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(Nos. 618, Gl'J) in this catacomb is probably of the third, though the

' Anastasius 51. who coiirirmed my view as to the date of

" On the wall uf this uhanibor was a this catacomb picture. To my surprise

figure of the fourth century of the Goo<l when I went again in 1877 with another

!She]iherd, which I have seen many times. friend t(j shew him the difference between

I'he last time was in 1876 with my fiiend the drawing of the second centixry and

Mr. (Jambier I'arry, wIkj has ]):iid much tliat of tiu; fdurih on the walls, that had

attention to the history of painting, and disaiipcarcd during some recent rcjtairs.


art is very bad for that period. Those in the Capella Gra)ca (No. 612)
in 8t. Priscilla are sometimes chiimed as eai'ly, but are probably of the
sixth century. It 's very doubtful whether there is a single painting
of a religious or scrijjtural subject before the time of Constantine and
the " Peace of the Church." There is one small picture about two
feet square on the Hat soffit of an arch of a tomb (No. 1467),' which
some good judges think maij he of the third century, and this is made
much of by ihe Roman Catholics.

On the other hand, the inscriptions are quite genuine and very
interesting. There are the names — one in Greek, others in Latin —
of four of the popes of the third century in St. Calixtus, and the
numerous inscriptions by Pope Damasus in the fourth century shew
that in his time the legends were believed. But there has evidently
been a great deal of misunderstanding about them, as I have pointed
out. The locality called " The Catacombs" being that in which the
earliest of these underground tombs is found is an important point,
which has been very much overlooked ; that of Pra^textatus seems to
be the earliest, as there is brickwork of the time of Nero (No. 616)
there at the entrance from a subterranean road, which has brick walls
of the first century on each side of it with the burial vaults behind it.
In one instance De Possi discovered that the tomb of a martyr, which
had been originally an arco-solium in the wall of this road, had been
moved and put back to the further wall of a cubiculum or burial-vault
in order thac others might be buried in the same vault with the
martyr, and it is said that large sums were paid for this privilege.
This subterranean road is very curious ; it is not an ordinary sandpit
road, which often is the case, because such a road was very convenient
for ih.e fossores to send away the sand dug out in making these burial
places ; but this has well finished walls on both sides ; it is not more
than twenty feet from the surface, and appears to have been originally
open at the top, as there are well finished cornices on the walls on both,
sides ; it was probably vaulted over in the middle ages, when the
roads were frequently brought up to the level of the ground. But
this fosse way, or hollow-Avay, was preserved as a subterranean road,
apparently going along the valley called Catammhas, from St. Urban's
to St. Sebastian's. At least I have seen that there was an entrance
from a sand pit, very near St. Urban's, which seemed to lead quite
straight in that direction, but this is now closed by a modern brick
wall, and on the other side of that wall the end is completely filled
up with earth, which seems to have been recently brought there,
when excavations were made in the other parts of this catacomb.
There are two flights of steps down into it which would be wanted
when the road was twenty feet deep. One theory is that there was a
sort of promenade at that place, and that the steps led down into it at
one end and up again at the other, but this does not seem very

' If the photugraph from the original appears to me to be over the grave of the

is compared with the very pretty drawing \\ife of a vine-merchant. Under the

of it in Dr. Northcote's book no one would painting when my photograph was taken

suppose that they are meant for the same was the following inscription: —
picture. In the same catacomb is another bonaviae conivgi sanctissimae.

celebrated picture of seven men carrying Since my photijgraph was taken in which

a wine-ciusk, to wliich the Roman Catholics this inscription is legible, it has been

attach a symbolical meaning, but which removed by order of the authorities.


probable. The Via Appia is a fo55se-way between the cemeteries of
St. Calixtus and Prtctextatus, the bank of earth on each side is twenty
feet above the level of the road, the tombs are some on the banks and
others behind them, and an entrance is cut through the bank to the
tomb. This is the case at St. Calixtus, the path is cut to a pagan
tomb, probably that of the familj - of Calixtus before they became
Christians ; a short flight of steps in that tomb leads down to a door
which is not often seen, being below the surface, and which is
rigorously kept locked, but behind the door it is seen that the steps
continue to descend to a considerable depth, and evidently led into
one of the corridors of the catacomb, but all the lower part is
studiously kept full of earth, so that the connection cannot be seen,
and another passage has been knocked through the wall on one side
of the steps, from which there is a steep access to another part of the
catacomb. The present entrance is at the other end of the vineyard
above, and to the catacomb below, so that ladies have to go across the
vineyard in all weathers to the new entrance, when they might just
as well be permitted to enter at the original entrance close to the door
from the road. A man stationed on the bank of the cemetery of
St. Calixtus can see over a great part of that of Prajtextatus on the
other side of the road.

