British Archaeological Association. Central Commit.

The Archaeological journal (Volume v. 34) online

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Avliich he has been called to occupy so high a }>osition.

Given under the Corporate Common seal of the City of Hereford, this
2nd day of August, 1877.

Joseph Carless, Jun., Town Clerk.

In presenting the address to the President the Mayor said : —

"My Lord Talbot, my Lord, Ladies and Gentlemen, —

"In the name of the citizens of Hereford, I have very great satisfaction

in oli'cring you a hearty Avelcome to this city of Hereford, Avhich has

deservedly obtained the epithet of ancient ; and as it possesses that (Epithet

it Avill, I have no doubt, afibrd you a very interesting field for your


in(|uirics, and I sincerely trnst wc may he Llessed Avith fine -weather
ami that when your ramljles through this beautiful county are complete,
you will have no reason to regret having selected the city of Hereford as
your place of visit on the present occasion."

LoKD Talbot de Malahide said: It affords me and (uir society great
satisfaction to meet with a cordial welcome such as is now tendered us by
the Corporation of the city of Hereford. AVe have visited, T may say, all
the cathedral towns in England ; but this is the first time in our general
body that our society have made Hereford their head-( quarters. I am sure
the meeting will be a very agreeable one, and tliat we shall derive a great
deal of information during our progress and by the papers Avhich will be read
by the local antiquarians ; and on the other hand perhaps we may be able
to communicate some information to those gentlemen win > have not roamed
much out of this district. The advantages will be mutual, and that is one of
the great benefits of these gatherings. Independent of this I am delighted
to see this Corporation attacliing so much importance to the antiipiity of
the city and to those monuments of which they ha\'e so much reason to bo
proud. I trust it will be an incentive to them to retain that feeling,
and to resist any of those vandaHc attempts to destroy buildings and
monuments to which so many associations are attached in future time.''.
Some years ago there was no value whatever attached to aji ancient
buildmg ; in fact people all vied with each other who should destrtjy and
Avho should spoil. But those times I trust are gone by, or nearly gone
by, and it will be a very unportant thing to have the different
Corporations assisting us in the work of staying this evil spiiit. I
must again express the gratification we feel at the great honour you have
paid us. Before I sit doAvn you will allow me to introduce to you the
President of this meeting. Yo\r are all well aAvare of the great and
estimable qualities of your Avorthy Diocesan,, and I am sure you will
Avelcome him as President. You are all acquainted with tjie great
amenity with Avhich he receives all pei'sons presented to him, and with
whom he comes in contact ; and I am sure he Avill make a most excellent
president. At present he is exceedinglj' as to his archaeological
attainments. I have no doubt he Avill find in the course of his presidency
that upon a great many subjects of which he professes now to be ignorant,
he already had information. In fact a great number of peojjle have
hardly a clear idea of Avhat archa?ology means. INIany of the things
Avhich they suppose to be very mysterious aa'c f(nmd to be not so puzzling
as they imagined Avhen they come to examine and discuss them, and
they find that they can take interest in them. I am sure that in the
Bishop of Hereford Ave shall haA'c a most excellent and Avorthy president ;
and, therefore, Avithout any further Avords, I beg to move that the Lord
Bishop of Hereford do take the chair as our president during this meeting.

^Ir. R. Hereford said : On behalf of the magistrates of this county,
of Avhom I happen to be an old member, and on behalf — I think I may
say of the country gentlemen generally — I assure you there is a great
feeling of gratitude to the Institute for haA'ing chosen this part of the
world for their present meeting. I may say that the body generalh' of
the county gentry do feel A'ery Avarmly the interest of the Society.
They, I think, are proud of their county and of the objects Avhich it may
and can present to the Institute for inspection. The Aveather at present
is rather unfortunate, but I do hope it will be fine, and that all Avill be.


highly sati^lird ^^•ith the excur.sioii.s in the country ; that all will he
pleased Avith the various objects of interest with which they Avill meet,
and that the}' will leaA'e this county imju'essed with pleasant recollections
of their visit.

