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they could see the arch leading into it. The wall across it, which
they saw, was nothing but lath and plaster, though it was made to
look like stonework. It was very cleverly done. The aisle had been
restored, and early capitals had been inserted. Some of the work
was of a transitional form between Early English and Early Decora-
ted. The west window was of the time of Edward I, and the work
about it was Early English ; and he had no doubt the Avindows on
the north side were of the same date, but the heads had been raised
since. Tlie other things he should mention in the church were,
fir.st, the stalls. They were very much like those in the Cathedral, and
were Mell wortli examination. The pulpit was a splendid specimen
of a seventeentli century pulpit. It had a very good sounding-
board, wliich he hoped would not be removed in the restoration.
There had been one restoration and it was not removed. It had been
the fashion for the last thirty years to sweep away sounding boards



THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 483

altogether — there was a regular onisado against sounding boards. ITo
then pointed to the rood loft, and said that what appeared to be the
stonework there, also, was really only lath and plaster, which was so
cleverly done that they could not see the doorwa5^ The next thing
he would mention was the very fine old chest which they would see in
the chapel, and at the end of the chapol there was a library of
chained books. He would also mention that there was a very pretty
porch to the chancel. The west tower was blocked up, and they could
not make much of it, but no doubt when they came to restore the
church they would find out all about it. fie should like them to go
up into the tower and see the very hideous ruin that was there, and
the failure that was threatened. But it had been made safe by very
uncouth buttresses.

The party then moved to the Cathedral, where the Library was
again inspected under the direction of Canon Jebb. Mr. Bloxam, in
describing the large number of episcoj)al effigies in the Cathedral, said
that many of them could be dismissed in a single sentence, for they
were alike in style, size, and appearance, and seemed to have been the
work of the same sculptor, and to have been executed in the fourteenth
century. They are arranged under a series of cusped arches,
recessed around the Cathedral. The other effigies were not always
named or dated, but could be identified, to some extent, by the style
of dress, beards, &c., for bishops, like other men, followed the fashions
of the times. Many of this series represented the bishops in full
canonicals, mitred, and with veiled pastoral staffs, and some of the
later monuments had the same peculiarity' . This was usually supposed
to signif}' that the bishop was also an abbot, but this could liardl}-
have been the case at Ilereford. It was very customary from the
thirteenth to the fourteenth century to paint the effigies. More
effigies were painted in the latter period than in the earlier. Pointing
to one of the episcoijal effigies executed in the fourteenth century, the
lecturer said that the name of the bishop whom it was supposed to
represent had been placed over it. The right hand was in the attitude
of benediction, and the pastoral staff was in the left hand, and there
were represented the chasuble, dalmatica, tunic, alba, stole, and
maniple. In describing the effigy of a bishop of the reformed church,
Mr. ]51oxam pointed out that he was represented as wearing a square
cap, whicli at one time was a great abomination to the Puritans. Tliere
was a frill round the neck, Avliich all persons at that time wore. The
deans' monuments were numerous and interesting ; that inscribed and
known as Dean Borew's, on the south wall of the Lady Chapel, was the
most beautiful piece of sculpture in the cathedral, the disposal of tlie
robes being especially graceful. It was not, however, Borew's effigy, for
ho died in 1462, Avhereas the style of this was of 1362, or, more probably,
just prior to 1350 ; besides, this figure was bearded, whereas Borew must
have been shaven, and would be so represented. The canopy, which
bears in the chamfer of the label Borew's rebus (a series of boars with
sprigs of rue in their mouths), was unquestionably his, but the monument
did not fit its position, and had evidently been Vn'ought from another
spot. With regard to the alabaster effigy of 8ir Eichard Pembridge, one
of the early Knights of the Garter, Mr. Bloxam related a story that many
years ago part of tlie roof of the catlu'<li-al having fallen in and destroyed the
right leg, a carpenter was employed to carve a wooden substitute, and taking

VOL. xxxiv. 3 Q



484 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

for his pattern the left leg (in l)oth senses of the word) the figure appeared
wearing two garters. This anomaly has heen suljsecpiently changed to
another equally absurd, for the knight now exhibits on the left foot the
pointed sollerets of the fourteentli century, and on the other the broad-
toed sollerets of the time of Henry YII. " AVith regard to the monument
attrilnited l^y some authorities to Sir Peter de Grandison, and which had
been also assigned to one of the Bohun family, he would not venture to
say what date it was, ur who it represented.

