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T shaped, with two doors upon the curtain. The original entrance
was on the ground floor, with a mural stair ascending to the first
floor, as at Chepstow, Carlisle, and Bamborough. The basement
was an Early English vault, and a Late Norman addition has been
added to the east side. Mr. Clark was of opinion that the north
side with the turnpike stair were not original. Near the keep was
the Bakehouse tower, so called from a Tudor oven of large size
inserted in its basement. The tower, like one at Porch ester, had origin-
ally an open gorge, to prevent its lioing held, when taken, against the
garrison. Near it is the well, placed most inconveniently, in front of
the Postern tower. Those buildings stand in the inner ward, which
occupies one corner of the middle ward. It is entered by a small
Norman door in the curtain.

Leaving the inner ward by this door, on the left was seen the ruins
of the kitchen, a detached building of ample size and Decorated date,
along on one side of which was part of the old fire-place, and at one
end of it an oven. A door behind the kitchen had been broken into
the inner ward to reach the well.

The interior of the Buttery tower came next, in substance Norman,
and originally open at the gorge, the cross wall at the uj)per level
having been added wlieu the late buttery was built in its rear. Piglit

VOL xxxiv. 3 p



476 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

aud left iu the basement are seen two tunnels leading to chambers in
the Norman wall.

Next to the buttery is the Great Hall, a very fine room, having a
timber floor upon a cellar or store, an open timber roof, now gone,
and in the south side three large windows and a handsome door
opening into the court, the latter by a fine flight of steps. The north
side is the outer curtain, and is pierced by three long, narrow Decora-
ted windows of one liglit crossed by a transom, and looting out upon
the meads of the Corve. There was no fire-place, that last in use having
been constructed by closing the central large window. As at Pens-
hurst, the hall was warmed by a central stove or grate. The gallery
was high up in the east end of the hall, opening from the domestic
apartments, a large and lofty range of buildings, mainly of Decorated
date, with some handsome windows and fire-places at difi'erent levels.
Beyond these, in the north east corner of the ward, is the Norman
tower, with a passage which led to the curtain rampart.

Having thus conducted tlie party through the different parts of the
castle, Mr. Clark closed with the curious circvilar church, the castle
chapel, one of the six round churches known in the kingdom, the
others being the Temple, that at Cambridge, that at Northampton,
one at Maplestead, and the foundations of one on the West Cliff at
Dover. This is late and highly ornate Norman. The roof and
chancel are gone, but the west end chancel arch is very rich, as are
the windows of the nave aud the interior arcade which surrounds it.
Here, notwithstanding the rain, Mr. Clark recapitulated the features
of the castle, gave a sketch of its history, and entered at some lengtli
into its position in the defence of the March, and into the history and
privileges of a Marcher Lordship. Tiie audience, umbrellas in hands,
shewed consummate patience, and the lecture was brought to a close by
an allusion to the interest shown in those and similar historic ruins by
the English speaking visitors from the United States, and to the fact
that in the gate house Butler wrote a part of Uudibras, and in the
great hall tlio JLisque of Comus was first given to the world. A
very cordial vote of thanks to the lecturer was proposed hj the
Bishop of Hereford, and carried by acclamation, when the visitors
moved to the great parish church of St. Lawrence, where Sir Gilbert
Scott had the advantage of a roof over his head.

This noble cruciform edifice consists of a nave of six bays
with north and south aisles, a central lantern and tower, tran-
septs, chancel, south chancel aisle, and a chapel of St. John the
Evangelist on the north side of chancel. The internal dimensions
are 205 feet in length by 80 feet across the nave and aisles,
and 13.5 feet at the transepts: the central tower, Avhich is of good
proportions, is IGG feet high to the pinnacles. Sir Gilbert Scott
drew attention to the slight traces of Norman work in the jambs and
bases of the west door, and of Transitional or Early Englisli substruc-
ture to within one Lay of the cast end of the chancel. The south
aisle windows are Early English, but those of the north aisle are
exactly similar in pattern — two cinquofoil lancets under a cinquefoil
head— to those in tlie central tower of Hereford Cathedral, and many
Herefordshire churclies, altliough unfortunately no date can at present
be ascertained in any instance. In early Perpendicular days the piers
were rebuilt, and the lofty central tower erected, support being ob-