When Dr. Northcote says that all the catacombs are made in the
tufa LiTiioiDA, he goes too far : as regards St. Calixtus, of which De
Rossi has given such an elaboi-ate account, it is true no doubt, and it
was of this only that the Cavaliere Michele Stefano De Rossi was think-
ing when he wrote that part of his brother's book; but Dr. Northcote
has applied it to the whole of the catacombs, which is not by any means
the case. That this particular kind of tufa suited the fossores best is
evident; the sections of that of St. Cyriaca given in plate xxv
of my book shew this plainly, and it is curious to see how the
fossores have deviated to the right or left, up or down to avoid any
hard rock, and used only that which suited their purpose (this
is still better seen in the Historical Photographs, Nos. 1131, 1132,
1133). But the fossores had to make these burial vaults on the
ground that belonged to those who employed them, and in the soil of
that ground, whatever its nature might be ; at least two of the
catacombs are made in claj'', one outside of the Porta di St. Pancrazio,
the catacomb of that name, another is one of the three catacombs of
the Jews ; this is near the tomb of Cecilia Metella on the Via Appia,
on the right hand, just beyond the Church of St. Sebastian, on a cross
road connected with Via di Sctte Chiese ; it is one that is much
neglected, and in wet weather it is hardly practicable to get into it,
on account of the clay which almost fixes j^ou where you stand. If
there ever was a catacomb under St. Peter's on the Vatican Hill, it
must have been in clay, as the greater part of that hill is clay, and the
foundations of that enormous building are recorded to have been
made in clay, and carried to a depth in proj^ortion to the weight they
have to carry. Tliat of S. Pontianus is in alluvial soil.

Dr. Northcote charges rao with inconsistency, because in different
parts of my volume I have spoken of the beds of tiifa in the campagna
as being of a different thickness. He is evidently not aware of the
enormous difference in this respect that there is in nature. In one
instance there is a bed or layer of tufa not more than two or three


inches thick, which runs all through one of the catacombs at the same
level. In other instances these beds or layers of tufa are twenty feet
thick, and in these the sandpit and sandpit roads wore made. The
roads themselves are sandpits in a certain sense ; that is, the tufa that
has been cut out in making the roads when reduced to powder is
Pozzalana sand, and answers the same purpose, and pits were made
in these roads as more convenient. You may follow (as I have done
in parts) a horse and cart along one of these subterranean roads for
miles, and they have been in use for many centuries. The earliest
trade of Eome was the exchange of Pozzalana sand for salt, and
saltpits were made at Ostia by the kings for that purpose. This
peculiar sand is still sent all over the world for iron casting at the
present day ; it was no doubt used for casting hrcnze before the use of
iron. It has peculiar properties that no other sand has, which makes
it specially suited for malving the moulds for casting ; it also makes
the best mortar, from its gritty nature. Tufa varies extremely also in
the degree of hardness that it has attained, and differs equally in
colour and in many other respects I have seen the same tufa wall
appear of a dark colour while it was wet, and quite white when it was
dry, and on the Aventine some of it is red from another pit close by.
Some of it was hard enough to be used as building stone, and was
used in large blocks in the time of the kings ; but the builders were
afraid to trust it to carr}' a weight, as may be seen in the walls of the
Colosseum, where piers of travertine are used everywhere to carry the
superstructure, and the intervals between these piers are filled up with
the large blocks of tufa taken from one of the walls of the kings which
had formed part of the second wall of Pome passing close by, and no
longer of any use at the time that the Colosseum was built. The same
variation may be seen in the natural beds ; the fossores made use of
that best suited for their purpose in the ground that was given to
them for making these burial vaults ; but this was purely accidental.
There was no choice in the matter furtlier than making these vaults a
few feet above or below a certain level, the same bed of tufa being
always at the same level. It was all originally volcanic dust from the
volcanoes on the Alban hills, similar to what overwhelmed Pompeii
from Vesuvius.