Mr. S. Tucker (Rouge Croix) said that in a genealogical point of view
it was important that this monument should be correctly named. He
did not believe it to be the memorial of Humphrey de Bohun. There
were three Humphrey de Bohuns, to whom from its style it Avas possible
the tradition could refer, viz., the 4tli, 5th, and 6th Earls of Hereford, who
died respectively in 1298, 1321, 1361. Neither of those Humphrey de
Bohuns was buried in Hereford. He was much more inclined to believe
it was the monument to Sir Peter de Grandison. The adjoining tomb
had been named "Johanna de Bohun," simply because it was in proximity
to the other "de Bohun." No Earl of Hereford ever married a Ivilpeck
or a Plokenet. It had been recorded that in 1645 no less than 166 brasses
were uprooted from this cathedral, and in 1684 a great many more were
found to have been taken away. When the tower fell in 1786 tliere was
a most wholesale destruction of the brasses in the cathedral. Mr.
Ha\-ergal had heard of a workman metamorph(jsing one into a mason's
square. A great many of those brasses passed into the hands of the late
John Bowyer Nicholls, and Mr. John Bruce Nicholls (who still had them
intact) said he should be delighted to carry out his father's intention of
restoring them to the Cathedral. The importance of preserving monuments
of this kind could not be too strongly urged. ]\[any had been destroyed
and no pains taken to preserve even the inscriptions.

The Kev. J. Leb AVarxer also spoke of the importance of preserving
church moiuiments of all kinds. He compared tlie eftigy attributed to
Humphrey de Bohun, with that of Sir Oliver de Tnghani at Ingham in
Norfolk, who died in 1343.

jNlr. Hartsiiornk saitl tliat tbc monument prese!ited a A^ry peculiar
example of a toml) cauoi)y. It was Late Decorated in detail but Perpen-
dicular in manner of arrangement. Tlie style of some of the carving might
be as early as the end of the reign of Edward II, the characteristic horned
flower about the canopy and effigy being very noticeal)le. He would not
undertake to say who the effigy represented, b\it if Peter de Grandison,
who died in 1368, he should have expected to find a costume somewhat
similar to that represented on the effigy of Pendn'idge. The cyclas here
shown on the effigy was a very rare garment, whic;h was in fashion for
a])out forty years ; the earliest example tliat luid been noticed was shown
on the brass of Sir John de Ifield, at Ifield in Sussex, who died in 1317.
It had entirely passed away l)efore 1350, and not more than fourteen
examples of it occur on sepulchral effigies in the kingdom. It was
long behiml like the surcote and nearly as sliort in front as the
jujion, and formed the connecting link between tlie varieties of these
two military vestments. It was possible that this effigy may have
been made during the owner's lifetime and the canopy subsequently
added, for tlu^ fcn'mer does not accurat(dy fit the latter. The architectui'al
details of this particular period were often extremely puzzling, for the



THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 485

Late Decorated ami tlie Earlj' Perpendicular DVL-rlapped eai'li other to
such an extent that it was extremely difficult in a special district to
assign to either its pro[)er date Avithout an intimate knowledge of the local
peculiarities of each style.

The features of the cathedral Avere again carefully examined and their
peoularities pointed out hy 8ir Gilbert 8cott. ]\Iu(di time A\'as spent in
again scrutinizing the details of the Cantilupe shrine, and in endaiA'ouring
to fix its date, and to find reasons for its singular form, and the great
disparity in the character of the sciilpture ujion it. Some of this is most
spirited and free, other parts being of very inferior AA'orkmanshii). That
the shrine is late thirteenth-century AA'ork all agreee, and that it cimimemo-
rates Cantilupe the ex(piisite figures of armed knights in l)as-veli('f on
flic plinth apjicar to proA'e, as Avell as the unbroken line of traditi(.)n.
A\'ith regard to the j)Oor sculptured spandrels, and the generally
inferior Avorkmanship in the upper part, it Avas suggested by Mr.
Hartshnrne, that the loAA'er stage A\^as carA'ed by a sculptor, and the
upper part Avas left to a stonemason to ci>mpleto, and that the fractures
caused by the four Avell-authenticated I'cmoA'als Avere repaired as Avcll as
])()ssible, but IMr. Fairless Barber considered that the upper part of the
shrine Avas later than the loAver. The Avails siipporting the central toAA'er
exhil)ited, as Sir Gilbert Scott jiointed out in situ, a combination of
lightness and strength to Avhich there is, perhaps, no parallel example.
The Avails are holloAv ; the inner one, for a height of tAventy-six feet above
the turning of the arches from the great piers at the crossing, consists on
every side of piers of compact masonrj', Ijonded by a cross-bar of stone,
the intermediate spaces being left open, so as to form a series of gigantic
stone gratings, on Avhich the ujjper stages of the toAver rest. Cottingham
revealed this unicpie piece of Transitional Xorman construction, Avhich
had been concealed by a sixteenth-century fan-vaulting. A somcAvhat
similar arrangement may be observed in the central toAver of "Wor-
cester Cathedral. In the south-east transept (or Audry chapel) hangs
the celebrated map of the Avorld, engrossed and coloured on a sheet
of A'ellum, not later than 1314, by an ecclesiastic named Richard de
Haldingham and Lafford, afterAvards Archdeacon of Keading. Rivers,
seas, and countries are interlined Avith grotesque sketches of men and
animals, and the ideas of comparatiA'e topography are very remarkable,
the Holy Land (^ccnpying about a third of the map, Avhich is circidar in
form. The admirable fac-simile reproduction of this map, brought out by
the energy of ]\Ir. Ilavergal, is perhaps less knoAvn than such a A\'ork
deserves to be, Avhile the accuracy AAdth AAdiich it has been reproduced
leaA^es nothing to be desired.