The IJisiiur of Hekeford liaAingbcen })laced in the chair, then rose and
said : Mr. Mayor, my Lord, my Friends and Neighbours, — "WHien Lord
Talbot was good enough to mention to you as he did just noAV that I had
considerable diffidence as to my accpiaintance Avith archa?ology, he did me
no more than justice ; but at the same time he put me some little at my
ease Avhen he told us that there Avere many people in the Avorld Avho did
not knoAV A^ery much Avhat archaeology was. I am one of those unhappy
persons, and I think Lord Talbot Avill bear me Avitness Avlien I say that
Avhen he did me the honour of asking me to ruidertake the highly
responsilde office of President of this meeting at Hereford, I assured
him that if it Avas to invoh'e an arcluvological speech I must respect-
fully bog to decline it, for I do tliink very sincerely that for a man to
stand up and talk upon a subject of Avhich lie really knoAvs nothing, is
n<.)t only a A'ery serious inconvenience to himself but an insult to those
Avho have to hear him. So it was with A'ery considerable apprehension
that I received a pajjcr, a copy of Avhich I hold in my hand, informing
me that at ten o'clock this morning I Avas going to giA^e an " Inaugural
Address," for I thought " It is impossible : What am I to say 1 I have
told the President that I really and truly do not knoAV anything about
archoeology. What can I say Avhich Avill at all come under the designation
of an inaugural address?" I'erhaps the last sentence of the address Avhich
the ]\Iayor, Aldermen, and citizens of the City of Hereford haA'e presented
to the members of the Institute Avoidd furnish me Avith a text on
AA'hich I might say just a hw Avords by way of sheAving the interest
Avhicli I, in common Avith the rest of the clergy, must naturally take in
such a subject as that which the members of this Institute are going
to bring before us during the folloAving Aveek. It is stated in this
address that one of the important features of the present day as contrasted
Avith times past is the manner in A\diich the ministers of all denominations
identify themselves Avith our principal scientific and literary societies. And
I suppose that is meant to draAv attention generally to the fact that the
clergy of the Church of England with the clergy of all denominations do
really and truly Avelcome and take a very great interest in any such Avork
as that in Avhich the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and
Ireland are engaged. In the course of the proceedings Avhich Avill folloAV
our meeting of to-day you Avill have evidences I am sure that the clergy of
the Church of England at all events do take a great interest in the Avork.
Yoii have, for instance, as the vice-president of Antiquities, the Rev. H. M.
Scartb, Hon. Canon of Wells; and as vice-president of the Historical
sci'tion tlic R('\'. .Inlin Jebb, D.D., Canon of Hereford. So I feel I might
])oint to fliese two names, proniinently and immediati'ly connected Avith
our Avoilc during the Aveek, to sIioav that the IMayor and Corporation were
fpiite right in draAving public attention generally to the fact that the clergy
idenlifv themseh'es Avith our principal scientific and literary societies.
"W'Ihmi fhey go on to say it is a matter of congratulation to them
to find iiie i)residing, inasmuch as my accejitance of the office of
])ivsi(l('nt shows not only Avhat importance I attach to education
antl historical and antii^uarian knoAvledge, but also Iioav I appreciate