That my great work on the Archaeology of Eome, of which the
catacombs forms a tenth part, was dictated by any hostility to
Poman Catholics, as Dr. Northcote assumes, I entirely deu}'. The
work has grown under my hands froui accidental circumstances far
beyond anything that I contemplated when I began it. I saw that the
Archfeology of Jhirraifs Handbook, the best book to be had, was a
generation behind-hand, and I wished to remedy this, and so I was led
on step by step at an enormous expenditure of money to this great
work. I saw the importance of photography for historical objects,
because no one could say that the artist had doctored his drawing to suit
the views of his employer, as is too often done. I saw also that what I
had to explain by the objects that I saw before me would not bo be-
lieved in England, because they were so different from the established
faith on the subject. I saw from the walls before my eyes that tlie early
history of the City of Pome agrees remarkably with the old legends
which English schoolmasters (who have generally adopted the modern
notion that the old legends ere entirchj false) would not believe


either from words or drawings— they may, perhaps, eventually be
convinced by photographs. I have no doubt that truth will prevail
in the end, though I may not live to see it. In like manner for the
early history of the Fine Arts, there is no place like Rome for
examples. For the early history of Architecture the ruins of
Rome give the most important information ; for the history of
Sculpture the collection formed by Winckelman, preparatory to
writing his history, and still preserved in the Yilla Albani, affords the
best information ; and the great collections in the Vatican, Capitoline,
and other museums in Rome, are ecpially important.

For the history of Painting, or rather of Drawing, tliose in the
catacombs are indispensable. They seemed to contradict the general
history of Art, but this was only because peojDle were generally
ignorant of the numerous restorations of these wall paintings. It is
obvious that the date of the actual painting is that of the man who
restored it. I dislike the so-called restoration of some of our medifoval
churches iu England, the sham Gothic that has been so much the
fashion, just as much as the restoration of these paintings. I never
considered that polemics or religious Cjuestions had anything to do
with the matter. The Roman Catholics themselves have always
introduced that element, but the paintings do not pi'ove Roman
Catholicism. I have always maintained that one of the advantages
of Archaeology is that it is neutral ground, and Dr. Newnmn used
to say that the room of the Archroologists was the only neutral
ground in Oxford. Cardinal Antonelli also admitted this neutrality.

I have been into every one of the Roman catacombs at least once,
and in some of them scores of times, and with many different persons
sometimes very well informed. My object was to ascertain the truth
about them, and if three-fourths of the j)aiatings in the catacombs
really are of the eighth or ninth centurj^ I was bound to say so.'
I enquired in the first instance of my Roman Catholic friend what
was the most authentic book to give me the dates of them, and
he told me Anastasius, and from this only I drew out my chrono-
logical table of these cemeteries. To assert, as Dr. Northcote does,
that the name of cemeterinm included all the buildings in a large
burial ground, and that the popes restored those buildings on the
surface, not the burial vaults, is simply begging the Cjuestion.
I can find no such explanation of the word eitlier in Scheller's excellent
Lexicon, or in Ducange's admirable Glossary for mediaeval usage. That
it might include tlie burial chapels on the surface of the ground at the
entrance to the subterranean cemeteries seems probable, only there is
not a single instance of any of them having been restored, they are all
in ruins ; in some cases, indeed, they have been replaced by large
churches, such as St. Agnes, St. Lorenzo, St. Sebastian's, St. Paul's,
but these could hardly be called restorations only, nor do they occur
in Anastasius as belonging especially to the catacombs, though each
of them is at the entrance of a catacomb, and replaces a bui-ial chapel.
The ylrch(Eo]o(jical Journal is very properly not the place for polemics.
I have studiously avoided them, and confined myself to archteological

^ Dr. Northcote would he rather sur- three-foui-ths fif the paintings belonged
prised if he knew who first told me that to that peril nl.

©ti'smal IDarumcnts.

Communicated hy JOSEPH BAIN, F.S.A. Scof.,

In the course of researches for anotlier purpose in the Pulilic Keeonl
Office, several documents relative to Hereford and the Western Coiinties
have come under my notice.

When Edward I was preparing for one of liis expeditions to Scotland
— that of the year 1300, in which, according to Lord Hailes, his army
did little except capture the Castle of Carlaverock on the western marches
— he issued writs to the sheriffs of various counties to supply provisions
to his army at Carlisle by the Xativity of 8. John the Baptist. Seven of
these vrcits have been preserved for that year, and are very curious, the
returns showing the difficulty in meeting the King's wishes. The style
of writ being the same, it is unnecessary to give more than one at length.
Here is the Aviit to Hereford, supi)lying contractions : —

Writ to Herofonl.

