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soil cut through Avas all made ground, and seemed to be the fiHed-in
rubbish of A-arious ages. At the bottom aa^s found a layer some inches
thick of burnt Avood and ashes, as if it Avere the result of a conflagration,
for Caerleon seems to haA'e been, like all other Roman toAvns, destroyed
by fire Avhilst in the occupation of the Roman inhabitants; probably by
the natiA^e population of the countr}^ Avhen the Roman poAver became
Aveak. Li this thick bed of so filled-in rubbish Avere found numerous
fragments of black pottery, ornamented Avith scored patterns, coarse red
Roman pottery, fragments of amjjhone, fragments of mediteval red pottery
Avith green lead glaze, fragments of bronze fibidie and pins, bone pins and
needles, and a A'er}- pretty bronze figure of a game cock, A\ith its coiid),
and spurs and Avattles neatly iinished and in good p'reseivation ; a


portion of ii bowl of lu'own i^aiid coloured glass, iiiieriially coated with ^liitc
enamel, and a small fragment of phifo-fjht.^s -wliicli shewed that it was
made by pouring out the mass of liquid or viscid glass on a bed of
sinoothed sand-stone, and flattening it to the required thickness by
passing over it a heavy polished roller, the same process as is used at
the present day ; a very perfect earthenware mortarium, 1 1 in. diameter,
was found, having on the rim the name of the potter, albinus flvgvd.

The principal discovery however was a tessellated pavement, and
wliicli had it been perfect, and had it been possible to remove it,
would have lieen very beautiful, but unfortunately the narrowness
of the street and the fact of its extending under the Avails of
the houses rendered such an operation impracticable. The excavation
however came across the corner of it, and as it was the pavement of a
large square chamber, we were enabled to uncover so much of it as to show
what the size of the chamber must have been, and the design and pattern
of the mosaic work. In the course of these operations the workmen
Ijroke through a wall, on the inner surface of which they found plaster
"with traces of coloured painting. They then came upon a level surface
of Avdiite tesser?e which proved to be a portion of a very elegant tesselated
pavement of large size. In consequence of the narrowness of the street,
it was not possible to clear a very large surface, but under the careful
superintendence of a gentleman present the workmen were enabled to
cx])ose sufficient to show that they Avere near the centre of a chamber,
and so to render it possililc to construct a plan of the Avliole. The
pavement Avas terribly broken, for the pillars of the hypocaust beneath it
had giA^en Avay, and the Avliole Avas crushed into the cavity below; but
under the same superintendence the fragments of the paA'ement Avere
carefully collected and brought out, and are noAV deposited in the
basement storey of the museum at Caerleon, placed as nearly as
possible in their proper positions, and so retained by haA'ing cement
run into the interstices betAveen them. As has been said, it Avas
not possible to enlarge the excaA'ation laterally, but on continuing the
cutting along the middle of the street the Avorkmen came upon a portion
of the border at the further end of the chamber, Avhich sheAved that
the pavement must have been a large one, and the chamber about 34 ft.
square, a room of considerable size.

The ground of the pavement seems to have been composed of Avhite
tessera^, having on it a light open design in bright colours, dark greyish
green, red, and yelloAv, Avhich in combination Avith the Avliite produced a
brilliant effect, the colours being very A'ivid Avlien first Avashed. The
border Avas formed Avith bands of the dark colour, red and Avhite, and
Avithin this Avas a large circular Avreathed band of light open design. In
the corner spandrels Avas a curious pear shaped (jbject, Avith curA'ed leaA'es
forjned Avith the dark tessera^, interspersed Avith other colours, but Avhat
it Avas intended to represent I cannot say. Within the circle Avas another
S(|uare of coloured bands, and Avithin that again a series of concentric
circular scrolls, l)ands, and Avreaths liaA'ing designs in colours in all the
S([uare and circular s]iandrels. Wliat the central design Avas has not
been found, but from the small size of the central circle, it coidd not
liaA^c been large. Tlie ]i]an and draAving give an excellent idea of Avhat
Avas discovcriMl, ami shew that Avhen perfect it must have been extremely
brilliant and eireciive, [or when the dirt Avas first Avashed olf the colour


aiiil cmitrasliug Inuids were strikingly viviil ami otl'ectivc. It is im-
possiWe to conjecture to Avliat building tlii.s pavement may have belonged,
but, from the large size of the chamber, it must have been a portion of
one of the principal houses of the town.