the district in Avliicli I have Ijceu called to occupy so high a position,
that I hope and trust is literally and strictly true. If it were that my
pre^'imis life had iitted me to take a prominent part in the discussions
whirli Avill naturally be held during tliis Aveck, nothing would have given
me ,gi-eati'r satisfaction than to have borne myself in tlie fray as avcII as I
could. But it has not been so; my life has been directed — the principal
part of it — to another sphere, and I am unable to take any prominent
]iart in any archa-ological discussions. But, as president of the meeting,
I assure you whatever I can do towai'ds promoting harmony in our
discussions, and freedom of discussion within the limits which are laid
doAvn for lis by the title of the papers which have to be read and the
sul>jects Avliich arc to be discussed, that I will most willingly and
cordially do. There is an allusion in this very interesting address wliich
has been presented by the Mayor, Aldermen, and citizens of Hereford
to-day, to the district iii which those interested are about to ramble
during the following week ; and I can assure them that whatever interest
may haxo attached to other districts Avhich in prcA'ious years they may
have visited, they wiU find within our county of Hereford, and in the
adjacent counties in wliich they are about to make a foray, many A'aluable
architectural remains and other archaeological associations. \Micn for
instance we find they are about, as part of their proceediiigs to day, to
hear first in this room and then in the Cathedral, from the lips of him
Avhom I think I may without any flattery regard as being one of the
fathers of archceology, — Avhen they hear from his lips a description of the
Cathedral, I feel quite certain that they avlU go away convinced at all
events that the city of Hereford has one building which is worthy of
most careful and diligent study. To morrow, under the guidance of that
same prominent architect, they are priAdleged to visit the churches of
Ludlow and Leominster, and to hear from him a description of the
two churches in these several toAvns, and also from iMr. Clark an
account of that most interesting Castle of Ludlow. That alone, I
say without any hesitation, would amply repay a long journey; and I
am quite certain that they AviU derive very great pleasure and profit
from that visit. On the following day (Thursday) they wiU exercise
tbeir poAvers of locomotion in the city and neighbourhood. On Fridav a
singularly interesting excursion is proposed, through Hapvood Forest,"^ to
Kilpeck Church and Castle, thence to Kenderchurch, EAA^yas Harold
Castle and Church, and Abbeydore Church, to ■\Miitlield ; thence to
^ladley Church, and home by Cleh'onger and Belmont Priorj^ Those of
ns Avho live in the immediate neighbourhood are Avell acquainted Avith the
present condition of Kilpeck Church and the remains of that most
interesting castle ; but seeing that ]\lr. Clark, avIio surely Ave all knoAv is
the man in all England to talk about castles, Avill be your guide on that
occasion, and Avill give an account of the Castle of Kilpeck, that, I am
quite certain, is an inducement Avhich no lover of archaeology aa^UI, if he
can help it, omit to embrace. A nicer drive than that, if the Aveather is
propitious, you Avill not find I venture to say in any part of the Avorld.
On Saturday Ross, Goodrich Castle, and Flanesford Priory AA'ill be
visited. On ]M(jnday again there is an interesting excursion to the
great camp at ]\Iagna Castra, Kenchester, along the Roman road,
crossing Ofl'a's Dyke, ])assing through Garnon's Park, visiting Byford
and INIonnington Churches, ^Nloccas, BredAvardinc, crossing the bridge


by -way of Staunton-on-Wyc, Norton Canon, througli Foxley Grounds
to Manscll Lacy, Brinsop, and Credenliill Church, and Camp. Now,
will you allow me as president, to assure the strangers Avho are pre-
sent here that the bill of fare which has been proAdded for them on
this programme of the proceedings of the Congress is really and truly a
very delightful one indeed, and that of all the places which I have thus
cursorily mentioned whilst I have been going through the intended
excursions, there is not one that will not amply repay careful and diligent
study. Just for instance, take INIoccas Church. I suppose in that
neighbourhood there are three or four churches of peculiar and singular
interest. You have Kilpeck Church, Moccas Church, and Peterchurch —
three singularly interesting specimens of Norman, of slightly post-Norman,
and possibly in one of them even pre-Norman Avork. But these are points
on which I think it would be impertment in me to dwell, because there
are those present who have made these matters their study, and the
public generally will much rather listen to them than to me, who can oidy
derive such information as I possess at second-hand. I should like to say
with respect to Leominster Church, that that is one of the churches Avhich,
if you will forgive me for saying so, lies most heavily on my heart. It is
a church which ought to be restored ; it is a church which deserves the
most careful study and restoration, and if we may judge from the
way in which the restoration oi the old Norman nave has been carried
out — if we may judge from that, seeing that the progress of the work
has been entrusted to the same eminent architect who carried out the
former work, I feel sure Ave may be perfectly confident that under Sir
Gilbert Scott's auspices, those tAvo naves Avhich now form Avhat Ave call the
parish church Avill some day, if funds are forthcoming, present that aspect
Avhich eA^ery lover of church architecture Avill desire they shoi;ld present.
I hope and trust that at all events one advantage of this visit of the Koyal
Archaeological Institute of Great Britam and Ireland to our county of
Hereford Avill be, that it Avill stir up such a spirit through the diocese that
Ave shall put our shoulders to the Avheel, and, as a memorial, possibly of
the Adsit of this Institute, resolve that Leominster Church shall be
restored. At present the funds are not in a state in Avhich I for one
should like them to be, but I Avon't despair. Whj should II I hope
and trust the good hand of our God is upon us, and he prospering
us, we His servants Avill arise and build. I hope that not only Avill
that magnificent Avest AvmdoAV of the church be preserA^ed, as I knoAv it
Avill, l)ut that those interesting specimens of the ball-floAver ornaments
Avhicli go all round the south side of the church Avill be preserved in all
their beauty ; and that the time will come Avhen the chancel, Avliich you
Avill see is absolutely necessary, Avill be projected from the east ; and that
Ave shall see Leominster at last once more provided Avith church room in
some degree, at all events, commensurate Avith the Avants of the place.
The members of the Institute have a hard day's work before them, and
therefore it Avould be unAvise in me to trespass at any greater length on
their patience, the more so because, as I said Avhcn I first rose, I cannot
pretend that this is in any sense an inaugural address ; that did
not enter into the bargain betAveen mo and Lord Talbot. I Avas
simply to take the chair from time to time at the various meetings,
and t<j do my best to make things pleasant and agreeable to the
various members of the Institute. That I will endeavour to do. I