" Edwardus Dei gracia Kex Anglie Dominus Hibernie
Dux Aquitanie A'icecomiti Hereford Salutem. Quia ad
salvacionem corone nostre regie comniunem (piare magnatum
et procerum ac tocius popule regni nostre utilitatem ordi-
nauimus et proponimus Domino concedente esse in proximo
festo Xatiuitatis beati Johannis l>aptiste apud Karliolum
cum equis et armis et toto seruicio nobis debito ad proficis-
cendum ex inde contra Scotos inimicos et rebelles nostros
ad corum rebellionem perfidam et nequiciam viriliter et
potenter cum dei auxilio reprimendas ; propter quod neces-
sarie indigebimus tune habere victualia habundantia pro
sustentacione nostra et fidelium nostrorum qui nobiscum
venient et ad nos eciam iljidem dante Domino sunt
venturi : tibi ju'ecipimus firmiter iniungentes quod omnes
mercatores bonarum A'illarum infra balliuam tuam ex jtarte
nostra inducas moneas et requiras quod circiter dictum
festum Natiuitatis beati Johannis Baptiste versus Ivarliolum
contra adventum nostrum et exercitus nostri ibidem victualia
ducant venalia et duci faciant sui alias cariari. Ita quod
ex hoe ipsis mercatoribus grates scire merito debeamus
(juibus fideliter ex parte nostra promittas quod eis pro
victualibus que ad nos et ad predictum exercitum nostrum
ducent sen duci facient plena et prompta fiet satisfaetio




Hereford can
do nothing
in aid,

But Leo-
minster is

indilate et quod in omnibus conscruahuntur indempnes.
Volnmus eciam quod penes certos niercatores de balliua tua
instes sollicite et procures tantum quare facias qnod ipsi
manucapiant et se constituant obligatos quod versus partes
predictas ut predictum est vi('tualia facient venire venalia
in quanta liabundancia potueruiit et valebunt. Et nomina
niercatoruni illorum de balliua tua quos contigitur taliter
obligari nobis circiter festum Pentecostes proximo futurum
niittas liberanda in garderoba nostra. Preterea volumus et
tibi precipimus sicut prins quod de bobus porcis et niul-
tonibus viuis necnon gallinis piillis onis caseo et aliis
liuiusmodi victualibns interim pronideri et ea omnia usque
Ivarliolum contra aduentum nostrum venire facias omni-
niodo. Et lioc sicut te et tua diligis non omittas. Teste
meipso apud Blidam^ xvij° die Januarii anno regni nostre
vicesimo octauo."

[Sheriff's return.]

" Istud Itreuc retdrnatum fuit Balliuis Ciuitatis Hereford
et eciam Balliuis liliertatis Leoministrie qui habent retur-
mnn omnium breuium qui sic respondent.

" Unde Balliui Ciuitatis Herefordie respondent et dicunt
quod ex parte Domini Regis inoniti fuerunt et requisiti
omnes niercatores Ciuitatis predicte prout in brevi conti-
netur set'nullus concessit nee se obligari voluit venienti
[sic] apud Karliolum ut continetur in brevi.
" I'alliui liliertatis Leoministrie respondent et dicunt quod
([uo ad istud breve preceptum Domini Regis in omnilnis et
singulis executi sunt. Ita quod (juidam mercator [de
Leoministria]- Adam Lythewynd nomine se obligauit prout
in breui continetur."

2. Wojre-^ci:

[The King's writ to this shire is similar in its terms and date, and also
dated from Blyth. The Sherilf's return is as follows : — ]
The merchants " Xon sunt alicpii niercatores in balliua mea nisi in
of Worcester Ciuitate Wygornie quos una cum lialliuis predicte
think Carlisle Ciuitatis iuduxi monui et requisiui ad faciendos ea que
too far off. continentur in hoc breui nee inuenio aliquem qui
potens sit aliqua [liuiusmodi] victualia ad partes tarn
remotas cariare nee qui se velit obligare secundum tenorem
brevis. Preterea postquani lireve istud- mihi liberatum
And the fuit aliud l^reve mihi transmissum fuit sub privato sigillo

Sheriff has ad eniendum CC quarteria frunienti ad opus Gaylardi de
been obliged Painte (1) procuratoris niercatoruni A^asconie. Ita quod de
to expend all bobus porcis multonibus viuis et aliis in hoc brevi nomi-
his funds natis nicliil facere possum pro eo quod expendi omnes

under anijther denarios de lialliua mea qualitercunque exeuntes in emp-
writ. cione dicti bladi."

' Blyth in Nottinghamshire, a well-
no^\■n halt on the route for the border
of Scotland.

~ Interlineation.