Mr. ]\[oRGAX also exhiliited a tile bearing the arms of Henry of
T^aucuster, second son of Etlmund Earl of Lancaster, second son of
Henry III, viz. : Gu. three leopards or, a label of three points az, each
(charged with three fl(;ur-de-lys or. Befijre he became Earl of Lancaster
by succeeding his brother, he bore the arms of England differenced l)y a
bendlet dexter. This was one of the earliest instances of a bendlet used
as a mark of cadency. The tile measured Sin. square by |in thick.

]\Ir. jMorgax also exliibited and gave the following notice of a book
said to have Ijelonged to Queen ^Vnne of Denmark : — A small book in a
riclily embruidered cover, containing the Ten Commandments, the Lord's
Prayer and the Creed, all finely wrought in iieedlework with silk on fine
la-\vn, in imitation of Black Letter printing. The extract from the
twentieth chapter of Exodus, containing the Ten Commaiulments, is not
from the authorised version, which was not printed in 1611, but from an
earlier translation, which was called Cranmer's Great Bible, and was
printed in 1539. I have in my possession an extremely rare copy of this
Bible printed in 1553. In the title page it is called "The Bible in
Enghsh, according to the translation of the Great Bible, 1553." The
type is very small Black Letter, and the chapters are not divided into
verses. I have compared this extract Avith that Bible, and the words arc
exactly the same. This fact therefore seems to shew the date of the
little book, which must have been worked before the publication of the
authorised version in 1611. It was therefore cotemporary Avith Anne of
Denmark, Queen of James I, and the traditional history of its having
belonged to her in the family which has possessed it, may well be
credited. The liook is the property of Mr. F. Moggridge of Caerleon, in
whose family it has been long preserved.

The meetmg was further indebted to ]Mr. jMorgan for the exhibition
and the folloA\dng description of the pedigree of Sir William ^Morgan,
of Tredegar ; —

The history of this Pe<ligree is unkno-\\ai. It was made in 1633, by
one "Walter Hopkins of Brecon, but who he was I cannot find. Xor does
it appear whether it was made for Sir "William, Kt., who was owner of
large estates in the counties of Monmouth and Brecon, and a personage
of importance in those counties, or simply by some friend on that account.
He was ninety years old in 1650, and he married a daughter of the
Admiral Sii- AViUiam Wynter, of Lydney. Had it been made for him,
it is strange that it should not have been among the Tredegar family
papers and pedigrees, of which there are several, some earlier and some
contemporary, and apparently some by the same hand.

The Pedigree is arranged in twenty parallel colunuis, at the head of
each of which is the name and coat of arms of the gi-eat personage from
whom the descent is traced, and at the foot is the name of Sir AVilliam
j\Iorgan. These descents are for the most part traced down to Lurd
Audley, whose daughter is represented as wife of Lord "\Miittney, whose
daughter Joan, or Jane married Roger "S'aughan, of Talgarth, in county
Brecon, and their daughter Elizalieth married Thomas ^Morgan, of Machen,
1 u the county of ]\loumouth, grandfather to Sir AVilliam Morgan. But


neither tliis Elizabeth nor either of the other ladies mentioned, through
Avhoni the descent conies doAvn', Avere heiresses or representatives of their
re^ipective families, and therefore transmitted neither estates nor quarter-
ings, and not one of these here given was ever borne by Sir William
INIorgan or his descendants.

The personages from whom the descents are traced are as follows :

I, Edward I, King of England ; 2, Alfonso, King of Castile ; 3, lulward

II, King of England ; 4, T'hilip, King of France ; 5, Edward III, King
of England ; 6, Peter, King of Spayne ; 7, Edmond Langley, Duke of
York ; 8, "NYilliam, Earl of Henault ; 9, Edmond of Woodstock, Earl of
of Kent ; 10, Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent ; 11, Edmond Holland, Earl
of Kent ; 12, Eichard, Earl of Arundel ; 13, Roger Quenty, Earl of
Winchester; li, William, Earl of Ferrers ; 15, Lord Wake ; 16, James,
Lord Audley ; 17, Walter Devereux, Lord Ferrers of Churtley ; 18,
Ralph, Lord Boteler-; 19, Robert, Lord Whittney ; 20, Thomas, Lord

" This pedigree is a good illustration of the practice of ostentatious
]iedigree making which prevailed in the reigns of Q. Elizabeth, James I,
and Charles I. It probably took its rise from the researches which Avere
made in the time of Henry VII, to ascertain the Tudors' descent, and
was afterwards revived in the time of Edward VI, when a great stir was
made to draw out the Herbert pedigree, on the creation of the second
Earl of Pembroke, to shew his from the Chamberlain, or, as some say,
the natural son of Henry I, thus connecting him with the royal line, the
correctness of which, however, although registered by royal authority in
the College of Arms at the time, has been shewn by Sir Samuel Meyrick
not to be quite free from suspicioir when all the evidences are accurately
and carefully examined."