should like to say on the part of the Cathedral authorities what I am
sure would have Ijeen said more al)ly hj the Dean than hy me if he had
been present. As he is not here, Dr. Jebb will forgive me if for one moment
I venture to make myself a member of tlie Chapter, anil say I am sure
that the Cathedral authorities will welcome you, gentlemen and ladies,
members of this Institute, witli the utmost cordiality, and that they will
show, both by the manner m which they open the Cathedral and it.s
treasures to your consideration, and also by the very interesting lecture
which one of theii- body is about to deliA'er upon a very abstruse subject,
that they as Avell as the Mayor and Corporation and Magistrates of the
county do take very deep and heartfelt interest in the work to which you
devote so much time, and patience, and money. It -svill be my business
as president of the meeting, to place myself at at your service as much as
possible during the week upon which we have entered archfeologically
to-day. I only hope that you wiU command ]ny services in any way in
which you think they will conduce to the prosperity and success of the
meeting. I think it would be an improper thing to say how certain we
are that the member;? of the Institute will be gratified by the way in
vdiich they have been received. "When the proper time comes Lord
Talbot will have a few words to say to you as to the manner in which
the city of Hereford from end to end has received them on this most
interesting occasion.

Lord Talbot de Malahide said, I am sure you have listened with
great attention and interest to this excellent inaugural address of vour
President, and he has she^^^^ most completely by his address that he is
fully competent to go much more into the subject than he imagines. He
has completely borne me out in the few sentences I made before, and I
may say he will make a most suitable President of the meeting.

The Bishop then said that as President of this meeting it became his
duty to inform them that strictly speaking the inaugural proceedinf-s of
of the day had now come to a close. According to the programme, they
Avould meet at twelve o'clock for a far pleasanter object than that which
brought them together in that room. Tliey would meet at the Mayor's
di'jeuner, and enjoy his hospitality. Afterwards yir Cilbert Scott would
give a lecture on the Cathedral.

The Bishop added that Mrs. Atlay and himself would be most
happy to receive members of the Institute at the Palace from eight to

The Mayor's luncheon party took place at the Green Dragon Hotel
under the presidency of his Worship, and numbered about a hundred
and fifty guests. The usual loyal toasts having been given and
honoured, Lord Hampton proposed the health of "the Bishop and
Clergy of the Diocese, and the Ministers of all Denominations," which
was responded to by the Bishop and the Rev. J. 0. Hill. Mr. Evan
Pateshall, M.P., proposed the toast of "the Army, Navy, and Reserve
Forces," for which Major Arbuthnot returned thanks. The Hon. and
Very Rev. the Dean proposed the health of Lord Talbot de Malahide,
who, in returning thanks, spoke of the great pleasure the members of
the Institute felt at their hearty reception in Hereford, and concluded
by proposing the health of the Mayor, whose genial hospitality they
had enjoyed. The Mayor, in responding, alluded to the great loss
that the city had lately sustained in the death of Mr. Townshend


Smith, which had cast a gloom over their proceedings. As the funeral
was to take place in the afternoon he would only propose one more
toast, namely, that of Sir John Maclean, through whose indefatigable
exertions the meeting of the Institute had so happily commenced. A
few remarks from Sir John Maclean brought the proceedings to a

At 2.30 the Historical Section opened in the Woolhope Club Eoom,
under the presidency of Mr. T. Gambler Parry, when Sir G-. Gilbert
Scott read an admirable paper on Hereford Cathedral, ti'eating
minutely and at full length upon the architecture and the historical
features of the building, and illustrating his remarks by plans and
drawings. (This is printed at p. 323.)