Leaving the cathedral, the mend)ers, under the escort of Mr. J. E.
Norris, passed by a cloister on the north side of the south-east transei)t,
to the CoJlt'fje of Vicars ChoraJ, a Ioav series of buildings erected around
a cloistered c^uadrangle in 1-162-72, of poor Perpendicular design.
Passing through these they A'isited the Castle Green.

The Aveather Avas so unfaA'ourable that there Avas not much ojiportunity
of carefully examining the site oi the castle and Avhat remains (if the Avails
of the city, l)ut Mr. Clark Avas kind enough to send the folloAving
remarks iipon them : —

Hereford is a city of English origin, and first knoAvn from having been
made tlie seat of a bishopric in 680. A century later it Avas the residence



486 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

of OiTa, and the cathedral largely bcnefiLlcd loward.s the close of the
century hy his late repentance for the death of Ethelliert. EdAvard the Elder
is said hy Cirafton to have fm'titied Hereford, and to have erected a castle
there, and by means of the new "works /Ethelflaed his sister beat back the
Danes in 915. In 1055, Kalph the Timid, Earl of Hereford, was beaten l)y
the united Welsh and East Auglians in a pitched battle, after which the
city was burned and Avhat the ISrut calls the "gaer" destroyed. The gaer
Avas, of course, the castle, and the destruction evidently did not extend to
its earthworks. This is the inroad the traces of which so long remained,
and are recorded in Domesday, and in conse(|uence of which Harold, as
Earl of the West Saxons, restored the defences of Hereford, and walled
the city, which seems to have been a bank of earth and stone of great
strength, "'vallum latum et altum" it is called by Florence of AVorcester.
The defence, however, is in Domesday called a " nmrus."

In that record, Hereford occu})ies some space. It contained 130
burgesses and 7 moneyers ; and the men of Irchenfield, the tract between
the city and the Welsh territory, had the dangerous privilege in local
wars of forming the van in an advance and the rear guard in a retreat.

The castle stood on the left bank of the Wye, south-east of the
cathedral, and occupied an angle of the city defences, within which it was
included, though beyond the Liberties. It was in the parish of St. John,
and is described by Leland as one of the fairest, largest, and strongest
places in England. It was composed of two wards placed side by side on
the river, Avhich protected one side, on the three others being a Avet
ditch, a branch from Avhich divided the Avards. The loAA^er Avard Avas
rectangular, or nearly so, having the river on the south, the cross ditch on
the AA'est, and the main ditch to the north and east. The latter arm has
recently been filled up. The northern still remains, deep and Avide. On
these t\A'o sides are A'ery lofty broad banks, Avith a Avide mound at the
north-eastern angle, as at Cardiff. The entrance Avas on the north.
Probably there AA'as a bank on the AA'est side, and no doubt a AA'all all
round. The upper Avard, that next the cathedral, is destroyed and
IcA^elled. Here Avas the great mound, Avith its lofty and strong shell
keep, of Avhich all traces are noAA- gone. There remain a fcAV buildings
on the river at the junction of the tAvo Avards, probably of Decorated
date, and uoaa^ used as a Museum. The Avdiole castle covered 8^ acres,
the ujijier AA'ard 5^^ acres. The mound measiu'ed nearly 400 yards
circumference at its base.