The pedigree is on paper, 7 ft. 5 in. long, liy 1 ft. 3| in. Avide.

By Professok Church. — A silver "cup," 5h inches high, inscribed —
" THE • CVPPE • p'tenyng " TO * RANYNGHAM," and bearing the Nomvich Assay
mark, and a "cover" inscribed — ranyngham a° 1568. The peculiarities
of the ISTorwicli Elizabethan church cups Avere spoken of by J\lr. W.
Cripps, who said that they Avere iuA^ariably short in form and have the
name of the church to Avhich they belong marked on the band round the
boAvl in the place of the Avoodbine pattern of earlier times. The Hall
marks gaA'e the date of this example as 1566-7. ]\Iost of the church j^late
in Norfolk Avas of this period, the Aveight being sometimes added. The
appearance of Mr. Cripps' exhaustive Avork on plate is something to look
forAvard to.

By Mr. Parker. — A stirrup iron found in September 1876, in the Old
Ford at Islip, near Oxford, in excavating for the foundations of a ncAV
bridge over the river Ray. This Avas found, entirely free from rust, about
ten feet doAvn, and appears to have been Avorked by the hammer only.
The sides are bound Avith a flatted gold Avire, the edges of the foot being
gilt in the same Avay and the under side beaten up as if to give more hold
for a mailed foot, or possibly for such a naked or stockinged foot as is
shoAvn on an effigy in TcAvkesbury Abbey. Mr. Fortnum thought it Avas
mediieval, and this opinion Avas l)orne out by the mask head on one side
resembling the label terminations so constantly seen in connection Avith
the architecture of the reigns of the three first EdAvards, and not after.

Mr. Parker also exhibited two iron horse shoes found hi Oxford in


June 1876. Concerning- these objects, Mr. G. A. Rowell lias obligingly
contributed the following account : —

" During the recent drainage -works in Titmouse-lane (leading from the
Canal Wharf to the Old Castle) several iron horse shoes of a peculiar form
were foimd at about fifteen feet beloAv the surface. One, from a sort of
clay not far from the Castle, is bronze-like in ajipearance, and, although
somewhat worn, as bright as if just made ; the others were from a mixed
soil, and are more or less incrusted with it, })ut there is not a speck of
rust on any of them, although it is proljable they had been underground
from Romano-British times.

"From Fleming's exhaustive work on "Horse-shoes and Horse-shoeing,"
it appears that neither the Greeks or Romans, until a century or two after
the Christian era, shod their horses with metal, or, at least, with such
shoes as were nailed to the feet ; but that horse-shoes, similar to those
now in (piestion, have been found, with the well-known celt and other
bronze articles, in Celtic and Gaulic graves on the continent and in Great
Biitain ; all such horse-shoes being small in size and similar in form,
showing that the horses of these regions in those days were diminutive as
compared "with those generally of later times. The quality of the iron of
one shoe has been tested by 3Ir. XeiU, of Corn ]\Iarket-street, Avho states
that is of the ver}' best equality, and such as it W(5uhl be difficult or hardly
possible to procure in the metal market.

" Several persons by whom they have been seen object to the high
antiquity assigned to them, and, from their proximity to the old Castle
when found, hold that they were within the boundaries of the old moat,
thus accounting for the depth at which they were found, and assigning
them to a period not earlier than the Xorman, or i^erhaps that of the
siege of the Castle by King Stephen. Such at fiivst Avere my opinions on
the subject, but on consideration, I believe there are fair grounds for the
opinion that they are of a period long anterior to the Xormans, and
probably preceding that of the Roman iuA'asion.

" Xo objection grounded on the long period since Celtic times can hold
good on tliis question, as the conditions Avhich have preserved these
shoes in the eartli Avithout a spot of rust, during several centuries, Avould,
if continued, haA'e preserA'ed them in like manner during centuries to

" XoAV it appears certain that these Avere not shoes of iK^i-ses Avhich had
died on the spot, either from being killed in battle or droAvned in the
moat, or even thrown into it Avhen dead; as in such cases the shoes A\'ould
have remained attached to the hoof; or, CA'en if it had been possible that the
hoof had completely decayed, the nails Avould still liaA-e been in the shoe,
but of the Avhole of the ten or twelve Avhich Avere found only four had a
nail in them, and these one only. Doubtless horse shoes in early times
Avere far too A'-aluable to tlirow aAvay, and some of those found have only
been Avorn in a very slight degree. They were not found together, as if
lost in the Avater by accident, but were here and there, some in the lane,
others beneath ^Messrs. "Ward's coal wharf, and tAvo, at about the same
IcatI, some feet beloAv the bed of the riA''er Avhere the ii'on tunnel is laid
beneath it. It can hardly be imagined that the castle moat extended to
this distaiRc.

