evidently of a late period of the
empire.

Two other fragments, one given by Professor Hilbner
(No. 1167), and another bearing the letters T. G., which
used to be at Donnington, about two miles east from
Wroxeter on the Roman road, called the Watling Street,
leading to London, are probably also relics of "Miliaries."

Uriconium was the centre of five lines of Roman njad,
viz. : — The AVatling Street coming from London ; the
Roman road coming from Gloster and Worcester up the
Severn Valley : the Roman road from Caerleon through
Kenchester, which passed on through Uriconium to Deva
(Chester) ; and the Roman road which continued on into
Wales to Caer Leon and beyond. Here, therefore, we
might naturally expect to find some remains of Miliaries.

Buxton, celebrated like Bath for its mineral waters, and
the Roman " Aqua3 " of Ravennas, has not been so
prolihc in Roman remains as its rival " Aquto Solis," but



400 " ROMAN MILIARIES " FOUND IN BRITAIN.

a Miliaiy of some importance was discovered in 1862
at Higher Buxton. This has been read by Mr. Thompson
Watkin from a cast made of the stone, unhappily now-
lost, or not to be traced at present.' Drawings of the
stone are given in the Arch(eoIo(jlcal Journal, vol. xxxiii,
p. 49. The mscription is important, as fixing the site of
another station mentioned by Ravennas, Navio. This
was probal)ly at Brough near Buxton.

Few of the Miliaries like this have the name of a
station, or the distance marked ; the lettering is either
erased, or the portion of the stone wanting. Where the
lettering is perfect the value of the stone in enabling the
student to trace the lines of the itinerary, and identify
the stations, is very great. The most perfect " Miliary "
is that found near Leicester, and it is the earliest inscribed
stone yet found. The inscription is as follows : —

IMP. c A E s .

DIV. TRAIANI PARTH. F. D I V. NE R • N E P.

TRAIAN. HADRIAN. AVG. P.P. TRIE.

POT. IV. COS. III. A. RATIS

II

The date is fixed by the imperial titles to a.d. 120-21,
and the name of the nearest principal station, Ilatoe or
Leicester, is given. Another stone has been dug up also
at Segshill, fifteen miles from Leicester (1855) on the line
of the Foss Road, which is now in the Leicester Museum,
but the only letters that can be traced are imp (see
ArcJuPologiccd Journal, vol. xxxi, p. 353).

We might naturally expect to find Roman Miliaries
more plentiful in Wales than in the south, west, east, or
midland parts of Britain, because the Roman roads in that
country pass over mountainous tracks, where stone is
abundant, and the lines of Roman road have been in
many places left untouched. Those, however, recorded
by Prof Hilbner number only seven, and another given
in the Archceological Journal, vol. xxxi, p. 353, may be
added to these, making eight in all. They are all of the
third century, except one, which is of the fourth.

The earliest is that found near Ty Coch, parish of
Bangor, and of the date of M. Aur. Antoninus, or between

' This litoiic iti stated tu have Ijccu iu the po«(ie«wiou uf a bookseller in Buxtoii
eight yeai'ii ago.



"ROMAN MILIARTES" FOUND IN BRITAIN. 401

A.D. 211-217. The latest of the date of the Emperor
Maximm, a.d. 308-313. These stones, therefore, embrace
a period of nearly 100 years.

They are, however, valuable testimonies to the courses
of the Eoman roads in Wales, which have been veiy
inadequately described, except by Sir K. C. Hoare, in his
introduction to (rcraldus Camhrensis. Horsley and
Burton, in their maps of the Homan roads in Britain, only
give the roads indicated in the Itinera of Antonine, and
the latest published maps, as that of Boman Britain in
the Monumenta Histonca, and that in Professor Hubner's
/. JB. L., only indicate some of the roads.

Five of the Itinera of Antonine relate to the Boman
roads of Wales,' but these do not extend into the middle
portion of the -country, being confined to the eastern and
the maritime parts, but Sir B. C Hoare enumerated
seven distinct lines of road, all of which are verified by
Boman remains or by stations along their course.

Having just touched upon the Miliaries of Wales, I
nuist pass on to those of the west and north of England.
Following the lines of Boman road which passed from
Chester through Lancashire into Westmoreland and
Cumberland, we have only ten Miliaries recorded, nine
by Professor Hiibner, and cne added since by Mr. T.
Watkin. The earliest is of the date of Hadrian (a.d.
119-138), and was found in the bed of the Arkle beck,

^ The Itinera relating to the Roman and Hubner's AddltaniC'dn^ No. 116, p.

road.s in Wales are the xi, part of ii, pai't 139.

of xii, part of xiii, and a small portion of The Roman road over the Treeastle

No. xiv. iMountain is not included in the Itinera

The Miliaries found in Wales are — of Antoninus. It is called by Sir R. C.