The city Avail Avas in plan about three-quarters of a circle, from river
bank to river baidc. It had a Avet ditch, and Avas covered, landAvard, Avith
a loAV marshy tract, noAV in part occupied by the raihvay and its station.
There were six gates and fifteen mural toAvers, the basements of some of
which remain and on the Avest front of the city, near the river, there
remains also a part of the Avail, of Xorman date.

St. Ethelbert's Hospital, a one-storied sixteenth century almshouse for
Avomen, Avas subsecpiently inspected, and the party proceeded to St.
Peter's Church, a large building Avith lofty spire, said to have been
founded by Waher dc Lacy in 1070. There seemed, hoAA^ever, nothing
in the church giving evidence of Avorkmanship earlier than the reign of
EdAvard III. It is a ceiled and galleried edifice, containing some fairly-
designeil 1 Vriicn<liridar stalls. To the south of the chancel is a cliapel,
iinw bri<'k.(l up. The Mai'kct House in the open space bi'Vond Avas far



THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 487

more interesting'. This large lialf-tinibered house was erected in 1621,
and fiirms the only remaining portion of a set of half-timher structures
known as "Butchers' Koav." It is scarcely necessary to say that the
demon of imi)rovenieut which is filling up the castle ditch has do<imed
this interesting remnant of old Hereford.

Some of the ])arty proceeded to the Blackfriars' Monastery and Cross
in the AVidemar.sh suhurb. The cross Avas conjecturally restored in 1864.

In the afternoon a carriage excursion was made to 8utton AValls and
Harden Chui'cli. The first pause was made at the church of Pipe and
Lyde, where the Rev. Cr. M. ^Ietcalfe described the features of the
building. ]Mr. Faikless Barber also made some remarks ujion this Early
English Church, and ]SIr. Hartshohxe pointed out a niche for a relic in
the base of the churchyard cross, of which several similar instances
were noticed during the week. Mr. Bloxam believed they were confined
to crosses in these pr)sitious, and that they were local peculiarities. At
Marden Church, a fine Decorated building on the brink of the river
Sugg, the bells rang merrily as the party drove up. Here was much to
be seen, including a brass of Lady Chute, 1614, represented with a
radiating crown over her head, and a Avell at the west end of the church,
concerning which the Rev. H. T. Cluttox-Brock related some truly
marvellous traditions, with regard to the murder of King Ethelbert and
the consequent origin of this spring, which is erroneously said never to
fail, and about a large copper bell (exhibited in the temporary museum)
of a type which is in use for sheep on the "Wiltshire Downs and the
northern parts of Scotland at the present day. It has been shown that
wells were the usual appendages of large churches ; the examples at
Beverley and York are instances.

A triilsome walk brraight the party up the steep ascent of Sutton Walls.
Here the Rev. Prebendary Scarth said, that from the strong nature of
the defenses he believed it to be a Silurian camp. It was not on a Roman
road, and too high for the purposes of the Romans. ^Ir. Bloxaji
considered it as one of the .systems of strongholds thrown up and held by
the Silures on their borders, although it might have been subsequently
occupied by the Saxons. The following remarks by jMr. Clark "will
be read with interest : —

Sutton Walls is a work of some ntnte, from its repute as a
seat of the kings of Mercia, in the middle of the ninth centur}-. In
Dohic-i'l'iij it is mentioned as held by "Xigel ]\Iedicus." It had belonged
to Leflet. Whatever may have been its comiection with the ^lercian kings,
it is certain that the enclosiire Avhich crowns the hill of Sutton is a British
and not an English work, of similar origin with the entrenchments of
Risbury, Credenhill, Backbury, and Dindor, Avhich lie witliin or a little
over a radius of six mdes.

A Roman road ran Avithin tlu-ee miles south of Sutton, upon Avhich
Avas the station of Magna Castra, represented by Ivenchester, and from
this, a mile Avest of Hereford, branches the Watling street, making for
Stretford and Wigmore, but there is nothing Roman about the cam]i of
Sutton. If it Avas ever occupied either by th«,' Romans or the English no
traces of such occupation remain in our day.

Sutton is a Avork of the usual HiU-camp type, its outline being
governed entirely l)y the natural configuration of the ground, a detached
but not very lofty hill, Avitli a tlat top, about half a mile long by from



488 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

200 to 250 yards broad. Its general form is a rounded oblong, but one
corner is produced as a sliarp angle or spur. On the south face, near the
Avest end, a considerable shoulder ]u'ojects at a right angle. The defence
is a scar^D of from thirty to forty feet in parts nearly A^ertical. There is
no internal bank remaining at the top of the scar]), and only here and
there are traces of a ditch at its l:)ase. The Avestern part of the area is
the narrowest, and in it are three rather deep depressions to the north,
south, and west, as though there had been three entrances to the work.
That to tlie west was evidently the main entrance. It is of rather a
peculiar character — deep, narrow, and curved—the curvature being-
produced by two bastions of earth at the foot of the slope, between
Avhich the entrance lies, coming up by a sharp turn from the south.
As it seems pretty well ascertained that 8utton Avas a JNIercian residence,
it is possible that traces of earthworks may remain IteloAv the hill. They
should be looked for on the southern slo])e, near the parish church.