"The question, then, is, " Hoav are Ave to accoimt for horse shoes being
deposited as these Avere found ? " One Avas in clay, and had at the time,


and still ha?*, a liright polisli on the wlirtlo of tlio surface; it was fully
imbedded, and it is difficult to coiiceive how this coiild have come about
at a distance of several feet below the surface of water, as a horse shoe
tlu'OAvn into it would sink to the bottom and rest on the clay, but not
become imbedded in it. The other shoes, although equally free from
rust, were more or less incrusted in hard concrete of coarse drift sand.
My own opinion is that the shoes were cast (or lost) off horses' feet in this
place, which (I believe) was the bed of a water course where in dry
seasons horses went to drink, although probably in wet seasons it was a
deep and rapid river. With such conditions we may understand how a
horse treading on clay might leave a loose shoe imbedded in it ; and how
the other cast shoes, left in the shallow water, were lost to sight at the
time, bemg afterAvards covered over by the drift from a rapid stream in
flood times, the gravel or sand becoming concreted by the deposit of lime
from the Thames water. To fairly consider the existence of such con-
ditions, we have only to imagine what Avould l)e the state of the country,
even now, if the whole of the locks, mill-dams, railway obstructions,
bridges, &c., were altogether away. The floods might at times be sudden
and tremendous, the rivers furious torrents, while in dry and hot seasons
the water courses, except in the deepest parts, Avould be empty and dry.
Such, doubtless, Avere the conditions in England in Celtic times, and
from the whole of the circumstances under AAdiich these shoes Avere found,
I am decidedly of opinion that they are of that period.

" Much could be advanced on the small size of these shoes, shoAving that
they could not have been fit for Avar horses of Norman or later times ;
and also on facts in proof of the diminutive size of those of early British
times. Those points, however, I will pass over, as my purpose is not so
much to prove the great anticp;ity of the shoes in question, as to direct
attention to the state in Avhich the outskirts of Oxford have been in past
times, and to suggest that a record should be kept of objects Avhich liaA^e
been found, and the nature or conditions of any remarkable character, in
the earth through aa-IucIi the drainage excaA^ations haA-e been made. Such
a record Avoidd not only be interesting, from an antiquarian point of A'icAV,
l)ut might 1)0 A'aluable as regards future Avorks Avhich may have to be carried

"The horse shoes have been sent to Chatham for the inspection of
Captain Fleming, r.e., author of the Avork on " Horse-shoes and Horse-
shoeing," and I have been favoured Avith a letter from that gentleman, from
Avhich the folloAving is an extract : — ' There can be no doubt as to the
great antiquity of the shoes. They are exactly the same pattern — nail
holes, calkins, Aveight, and about the same size, as those found Avith
British and Roman remains in this country ; also they are identical AAdth
shoes I have had from Alesia, in France, found in Gaulish graves, as aa^cII
as from Rhine grave-yards and from Belgium."

Mr. RoAVELL compared these Oxford horse shoes (Avhich ha\'-e been
deposited in the Ashmolean Museum and classed as British) Avitli some of a
precisely similar kintl found some years ago, Avith Roman remains, in
Gloucester. (See Fleming, ]>. 253). In 1864 an iron horse shoe of an
entirely different type Avas found Avitli tAvo bronze fil)ul;e, })ottery, and the
umbo of a shield, together Avith many skeletons, all of the Romano-British
jieriod, on Coneybury Hill at lloldenby in North anq)tonshire.

Mr. Donald Baynes exhibited three iron horse shoes found in April


1877, at Lk'ptb.s varyiiiLi,- from 18ft. to 24ft. l)elow Trinity liigli watermark,
in excavating for a graving dock at Poplar, Isle of Dogs. The illustration
represents tliat found at the greatest dej)th.

By the kindness of Miss Eden, ]\Ir. Sodex Smith exhibited some
fragments of ancient Indian pottery, stone arroAv-lieads and a "bark
peeler," from mounds in Florida and Utah.

By Mrs. Frederick Mead. — A watch made by Xat. Chamberlayne,
wlio was admitted a member of the Clockmakers' Company in 1G83.


August 7 to August 14, 1877.