1 at Port Talbot, near Neath, Gordian, Hoare, the Via Julia Montana, or Superior.

A.D. 30S-;.U3. Antiquaries are much indebted to

1 at Aberavon, a.d. 238-244. _ I\Ir. W. Rees, of Tonn Llandovery, for

1 at Pyle, near Neath. Victorinus, A.D. 267 elucidating the Roman remains of this

2 at Treeastle, Tostumus, imreadaljle, neighbourhood, and iov giving a plan of
probably date, a.d. 258-268. the Koman camp, and the direction of

1 at Llandiniolen, Decius, A.D. 249-251. the Koman roads on Treeastle Mountain.

1 at Dynevor, Caermarthenshire, Tacitus, See A)-ch(eologia Cambrensis, new series

A.D. 27-J-6. 1854, which .says, "Near Treca.stle two

I at Ty Coch, Parish of Bangor. Carnar- Pioman roads branched oft', one direct to
von.shiie, Antoninus, A.D. 211-217. Llandovery, and the other through
Another stone, (although its purpose is Talsarn, in Llanddensant, towards Llan-

uot yet clearly ascertained), was found at gadoc, and the Gam Coch."

Caermarthen, and has the letters bono . We have also the same conjunctiun of

II Y. NATO. It is an altar shaped stone, Roman roads at Luentinum or Loventium,
and may have been a '•Miliary." See« Llandovery, where four Roman roads
Archteological Journal, vol. xx.\i, p. 344, appear to meet. See Archxeologia Cam-

hrem\!>. April, 1873.



402 "ROMAN MILIARIEs" FOUND IN BRITAIN.

near Caton, Lancaster. Tliere is some doubt of the
reading of the last line (see Hiibner, No. 1175). Of the
remainder, five belong to the date of the Emperor Philip,
A.B. 244-248 ; two to Decius, A.D. 249-251 ; two to Con-
stantine the Great, a.d. 300-337 ; and the one dug up in
1836 at Middleton, three or four miles from Kirkby
Lc)nsdale, on the Koman road from Overborough to Borrow
Bridge, on which the letters MP and numeral Liir only
can be read. (See Archceological Journal, vol. xxxi,
p. 354.)

Taking the line of the military way which led from
York to the Vallum of Hadrian, we have tw^o Miliaries
found at or near Aldborough, the ancient Isuriiiin. The
one is a mere fragment found at Alborough, but the one
found at Duel Cross, three miles from it, has been clearly
read — (see Hiibner, No. 1180). It was erected in the
time of Decius, and is of the usual kind, the date a.d.
249-251. Going further north another has Ijeen found
at Greta Bridge, inscribed to (iallus and A^olusianus, a.d.
251-253 ; and another at Spital on Stanmore, but the
lettering has almost perished. These two are on the line
of road which crosses the island ol)lif[uely bet^^'een
Cataric Bridge (Cataractonium) and Carhsle (Lugu-
vallium), and seem to point out that this road was made
somewhat later (two years) than the direct northern road
from York. Thus at Lanchester and at Ford, on the
direct north road, we have two more Miliaries of the date
of the Emperor Gordian, a.d. 238-244, some years earlier
than those on the cross road.

The military way which accompanied the Vjillum of
Hadrian has yielded at least six found along its course.
The most important one is that which is inscribed to
the Emperor Caracalla, and which is of the date a.d. 213.
It is conjecturally restored by Hiibner (No. 1186), but
the endincf seems a doubtful readino- as on the Miliaries
found in Britain the name of the Legate never appears
joined with that of the Emperor.

A Miliary found near Old Walker, and containing only
a few letters, cannot be assigned to any emperor, and it
is doubtful if it was found per lineam valJi, but probal)ly
in the neighboui-hood. The last stone mentioned in Hilb-
ner's collection (1191) apj^ears to be of very doubtful



"ROitAX iflLlAEIES" FOUXD IX EEIT^UX. 403

reading, and has most certainly been tampered with and

eon'upted, if not a forgeiy.

It is much to l>e regi'etted that the Imperial Titles alone
ai-e to l>e gathered from most of these records, by which we
can only fix the date of their erection ; the names of
places, and the distances which ought to appear on the
lower portion of the colimiQ, are for the most pai*t
wanting.