3. Sal(}i) and Staffurd.

[The King's writ to these shires, tlien a])pareiitly under one Sheriff,

is similar, from the same place, and of same date. The return here is : — ]

" Istud breve miclii liberatum fuit die Lune proxima

ante Festum Ascensionis^ Domini per Petrum de Gorettona

(?) clericum Tliome Corbet nuper vicecomitis et receptoris

The Sheriff breuiunL Et que adeo tarda ad me A'enit ])lenam execu-

appears to cionem inde facere non potui. Et nichilominus inducere

have been monere, et requirere feci et procurare Johannem le ]\Iares-

activc how- chald de Stafford. Hu,L,fonem Heruy de eadem. Hugonem

ever, and to de Holond de eadem. Robertum le Barbor de eadem.

have done Stephanum de Brochols de Bromk (?) Radulfum Drambul

his best. de Tamwortlr. "Willelmum Steel de eadem. Radulfum le

Blak de Xouo Castro subtus Lymam, et Robertum atte

Brok de eadem secundiim tenorem brevis."

In tlie following year (twenty-ninth of his reign) Edward again led an

expedition into Scotland, this time by the way of Berwick on Tweed

and the Eastern ]\Iarches. A muster roll and i)ay sheet of the army

(})0ssibly only a i)art of it) is preserved among the Exchequer Miscellanea

in the Public Record Office, which is very interesting.

The men, with the exception of a few cross-bowmen, and about foity
" cementarii" and " minerarii," Avith twenty-two " hobelarii" of the
Forest of Jedburgh (doubtless native troopers acting as scouts of the
force) were^ nearly all archers on foot, their commanders only being
mounted. They Avere raised in the five Avestcrn counties of Hereford,
Worcester, Salop, Stafford, and Gloucester — from " Diverse counties,"
not specified — and from the great counties of York and Northumberland,
which tAvo shires, Avith contingents from " the Bishop of Durham's men"
of Tynedale, " the Earl of Anegos' men" of Redesdale, and Foresters of
Knaresborough conmianded by a Bp'on, furnished considerably more than
half of the Avhole force of somcAAdiat under 7000 men. No regular
cavab-y appear in this roll. Lord Hailes, in his Annals of Scotland
(sub ann.) says that EdAvard Avintered at LinlithgOAv, where he built
a castle, and v)kcre his cacalry suffered sece rely from the iceatlier and the
searcity of foraye. For this he cites Fordun as his authority. Yet on
looking at the neAV edition of that historian, by W. F. Skene, ll.d., I find
the building of the "Peel of Linlithgow" is noticed, but not a Avord
about caA'alry. From the line of march Avhich the king took, by Selkirk,
Peebles, and Cambusnethan to the Avest of Scotland, A\diere he arrived
in the end of August,' lieaA-y cavalry could not haA'c acted, and I should
think there Avere none Avith the army, though they may have joined
afterAvards by another route.

The small force too, by Avhich the Scots Avere at this time held in
subjection, is worthy of notice. For Ave have been accustomed to read of
such enormous numbers on both sides in previous and subsequent years,

^ Asceusiun Day in a.d. 1300 fell on few miles down the vale of Clyde to

19tli May. The Sheriff had little time Both\\-ell Ijy the 6th September. Their

to make his return before Whitsunday. march Avas thence northwards to Donypas

2 The army was paid at thclast named on the River Carrun, where they Avere

place ou 1 8th Augvist; they only got a paid on 29th September.



that this autheniic ivill of an English army, commanded also by the king
in person, is most valuable.

There is no doubt that Ed^vard Avas there, for tAventy picked men, some
of whose names arc given, are specially detailed as the " Royal Body-
guard " and received an increase of pay.

Hereford commences the muster roll Avith 5 officers and 351 men.
Worcester folloAvs Avith 3 otticei's and 340 men ; Salop, with 6 officers and
516 men ; Staftbrd constitutes 5 officers and 346 men ; and Gloucester,
2 officers and 225 men. The mounted otiicer's pay Avas 12d., a corporal's
id., and a private archer's 2d. per diem.^

(Extracts. )


BereAvicum super

"l)e Comitatu

' De comitatu

L)e comitatu

" Solucio facta peditibus
TAvedam xiio die Julij.

" Willelmo Waryn constabulario cum erpio cooperto
et Ixxix Sagittariis peditibus (pioruni
(juatuor vintenarii

" WilleluK^ DoA'^eros, constabulario cum equo cooperto
et Ixi sagittariis peditibus .

" Thome Pichard constalndario cum (iC\\xo cooperto et

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