The desire was expressed some years ago, by many persons who take
warm interest in the work of the Institute, that it should A'isit Hereford,
one of the few cathedral cities that still remain unexplored by the Society.
The cordial assurance of the warm encouragement that such a visit "would
receive from the Bishop, the Dean and Chapter, the Municipal authorities,
and the leading persons in the city and county was indeed Ijrought before
the members at the Meeting at Bury St. Edmund's in 18G9. But the
prospects of the Institute in tliis charming neighbourhood had then been
lately, in a way, checked. For the Caml)rians liad crossed the l>order in
1868, and, Avith no disposition to dispute with our learned Itrethren the
debateable ground of the ^larches of Wales, it apjieared that the suitable
time for a visit to Hereford had not yet arrived. Five years later the
British Ai'clueological Association made Hereford their head quarters, and
in tlie mean time the Institute have been Avelcomed and have done good
work in other parts of the kingdom, notably at Ripon and Exeter. The
kind renewal of the invitation from Hereford, that the Institute should
pay a visit thus long contemplated, was an earnest of the cordial reception
which it received on the far famed l)anks of the AVye.

Tuesday, August 7.

The members of the Town Council assemWed at the Guildhall shortly
l)efore ten o'clock to proceed in .state to the Free Library, to i)resent an
address of welcome to the Institute. The Mayor (Mr. P. Ralph) wore
his robes and chain of oitice, and was accompanied by the Aldermen and
Councillors, several of the magistrates, the clerk of the jie.icc, tlie
sword and mace bearers and nearly all the city officials.

On arriving at the Free Library the ^trocession was conducted to the
AVoolhop)e Club Room, and the Maj'or took the presidential chair. The
Corporation officials then left to escoit to the room the President of tho
Institution, Lord Talbot de Malahide, who was accompanied by the Rev.
Sir Talbot Baker, Bart., Mr. Fairless Barber, the Rev. C. W. Bingham,
Mr. M. H. Bloxam, INIr. D. Laing, the Rev. J. Lee Warner, the Rev.
C. R. jNIanning, Sir John INIaclean, the Rev. J. Fuller Russell, the Rev.
Prebendary Scarth, Sir G. Gilbert Scott, the Rev. F. Spurrell, Mr. S.
Tucker, Rouge Croix, and many other members of the Council and of



the Institution. Among others present were the Lord Bishop of
Hereford, and a large assemblage of the clergy and gentry of the to^v^^
and neighbourhood. The proceedings commenced by the Mayor inviting
the noble President of the Institution to take the chair and calling upon
Mr. F. Bodenham, Clerk of the Peace (acting for Mr. J. Carless, jun.,
who was absent in consequence of a domestic bereavement), to read the
following address of welcome :

To the President and Members of the Royul Archceologieal Institute of
Great Britain and Ireland.

We, the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of Hereford, in Council
assembled, desire most cordially to welcome you on the occasion of the
lidding of the thirty-thinl anniuil congress of the Institute m this city.

Hereford has a history dating back to the time of the ancient King-
dom of Mercia, and the see of Avhich it is the cathedral city is now
upwards of one thousand years old.

The proximity of Hereford to the Marches of Wales rendered it a place
of importance during the troublous times through which England in its
earlier history passed.

The district Avhich is included in the dilferent excursions during the
ensuing Aveek offers a large and varied field of research to the archaeologist ;
and we look, therefore, with confidence to the congi'ess of 1877 being not
the least successful and not the least important in the results which shall
have been obtained of the many annual meetings Avhich have been held
by the Institute.

It is only of late years that there could be shown to be any connection
between a municipal corporation and arcluoology, but thanks to recent
legislation, Ave can noAV say that there is, and that Ave in this city haA^e a
practical proof of that connection by the existence of our Pree Museum
maintained and supported out of the pul)lic funds.

It is to archiyology Ave are indebted for a large and interesting portion
of the collection Avliich is noAV in our museum, and it is to the archae-
ologist Ave must look for its further enrichment, and the addition of
objects of interest for exhibition and instruction.

One of tlu! important features of the present day, as contrasted Avith
times past, is the manner in Avhich the ministers of all tlenominations
identify themsch^cs Avith our principal scientific and literary societies ;
and it is a matter of congratulation to us to find our esteemed Diocesan
presiding at the congress, because his acceptance of the ofiice of president
shows not only Avhat importance he attaches to the extension of historical
and anti(piarian knoAvledge, but also hoAV ho appreciates the district in

Online LibraryBritish Archaeological Association. Central CommitThe Archaeological journal (Volume v. 34) → online text (page 47 of 54)