THE 110 YAL ARCHAEOLOCJICAL INSTITUTE. 477

tained by the device of flinging half arches as flying buttresses to the'
tower- piers, across each aisle-end from the transepts, which themselves
liavo flamboyant windows. Tliero were evidences that the recon-
struction of the nave preceded that of the tower. The members then
proceeded to exaaiine the church. The rood loft still exists (as well
as the stairs), and has panelled imitation of groining on its sofiits.
The stalls are flue specimens of fifteenth century wood-carving, and
are ornamented beneath with grotesque carving. The church was
re-dccorated Ijy Sir Gilbert in 1860, when the lauieru- — previously
concealed by a ceiling — was opened out, and the piers straightened.
In the cliapel of St. Johu the Evangelist are three tine north windows,
filled with stained glass, which have been carefully repaired and re-
fitted by Mr. Powell. Two of the windows, which appear to be
fifteenth century in date, represent in several compartments the
twelve Apostles, each with his proper sj'mbol, and composing part
of the Apostles' creed, the rays of inspiration being shed from the
Dove on the head of ^ach ; the tones are quiet and severe, and more
pleaeing in efi'ect than the somewhat earlier third window, which is to
the west of these. Mr. Bloxam called attention to the exquisite
arrangement of the drapery and sculpture of the effigies on the tomb
of Dr. John Brydgeman, who died 1637, and his wife. They were the
work of Fanelli, an Italian sculptor, also employed on the tomb of
Alderman Blacldeach at Gloucester Cathedral. The church is rich
in monuments of the Lords of the Marches ; the stained glass east
window representing the martyrdom of St. Lawrence, and the series
of figures in the fifteenth century revedos beneath are worthy of
detailed study. Some discussion took place with reference to a
singular cavity in the east wall, which was lighted by a lancet tre-
foiled opening, with grated bai-s, of fourteenth century design. Mr.
Bloxam expressed the opinion that it was a treasury or place for plate.
The Heart of Arthur, Prince of AVales, was buried in the chancel.
Some years ago the silver box, in which it was encased, was taken up,
and the Heart found to be double. The case was embezzled by the
sexton, and the inscription on the Avail recording the interment white-
washed over in 1748, and forgotten. Some curious recesses in the
wall of the north aisle excited some discussion, as these features have
been conjectured to have some connection with the interment of Prince
Arthur's heart.

Luncheon was provided in the well-known Feathers Inn. A visit
was afterwards paid by invitation of the Mayor to the town museum,
a well-arranged and cared-for but rather small establishment, con-
taining a series of charters granted the borough by Edward IV ri461),
Henry VIII (1509), Edward VI (1552), Mary (1553), Elizabeth (1596),
James I (1604), Charles I (1628), Charles II (1665), and James II
(1685), some of the earlier ones being admirably illuminated — flint
weapons, natural history, and geological collections, the last being
very complete. The members then returned by train to Leominster,
where the company was met at the station by the i\Iayor (E. Gunnell,
Esq.) Some of the members went in carriages through the town to
the church, the rest taking a shorter cut to it bj' the mill. The
building is now undergoing restoration. Sir Gilbert Scott said
that the church was built by King Henry I, about 1125, for
the monastery dependent on his great abbey at Eeadiug. It



478 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

consisted of a fiue and massive Norman nave with its narrow
aisles — a central tower, an apsidal presbytery or sanctuary east-
wai'd, with a continuous aisle or ambulatory — transepts, and five
chapels ; two projecting from the transepts, two from the ambulatory,
and a lady chapel of considerable size (probably owing its dimensions
to a later date) to the east. The nave has the usual stages in its
height of arcade, triforium, and clerestory. The choir of the monks
was, no doubt, mainly under the central tower, but projected by one
bay into the nave. The use of the nave itself may not improbably
have been shared by the townsmen. AVhetlier it was the result of a
disagreement between the monastery and the town, like that which
led to such disastrous consequences a couple of centuries later, at
►Sherborne, n^e do not know; but in the earlier half, apparently, of the
thirteenth century a remarkable alteration was made in the structure
of the church. The south aisle of the nave was taken down, and a
new nave, fully as large as the older one, was added, side by side
with it, and of such height as to enclose on one side both the arcade,
triforium, and clerestory of the Norman nave. This new nave was
probably used by the townsmen, and in the next century seems to
have been found insufficient ; for, strange to say, they then added a
third collateral nave, of the same size as the others ; so that (the
eastern portions having disappeared at the dissolution) the church now
consists, besides the small north aisle, of three naves side by side of
about equal dimensions ; one of the twelfth, the second (originally) of
the thirteenth, and the third of the fourteenth century. The architec-
ture of the church, the lecturer said, was of the greatest possible
degree of plainness, and it might on that account be attributed to
an earlier age, but, as he said at Hereford, plainness was not proof
of earliness but often of paucity of funds. He wished that the
curtains put up across the arches to screen the work going on at the
other side of the building had been removed to give them a full view,
and in criticising the blocks on the arches, expressed his opinion that
the late Mr. Roberts had in his theory made out a primd facie case.