At half-past four Sir Gilbert Scott led a very large company round
the Cathedral, pointing out with great lucidity the various parts of the
building which he had referred to in his paper, the reputed shrine of
Bishop Cantilupe receiving a large share of attention. The cloisters
were subsequently examined under the same able guidance, and
finally the crypt, and the company broke up at seven o'clock.

In the course of the afternoon many of the members inspected,
under the guidance of the Rev. F. T. Havergal, the interesting-
Library over the north transept. Here the mss and chained books on
their original shelves excited much attention, and the hearty thanks
of all antiquaries and bibliophiles are due to Dr. Jebb and Mr.
Havergal for the care and labour they have bestowed upon them.

A party numbering nearly 200 ladies and gentlemen were received
at the Palace in the evening by the Bishop and Mrs. Atlay. Here in
the hall, probably built by Bishop Foliot in the time of King Stephen,
Dr. Bull read an able and lively paper on the " Myths and Folk-lore
of the Apple," which brought a long and interesting day to a close.

Wednesday, August 8.

A large party started at 9.20 by rail to Ludlow. The weather was
unpropitious, and Ludlow of all x^laces requires sunshine to do justice
to its silvan beauties. Mr. Clark met the party, which had much
increased, at the outer gate of the castle, and commenced his work by
making the tour of the exterior, taking advantage of the excellent walk
provided for that purpose. He thence pointed out the junction of the
town wall with the castle, the ditch in the upper part of the natural
slope, and the deep rocky ravine of the Teme, which, liefore the
country was cleared of wood and drained, must have been often choked
with trunks of trees brought down by the floods, adding much to the
difficulties of an attack on the Welsh and most exposed side. He
then sliewed Mortimer's tower on the outer wall, an Early Englisli
insertion, with Decorated internal fittings, the Bakehouse tower,
square and Norman, standing on the junction of the outer and inner
wards, the Postern tower and doorway, also Norman, and marking the
junction of the inner and middle wards, and the Curtain wall, the
base of which is Norman. At the north-east angle was seen the
stately height of the Buttery tower, mainly Norman, with a curious
squinch arch containing the outlet of a garderobe, as on the walls of
Southampton and Porchester, and along the same northern part the
wall of the great hall with its long narrow windows and polygonal
staircase turret. Next beyond the hall was seen the magnificent


Garderobe tower, of great heiglit and dimensions, and wholly of
Decorated date, and an addition to the old line of wall. It is named
frora two very large and very perfect shoots which occupy each of its
three faces, at the basement, and mark the purpose for which it was
in part constructed. Beyond this are seen windows of various dates
and patterns, two, low down, with fine Early Perpendicular tracery ;
and above some wretched Tudor or Stuart insertions pertaining to the
domestic apartments, and connected with the remains of the timber
supports of the balconies. Beyond this a Norman rectangular tower
stands at the junction of the walls of the middle and outer ward, and
is succeeded by the outer ward wall, a modern restoration, of which
the ditch has been filled up. Upon this stands another mural tower,
also Norman, which completes the proof that the original castle stood
on the same exterior lines with that at present seen.

Having thus completed the round Mr. Clark entered the outer gate,
of which the ditch is filled up and the drawbridge gone, but the
doorway, Early English or Decorated, seems to be an insertion into a
Norman wall. There is in fact no gatehouse, only a sort of passage
between two lateral walls, not uncommon in Norman castles.

Entering the outer ward, was seen on the left a row of stabling
erected for the accommodation of the Council of "Wales, and further
on the remains of some perpendicular buildings, possibly a chapel,
now walled off from the ward. The ditch between the outer and
middle ward was next crossed by a bridge. The ditch itself has had
its counterscarp revetted with masonry, and its V shaped bottom
made level, like the ditch of Walmer and the blockhouses of
Henry VIII. Attached to the gate were seen the flanking walls
of the old drawbridge. The archway is an early insertion, no doubt
replacing a Norman gate. The gatehouse is Tudor. Probably there
was no original gatehouse, only a doorway in the curtain, as at
Ogmore and Newcastle-by-Bridgend, and at Cardiff,

On the left was seen the Norman keep, a very peculiar structure,

Online LibraryBritish Archaeological Association. Central CommitThe Archaeological journal (Volume v. 34) → online text (page 48 of 54)