The 3Iihaiy found near Leicester, and that lately
found near Buxton, can alone be said to have presei-ved
this impoitant part of the letteiing : all may have had
originally the distance from some important station, as
well as the date of then- erection. But from the date of
the erecti< tn we may probably infer the completion of the
roads in. Biitaia. Xone have ]>eeri found as yet earlier
than the time of Hadrian (a.d. 120), but fi'om that time
they occur consecutively to the date of Constantine the
younger, so that road making went forward ^vithout
intermission for more than 200 years. May we not hope
that by calling attention to these memorials fi-esh m-
formation may be gleaned about the Boman roads in
Bntam.



List of MUiaries.

Foi'xri IN Britain, Eastern Pobtion :

ComwalL Kent, HantB, Cambriidgeslure. Nortliamptonsliire. Huntingdon.iLire.

Woreest'ersliire.

1 St. Hilaiy, ComwalL

G or 7 Bittern, near Southampton, Hants.

1 Southfleet, Kent.

1 Preserved in the Trin. ColL, Cambridge, fonnerly at

Conington, not known where found.

2 One found l>etween Cambridge and Huntingdon, the

other, exact spot not known, b\it preserved at

Cambridcre.
1 Casterton, near Stamford.
1 Kempsey, Worcestei^hu'e.

13 or 14

VOL xxxn. 3 J,



404 " roman miliaries " found in britain.
Found in Wales :

Glamorganshire, Carmarthenshire, Carnarvonshh-e.

2 Port Talbot, near Neath, Glamorganshire.

1 Pyle,

2 Trecastle Hill, near Brecon, Caermarthenshire
1 Dynevor, Caermarthenshire,

1 Llandiolin, Caernarvonshire.
1 Bangor, Ty Coch „

8

Midland :

Hereford, Salop, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire.

1 Kenchester, Herefordshire.

3 or 4 fragments, Wroxeter, Salop.

2 Near Hawkstone, ,,
2 Buxton, Derbyshire.

1 Thiirmaston, near Leicester, Leicestershire.
1 Segs Hill ,, ,,

1 Ancaster, Lincolnshire.

11 or 12

West :

Lancashire, Cumberland.

1 Bil)blechester, Lancashire.

1 Ilibchester, Township of Ashton, Lnncasliire

1 South from Lancaster, Lancasliire.

1 elastic Hill

1 Arkle Beck, near Cat on ,,

1 At confluence of Loder and Eimote, Lancashire.

2 At Old Carlisle.

1 Hangingshaw, near Old Carlisle,

9 Great North Eoad :

Yorkshire, Diu'ham.

1 Duel Cross, three miles from Aldborough, Yorkshire.

1 Aldborough, Yorkshire.

1 Greta Bridge, Yorkshire

1 Spital on Stanemore, Yorkshire

1 Lanchester, Durham.

1 Ford, near Bislio]^ Wearmouth, Durham.

6



''roman mili aries " found in britain. 405
Line of Roman Wall :

Northumberland and Cumberland.

1 Old Walker, Northumljerland.

1 Welton, near Harlow Hill, Northumberland.

1 Little Chesters, Northumberland.

1 Thirl wall. „

1 Lanercost. ,,

1 Old Wall, near Carlisle, Northumberland.

1 Boulness, doubtful, but probaljly authentic.

7

Total, 54 or 5G (2 being doubtful.)



ON CERTAIN SEPULCHRAL EFFIGIES
IN HEREFORD CATHEDRAL

By MATTHEW HOLBECHE BLOXAM.

Whilst none of the sepulchral effigies in Hereford
CVithedral present distinct features of peculiar rarity or
of great antiquity, for we do not find one earlier than the
middle or latter half of the thirteenth century, they are
sufficiently varied as to be of interest. The episcopal
effigies, indeed, exhibit a series in which the change of
fashion of the vestments in succeeding ages, from the
thirteenth to the middle of the sixteenth century of the
pre-reformation l^ishops, and the change which took place
on the lleformation in the vestments or habits of the
post -reformation bishops of the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries, is very a^Dparent. The effigies of deans of the
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, those of the one
century differing from the other in fashion rather than in
variety of the habits canonical or choral in which they
are represented, are more numerous than we generally
find in one Cathedral church. There is but one effigy of
a priest, who probably may have held some subordinate
office, attired simply in the sacerdotal vestments. There
are four effigies in armour, one of some degree of rarity as
to costume ; four effigies of ladies, and three of civilians.