Mv. J. A. ]>radney then conduc^ted the party to Freene Court, thi^
ancient seat of the Lingen family. In this damp dilapidated house Avere
several armorial bearings in jjainted glass, and some good Jacobean Avork.
On the journey home the church of Sutton St. Nicholas was visiteil.
Mr. Bloxani called attention to a piscina and the remains of an altar in
the east Avail of the nave on the south side, and to an aumbry opposite.
These Avere the traces of one of the rood-loft altars that have only recently
caught the eye of antiquaries, and of Avhicli the history carries the
en(j[uirer back to the early Greek Church of the fourth century. They
Avere still in use in many parts of the continent. The party returned to
Hereford at six o'clock.

At 8.39 a large com})any assendjled at a convrrsaziotip in the Temporary
Museum at the Free Library, Avhen the Rca^ Canon Jebb gave a learned
address on " The Ilierogiyphic or Ideographic "Writings of the Mexicans
and Central Americans." Tea Avas served in the Woolhope Club Room,
and the members separated at a late hour.

Friday, August 10.

The weather Avas happily all that could be desired, and a party,
numbering over a hundred, started in carriages at 9.30 for an excursion
into Irchenfield. The antiquaries saw a fine country to great advan-
tage, first crossing a broad flat tract of land — once a SAvamp — but
brought into order by Alan de Plokenet of Xilpeck, in the reign of
P^dAvard I, and thence called "Alan's ]\Ioor." The remarkable church of
Kilpeck Avas first reached. This late jSTorman building, Avith apsidal
sanctuary, is perhaps tlie most interesting of its kind in the county. The
Avhole is replete Avith grotes([ue carAdngs, the corbel table and south
doorAvay being A'ery fint; of their sort. The choir arch presents a series
of carvings that are AvitlK)ut parallel. Here are scidptured almost life-
size figures of acolytes apparently nailed through the ancles, marked Avith
the stUjmata in their hands and feet, and A^ested as for a procession, each
bearing an emblem, such as bell, chalice, paten, <^'c. Mr. Bloxam com-
pared them to figures in the Avest front of Rochester Cathedral and at
ShrcAvsbury Abbey, and considered the date of the church to be 1150.
The general characteristics of the building Avere pointed out by Mr.
Beresf(ird-Hoj)e, including the font, Avhich is a large shallow basin of
*' I'bini pudding" stone, measuring 4 ft. G in. in diiimeter. Wc called



THE ROYAL AROHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 489

attention to the great completeness -vvitli "whicli the members had
pictured before them an ideal Xorman chv;rch. The building was restored
in 1848, apparently very conscientiously, by the late ]\Ir. Cottingham.
Outside, at the west end, at the level of the wall plates, three extra-
ordinary blind gurgoyles, in the form of dragons' heads, project about
three feet from the wall, apparently for the support of an external gallery,
or possibly of the timber Avork of an occasional porch. The surprising
character of these objects, which recall rather the work in the wooden
churches of Scandinavia than any known designs of Xorman builders,
excited speculation, more perhaps than admiration. Like the work at
Shobden and Fownhope, they were probably the devices of an entirely
local school of artists.

This is the Church of St. David, mentioned in records as placed
upon the edge of the castle ditch, but it was not the chapel of the
castle. Ab(jut a furlong south of the church stood the priory, founded
1134 by Henry de Kilpeck. All trace of it is however lost.

The Castle of Kilpeck, which was described by Mr. Clark, stands
close west of the church, and upon rather higher ground. Below and to
the north is the fertile valley of the Worm with the old church of St.
Devereux, Math some mural monuments to the Gunters and their
kinsmen the Clarks. To the south the ground rises slowly.

The castle is at this time chiefly composed of earthworks, and prubabl}-,
so far, presents much the aspect that met the eye of the first X'nunan lord
when he arriA'ed and took possession. A low but well-defined mound,
mainly artificial, has a table top, and is girdled by a circidar ditch.
Outside of, and applied to this ditch, to the soiith and east, is a base



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