The members also visited the Town Hall, where light refreshments,
offered by the Mayor, were partaken of, and the maces inspected. In
the Corn Exchange below stood the ancient ducking-stool for scolds,
said to have been used during the last generation, consisting of a
wooden arm-chair balanced on a beam some twenty-four feet in length,
the whole being supported on a stout frame and massive wheels, or
rather circular discs of wood. The ancient Town Hall was also visited ;
it is a fine half-timbered building of great solidity of construction, and
formerly stood in the centre of the town ; some years since it was
moved to an open space near the church, and is now occupied under
the title of the Grange House, as a residence, by Mr. Moore.

The arrival of the party at Hereford shortly after six o'clock
brought an eminently successful day to a close.

In the evening the Antiquarian Section met in the Woolhope Club-
room, when the President, Sir W. Guise, Bart., gave an address ou
the arcliceological results of the past year.

No such year of success in all branches of archa)ological research as
this had occurred previously within the speaker's remembrance.
Eoferring lir.st to the excavations made at Olympia, where the site of
th« groat Temple of Zous, described by Tausanias, had been



THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 479

disinterred under the superintendence of Professor Von Ciirtius,
of Berlin, the discoveries of Dr. Schliemann were alluded to,
regret being expressed that the learned doctor had done but scant
justice to his precursors in the field of Troy — notably to that of
Charles Maclaren — in his published work and in his addresses before
the learned societies of London. Whether Dr. Schliemann's finds
were really those of the treasures and tomb of Agemmenon and his
companions must still remain a doubtful question. The discovery of
an ancient Etruscan sepulchre, rich in jewels and gold, in a field at
Palestrina during last year, had more than passing interest iu the
controversy as to the origin of the Etruscan language. Amongst the
contents of the tomb was a silver tazza, exhibiting in its ornamentation
the same mixture of Egyptian and Assyrian styles as tliat upon a
tazza from Cyprus and another from Salerno. It was interesting to
observe that all the archaic remains found in Cj'prus, Salyons, Ilium
Novum or Hissarlick, Olympia, Mycence, and perhaps the tombstones
of the second period at Bologna, have a general resemblance in style
and ornamentation. Antiquarian and linguistic science had sustained
an irreparable loss by the removal from amongst us of Mr. George
Smith, of the British Museum. He seems to have discovered the site
of Carchemish, a chief place of the once powerful Hittite people, who
have been claimed by Mr. Hyde Clarke as the ancestors of the
Etruscans.

The Peesidext further suggested that each member of the Institute
might do something to aid in the onward march of ai'chaic science by
accurate observation in his o^n neighbourhood, and most of all by
aiding in the conservation of ancient monuments. For this latter
object he hoped that Sir John Lubbock's bill would soon become law,
and that the Institute would share in the honour by using all its
influence to overcome the private and ten-itorial scruples to the bill.

The Eev. Prebendaiy Scarth then read a Paper on "The Eoman
Milliaries of Britain," which is printed at page 395, and the meeting
terminated with some remarks from the President on the great work
that remained to be done by the local societies in tracing out the
course of the Ancient Eoman Eoads.

The Eev. E. Hill read a Paper, by the Eev. C. J. Eobinson, on
" Materials for a History of Herefordshire," which is printed at
page 425.

Thursday, August 9.

At nine a.m. the Q-eneral Meeting of the Members of the Institute
took place in the Woolhope Clubroom, Lord Talbot de Malahide in
the chair.

Mr. Haktshorne read the balance sheet for the past year (printed
at page 307). He then read the following

" Eeport of the Col^cil for the Year 1876-7.