The number of effigies of pre-reformation bishops is
eight, exclusive of a series of eight episcopal effigies
sculptured by one and the same hand about the middle
or late in the latter half of the fourteenth century, com-
memorative of bishops of a much earlier period, whose
names are painted over them, (jf the bishops of the
tliii'teenth and fourteenth centuries, whose real effigies
scul[)tured at or immediately after their death, viz.,



EFP^IGIES IN HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 407

Peter do Aquablanca and Thomas Charlton, we find they
wore the sliort crisp beard, a fashion which prevailed till
about the middle of the fourteenth century, after which
l^eriod the chins of all ecclesiastics were close shaven, in
accordaJice, 1 think, with some Canon or Provincial Consti-
tution. This new fashion continued to the Keformation,
after which the bishops of the Pveformed Church of
England wore first the spade-shaped and afterwards the
flowing beard, a custom which continued to the middle of
the seventeenth century.

(Jf bishops of the post-refonnation period we have one
busto and foiu' effigies.

Of the effigies of deans, or at least of those of canonical
rank, there are only two to whom names may possibly be
assigned, viz., Dean Ledbury, who died A.D. 1324, and
Dean Harvey, who died a.d. 1500.

Of pre-refoDaatlon Biahops.

The earliest episcopal effigy is that of Peter de Aqua-
blanca, who died a.d. 1268. — In my description No. 32.

Bishop Thomas de Charlton, who died a.d. 1343. Of
this effigy an engraving is given. — No. 35 in the descrip-
tion.

Bishop Lewis de Charlton, who died a.d. 1369. — No.
15 in the descrijDtion.

Bishop Trevenant, who died a.d. 1403. — No. 5 in the
description.

Bishop Stanbury, who died a.d. 1474. Of this effigy
an engraving is given. — No. 19 in the description.

BishojD Mayo, who died a.d. 1516. Of this effigy an
engraving is given. — No. 1 i in the description.

Bishop Booth, who died a.d. 1535. — No. 37 in the
description.

Bishops, unknown. — Nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 27, 28, 29, 31, in
the description.

Of i)ost-reformation Bisli02^s.

Bishop Westphaling, who died a.d. 1601. — No. 36 in
the description.

Bishop Bennet, who died a.d. 1617. — No. 30 in the
description.

Bishop Lindsell, who died a.d. 1634. — No. 13 in the
description.



408 ON CERTAIN SEPULCHRAL EFFIGIES

Bishop Field, busto of, who diedA.D. 1636. — No. lU in
the description.

Bishop Coke, who died a.d. 1646. Of this effigy an
engraving is given. — No. 14 in the description.

Of prc-reformation Effigies of Deans.

Dean Ledbury, who died a.d. 1324. — No. 3 in the
description.

Dean Harvey, who died a.d. 1500. — No. 12 in the
description.

Dean unknown, hitherto ascribed to Dean Borew but a
century earlier in date. Of this effigy an engraving is
given. — No. 18 in the description.

Nos. 18, 21, 33, effigies of Deans unknown.

In Brown Willis's Survey of tJie Cathedral, published
A.D. 1727, an ichnography or ground plan is given,
defining the positions of the various monuments as they
then existed. In the ground plan of this cathedral
Avhich appears in the new edition of the Monasticon,
published a.d. 1846, only nineteen of the monuments
are set down, and some of these appear to have been
subsequently re-arranged. In the ground plan in
Britton's History of this cathedral, pubhshed a.d. 1836,
the sites of some thirty-five of the monuments are given.

In Dingley's History from Mai'hle, compiled in the
reign of Charles II, edited for the Camden Society by the
late Mr. John Gough Nichols, a name to be had in
remembrance, and printed in 1867 and 1868, several
rude representations by the author from monuments in
this cathedral, reproduced in fac- simile in photo-
lithography, are given. These consist of the stone work
or pedestal of the slnine of St. Thomas de Cantelupe,
Bishop of Hereford from a.d. 1275 to a.d. 1282, who,
according to Dingley, died at Civita Vecchia in Italy
in 1282, and whose remains were translated to this
cathedral. Of the monument in the Lady Chapel
attributed to Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford,
a fact contested, as his remains were not interred in this
cathedral. Of five of the effigies sculptured by the
same artist in the latter half of the fourteenth century,
commemorative of bislioi)S of a much earlier period. Of
the ciligy of Bishop Bennett, who died a.d. 1617. Of



IN HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 409

Bishop Charlton, who died a.d. 1343. Of the monument
and effigy wrongly ascribed to Dean Borew, and of
Bishop Booth, Avho died a.d. 1535. Rude delineations
are also given of some of the incised brass effigies,
including those of some of the canons, who are portrayed
in the canonical or choral habit, consisting of the surplice,
amess or furred tippet and cope, but none of the
sculptured effigies of deans now in the cathedral are
represented v\'earing the cope.

The brasses in this cathedral were formerly very
numerous, no less than 170 are said to have been taken
away by the Parliamentarians in 1645, and soon after
the fall of the west end in 1786 no less than two tons in
weight were sold to a brazier. At present the number
of brasses, including fragments, does not exceed fifteen ;
on these I have not dwelt.

In Gougli's Sej)idchral Monuments are engraved the
representations of two of the sepulchral arches and
effigies of bishops executed by the same hand in the
latter half of the fourteenth century, commemorative of
bishojDS of a much earlier period, and here assigned to
Bishop Robert de Lotheringa, who died a.d. 1095, and to
Bishop Beynelmus, who died A.D. 1115. Now both these
bishops would have worn the moustache and short crisp
beard, a fashion which fell into disuse about the middle
of the fom^teenth centur}^ The effigies of bishops then
sculptured appear all close shaven.

Of the pedimental canopy crocketted and finialed, and
moulded arch beneath cinque-foiled within and cusj)ed,
over the effigy of Thomas Charlton, Bishop of Hereford,
who died a.d. 1343.

Of the canopied high tomb and effigy of Lewis Charlton,
Bishop of Hereford, who died a.d. 1369.

Of the tomb and effigy of Sir Richard Pembridge, who
died A.D. 1375, depicted with pointed soUerets.

Of the moninnental arch and effigy in the Lady Chapel
with paintings on the back of the arch, wrongly ascribed
to Dean Borew, l:)eing of a date at least a century earlier
than his time.

In Briton's Cathedral Antiquities w^e have engraved
the monument and effigy ascribed, l^ut it is contended
erroneously, to Humphry de Bohun, Ear] of Hereford.



410 ON CERTAIN SEPULCHRAL EFFIGIES

A portion of the monument of Bishop Lewis Charlton.

The monument of Bishop Mayo, and the stone work
which supported the shrine of St. Thomas de Cantehipe.

In Murray's Handbook to the Western Cathedrals are
engraved the stone work which supported the shrine of
St. Thomas de Cantehipe, and the monument of Bishop
Aquablanca.

I now proceed to give my notes of most, if not all, of
the sculptured sepulchral effigies in the cathedral, and I
have taken them in order, commencing with those in the
south aisle of the nave, and going thence round the
cathedral, rather than describing them in a more chrono-
logical arrangement.

1. Between two of the piers which separate the nave
from the south aisle is the monument of Sir Bichard
Pembridge, who died a.d. 1375, This consists of a high
tomli, constructed of alabaster and stone, the sides of
which are covered with quatrefoils, inclosing shields, four
on each side and two at each end. On this tomb is the
recumbent effigy of the knight. This is of alabaster. A
tilting helm and crest supports the head ; the helm is
wreathed above the ocularium witli roses. A conical
basinet, with a camail or tippet of chain-mail, covers the
head and neck, excepting the front of the face, eyes, nose
and mouth ; the armpits are protected by gussetts of
chain-mail, epaulieres, rerebraces, coudes, vambraces and
gamitlets, all of plate, protect the shoulders, upper arms,
elbows, the arms from thence to the wrist and hands,
wdiich latter are conjoined on the breast. Over the body
armour or breast-plate is worn a close-fitting jupon of silk
or linen, escalloped at the skirts and emblazoned with the
same armorial bearings as are displayed round the sides
of the tomb. Beneath the skirts of the jupon appears an
apron of mail. A rich bawdrick or belt, horizontally
disposed round the loins, is buckled in front ; the sword
is gone. Cuisses, genouilleres, jambs, and soUerets, the
latter of overlapping laminos, protect the thighs, knees,
legs and feet. Below the knee of the left leg is a garter,
buckled on the side. Rowel spurs are affixed to the heels
by leatliers, buckled on the insteps. At the feet is an
animal, collared round the neck. The left leg and foot



IN HEREFORD CATHEDRAL. 411

have been restored, but without a sufficient knowledge of
detail, for the new solleret is scidptured hroad-foed, a
fashion which came not in before the close of the fifteenth
century ; it ought to have been pointed. This is an
anachronism to be regretted.

This monument is said to have been originally in the
church of the Blackfriars, and on the suppression to have
been removed to the cathedral. Such removals of monu-
ments from Conventual churches which were suppressed
were not unusual.

In the ground- plan of the cathedral given by Britton,
this monument is represented as placed against the south
wall of the south aisle of the nave, but in Willis's earlier
Ichnograpliy it is set down in the place it now occupies.
It may have been removed at the close of the last century,
on the reparations effected at the west end of the



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