" In presenting the Eeport for the past year the Council has much
pleasure in congratulating the Members of the Institute upon the
great success, both arch?eologically and financially, of the last Annual
Meeting at Colchester. In resjDect to attendance by the members and
by the local gentry, from the latter of whom the most cordial hos-
pitality was received, the meeting was eminently satisfactory.



480 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

" The Council would further cougi-atulate the Members ou the
flourishing financial condition of the Institute, as shown by the Balance
Sheet. Two causes have materially contributed to this result — the
unusual amount of the receipts from the Colchester Meeting, and the
successful collection of outstandine; and ovei-due subscriptions.

" The Council is, however, impressed with the necessity for a
watchful economy in expenditure, and to this end, upon a careful
review of the cost of printing the Journal, it has deemed it desirable
to discontinue the employment of Messrs. Bradbury and Agnew as
printers of the Journal, and to entrust that work to Mr. Pollard, of
Exeter, thereby effecting a saving of upwards of £80 a j'ear, the
execution of the work being in every respect as satisfactory as hereto-
fore.

" The General Index to the first twenty-five volumes of the Journal,
for the publication of which the Members of the Institute and others
have for several years been anxious, has been compiled by the late
Mr. Buitt, and some portion of it had been sent to press when the
work was interrupted by his fatal illness and lamented death. The
Council have, however, the x^leasure of reporting that Sir John
Maclean has kindly consented to complete the work thus commenced,
and to state that he hopes to be able to issue the Volume to the
special Subscribers within the present year. The names of additional
Subscribers are, however, earnestly invited to supply the place of
those who have unhappily been removed in the course of the time
during which the work has been in hand.

" With the exception of a temporary interruption arising from the
fatal illness of Mr. Burtt, the work of the Institute has been carried
on and the general meetings held as usual. Of the latter, two meetings
have been of remarkable interest and importance. At the first in
consideration of the great services to archtoological science rendered
by Dr. Schliemann in his discoveries at Mycenco, the Institute had the
gratification of presenting to that distinguished man a diploma of
honorary membership for himself, and also through him a similar
diploma to Mrs. Schliemann, his able assistant in his laborious
investigations. At the second meeting referred to, at which the Duke
of Argyle, the Very Eev. the Archimandrite of the Greek Community,
his Excellency the Greek Charge d' Affaires, Lord Houghton, and the
Eight Hon. AV\ E. Gladstone were present, Mrs. Schliemann favoured
the Institute with a most interesting lecture on the " High Culture of
the Ancient Greeks, the long series of events which contributed to it,
the reasons of its decay, and the advantages of the language of Plato."
In the discussion which followed the above mentioned distinguished
persons took a conspicuous part.

" Mr. Eanking's engagement as Librarian and Secretary having been
terminated, the Council has appointed Mr. Albert Hartshorne and Mr.
William Brailsford as joint Secretaries. To the former has been
assigned the responsible editorship of the Journal, and the latter to act
as Curator and Librarian.

" The Council has already alluded to the great loss the Institute has
sustained in the death of Mr. Burtt, for many years the active
Honorary Secretary of the Institute.

" It is difficult to estimate too highly this loss. From Mr. Burtt's
long association with Mr. Albert Way he had to a considerable extent



THE ROYAL AECHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, 481

ac(iiiirecl the habits of business and the practical knowledge of that
lamented friend of the Institute. The death of Mr. Burtt must
therefore for some time be severely felt by the Institute. It having
come to the knowledge of the Council that Mr. Burtt had left his
family ill provided for, the Council, in recognition of his valuable
services for mau}'^ years, deemed it right to give tlie members of the
Institute an opportunity of conti-ibuting to a fund for the benefit of his
Tvidow and children. This appeal was met by a ready and liberal
response. A sum exceeding £390 was svibscribed, the gi-eater part of
which, at the wish of the family, has been paid to LIrs. Burtt, the
balance remaining for the present in the hands of the Honorary
Treasurer of the fund.

" Among our other losses by deaths of members since the last Annual
Meeting the Council have to lament that of Mr. Talbot Bury. That
gentleman was for many j'ears a member of the Council and a
constant attendant at its meetings as well as at the ordinary meetings
of the Institute. lie was ever ready to aid and assist by his advice,
and his kindly smile and genial manner will long be missed. Although
not a member of the Institute, the death of Mr. Edmund Sharpe cannot
be passed over in silence, and it is seldom that the Council is called
upon in its Annual Report to express regret at a greater loss to the
archreological world. Of his well-known attainments it is unnecessary
here to speak at length. His magnificent work, "the Architectural
Parallels," is unequalled of its kind, and will ever form a monument
to his unrivalled skill and ability. At the Annual Congress at Eipon
the zeal and energj' with wliich Mr. 8harpe entered into the proceed-
ings contributed very largely to the success of the meeting.

'•' In accordance with tlie resolutions adopted at Canterbury in 187o
the Council recommend the election of Mr. E. Oldfield, Sir John
Maclean, Colonel Pinuoy, and Mr E. H. >Soden Smith as Vice-Presi-
dents ; and Mr J. Winter Jones, the Eev. J. Fuller Pussell, the Eev.
11. P. Coates, Sir S. 1). Scott, Bart., Mr. 0. Morgan, Lord Alwyne
Compton, Mr. E. Clutterbuck, the Eev. H. 0. Coxe, Mr. C. T. Newton.
Sir G. G. Sfott, and Mr. G. L. Watson as ordinary members of the
Council. As Auditor in the place of Mr. H. S. Milman the Council
recommend Mr. W. J. Bernhard Smith."

The adoption of the Eeport liaving been moved bj^ the Eev.
C. W. BiXGHAM and seconded by Mr. Faieless Baebek, a letter was
read by Mr. Haetshoene from the Mayor and Corporation of
Northampton, inviting the Institute to visit that town. On the
motion of Mr. M. H. Bloxam, seconded by the Eev. W. Dyke, it
was unanimously carried that Northampton be the place of meeting
in 1878.

Mr. S. J. Tuckee (Rouge Croix) referred to the serious illness of
Mr. Parker, and proposed that a letter should be written to him by
the Secretary, expressing the great regret of the members at the
cause wliich prevented his being among them, and their hope for his
speedy recover}'. Sir Gii^beet Scott and Me. Bloxa:\i expressed
their sorrow at the state of Mr. Parker's health and alluded in kindly
terms to their long friendship. The noble President said he had
known Mr. Parker for many years ; he had always given them most
valuable assistance in every way. No man had done more to call
public attention to the iuvostigatiou of the architecture of this and



482 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

other countries, and his writings wonld always be standard works.
Latterly he had taken up the subject of Roman antiquities, and no
man had worked more assiduously and more laboriously, both by
mind and purse, in order to elucidate and explain the question of
Roman antiquities. The numerous photographs which he had
caused to be taken would remain most valuable memorials of the
state of Eoman monuments. Mr. Parker possessed a faculty which
very few men — least of all archaeologists — possessed in any great
degree, and that was that he was not wedded to any particular theory.
He had great pleasure in seconding the proposition, and he hoped it
would be a solace and comfort to Mr. Parker in his present position.
The proposition was carried with acclamation. Sir AVilliam Guise
proposed and Canon Jebb seconded a vote of thanks to the noble
President, and the meeting separated.

The members then visited some of the principal antiquities of the city,
proceeding first to All Saints Church. Here Sir Gilbert Scott said
that he had lately made an examination of the building, and the only
documentary evidence he had seen relating to the church was that
it was made over to a certain hospital at Vienna in the time of
Edward I, and his conviction was that it was wholly rebuilt at that
date. If tliey looked at it they would see that the work appeared
to be a little too late for Early English, and too early for Decorated
architecture. The clerestory was clearly Early English, and if it had
not been for that he should have said that the whole was Early
Decorated. The capitals were very ]Deculiar, being of different
forms, but that, he thought, was simply to be attributed to the love
of the people of that time for variety. The first church, he thought,
had no chancel aisle, but it must have been added by the very people
who built the church first without the aisle, because it would be
noticed that the mouldings were identical with those of the older
work. The alteration must have been made by the people who built
the church. He supposed some one must have endowed the chantry,
and that they at once continued the building. He pointed out signs
of there having been a wall right across, from one pillar to another, in
front of the chancel. The removal of that and the building of the
chancel aisle was the first alteration. The windows of the aisle had
been much altered, but he thought they were of the fourteenth
century. The tower they could see nothing of from the nave, but



Online LibraryBritish Archaeological Association. Central CommitThe Archaeological journal (Volume v. 34) → online text (page 49 of 54)