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court, lunated in plan, and also defended by a ditch, while along its outer
edge is a bank, which probaltly conceals the foundation uf a wall, of
which, however, nothing is A'isible. This was the outer ward, the mound
being the keep. Beyond this is a second and much larger area defended
by a scarp, and no doubt intended for a safe pasture for the garrison
cattle, or for those of the tenants, in troubled times. These earthworks
seem of one date, but to the north is another large enclosure, which
looked older than the rest, and may have been a British camp.

The only masonry remaining consists of two fragments of a polygonal
shell keep, each about 7 ft. thick and 18 ft. high : one contains a part of
a fire place, the other what may have Ijeen the upper part of a well
shaft, althougli there was a well rather nearer the centre of the mound,
which was discijvered and reclosed a few years ago.

Kilpeck is the Chipcete of Domesday, and was the seat of Cadiand,
who was dispossessed in favour of William Fitz-Xorman, whose sou
Hugh gave the Church of St. David and the Chapel of Our Lady with
the Castle to St. Peter's, Gloucester. Ik-nry son of Hugh, called of
Kilpeck, was ancestor of that famil}'. It ended in cnlieirs, of whom
Isabel had Kilpeck, and Joan married Philip Marmion, Champion of
England. Isabel married William Waleran, from whom descended
Plukenet and finally De la Bere. The castle was afterwards alienated in
favour of the Butlers, Earls of Ormond, who again sold it. Enough
remained of it to be tenable as a post during the civil wars of the Kiu"-
and Parliament, and it was in couserpicnce dismantled by or<lcr of the
latter in 1645.

Mr. Beresford Hope suggested that the name Kilpeck was Celtic in



490 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

origin. INfr. James Davies said that Kilpeck Church was dedicated to
Saints ISlnvy and David, most of the churches on the south side of the
Wye -were dedicated to Ciml)ro-Biitish Saints.

The party then proceeded to Ewias Harold Chmvh and Castle. In tlie
restored Early English church is an efhgy of a lady of the de la Warr
family, wlio died 1320, holding a heart in her hands. Mr. Tucker
(Eo)tge Crui.i-) called attention to the very unusual feature of the
Hattening (.>f the eye-balls as giving the appearance of pupils. A
supposed roli(piary close by is said to contain a human heart.

The party then moved on to the castle, on the top of the high mound
opposite the west end of the churcli. Mr. Clabk said : —

Ewias Harold, so called in distinction from Ewias Lacy, was a castle of
some note in the INIarches. Like Kilpeck, its main feature is a moated
mound, here formed by cutting off the end of a long ridge by a deep
and broad ditch. On the mound was a circular keep of which only a
trace of the foundation remains. On the eastern side at the foot of the
mound is the base court, a considerable area, defended exteriorly by a
ditch, beyond Avhich the ground falls naturally and very steeply towards
the junction of two streams, which form the outer defences of the castle
to the north and east. There is no masonry remaining, but the outer
ward appears to have been walled. It must have been a work of great
strength even before the JSTormans occupied it, for the earthworks are
evidently much older than the conquest, and probably the work of some
English lord of Irchenfield.

Earthworks of this character were constructed by men who had a great
command of labour, but who if they could take advantage of natural
circumstances invariably did so. No doubt this place was palisaded
lower down ; so that not only was it an enclosure in which the garrison
would be safe from the AVelsh, who were immensely active people, but a
place in which the Hocks and herds would be safe, without which, of
course, a garrison could not long exist. The mound was not too high to
prevent soLliers getting up, Avithout much fatigue, even if loaded with
armour. Although the attention of antiquaries had only lately been
called to these mounds, they were exceedingly common all through
England ; and they Avere especially common in tlie Marches of Wales,
and in all those parts of the Marches where the level land ran into
the hilly ground. Wherever there was good pasture land worth taking
or keeping there they found these mounds. They were clustered
pretty thickly all along the course of Offa's Dyke, and evidently
intended to enable those who thrcAV them up to hold the pasture land
wliich was spread near them, against the enemy on the other side of
the dyke. They had certain points in common, and were different from
the ordinary hill camp. At Hereford, Ijetween the Castle Green and
the Cathedral there was a fine mound, wliich was taken down in
comparatively modern times. There was also an exceedingly curious but
small mound about half a mile from the Cathetbal, down the river, on
the left. It was in a garden, and could be just seen from the railway.
It Avas clearly a moated mound. He had not seen any description
of it. AVitli respect to the British earthworks, it was impossible
to say Avheu they Avore throAvn up. Xo one could pretend to say
positively Avhether they Avere thrown up 1000 years ago or just
before the coming in of tlie R(nnans. lb? Avas of opinion that these



THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 491

moated mounds wotp tlirovni up hj tlic Engli.^h In 1lie ninth aiid lontli
centuries. U.sing a genoral word, he would say that, they Avere Tcuionii-
and not Celtic. He was also of oi)inioii that timber dtifences were used.
When William conquered Englaml tliere were as good casllos in England
as in Xf»i'mandy ; he overran Ejigland, not because there were no castK's
but. becaiise there was no chief among the i»f'Oj»le. Not being projierly
directed they were conquered.

Ewias is named in Donir'sda;/ " Castellaria Aluredi Ewias," and annlhcr
entry shows Alured the holder of the Castelry, to have been " Ahuvd of
Marlborough . who holds the castle of Ewias from the king." In 1100
however it belonged to a certain "Harold" son of Ralph the Timid, Earl
of Hereford, great nephew to the Confessor. Robert de Ewias, the third
in descent, left a daughter who married Robert de Tregore from whose
descendants the castle came to la Warre, and thence to the Montacutes,
Earls of Salisbury. The owners were from the first connected with
"Wiltshire, and of the connection Teffont-Ewias in that county is an
evidence.

A short drive into the Golden Valley Ijrought the members to the
Cistertian Abbey of Dore, founded in the reign of Henry I by Robert de
Ewias. This highh' beautiful church, dedicated like all Cistertian abbeys,
to the Blessed Virgin, consists now of a choir and transepts, or, speaking
more strictly, an eastern area of three bays and a processinnnl path and
spaces for five altars, like Eountains Abbey.

Mr. Beresford Hope said that here they might learn for themselves
two very interesting lessons in Ecclesiology. They saw what a monastic
church of the second order of architectural amptitude was, and they had a
typical speeimen of that revival of constructional litual which marked tlie
seventeenth century. The church Avas ruined at the time of the dissolu-
tion, and was " re-edificed and furnished " by Viscount Scudanrore, a
strong eavaliei', a strong churchman, and a friend of Archbishn]) Laud.
In that church they therefore saw a very interesting specimen of what
church fitting ami arrangement was according to the ideas of that day.
He called attention to the lofty Renaissance screen, carrying out witli
other details the idea of a chancel screen of the fourteenth or fifteenth
century. The altar Avas the original stone altar of the church, Avhich Lord
Scudamore found and replaced on tlu-ee fragments of early pillars. It
had been shockingly desecrated and used " for the salting of meat and
the making of cheese." The church Avas consecrated on Palm Sunday,
1634 (according to an order draAvn up by the then diocesan, the famous
Dr. Wren recently consecrated Bishop of Hereford), by his substitute, Dr.
Eield, Bishop of St. David's. It Avas expressly stated in the consecration
service* that the Bishoj) should "stand Avith his face to the tal)le about tin;
midst of it."' That table Avas twelve feet long and four feet Avide, and
if Bishop Eield did stand in the midst of it, there could Vie no mistake
about the action and meaning of it. Eurthermore he ccadd not ha\e
stood at the end had he wished to do so, for the still existing contem-
porary footpace Avas (as all present could observe) made intentionally
Avide in fr()nt, Avliile at each end it stopped short at the length of the
Holy Table itself. That Avas an interesting point in our ecclesiastical

* The " Form and Order " fif tliis re- original MS. u.sed on the occa><ion, now

markable ceremony was published by the in the British Museum. — (Add. M.'>S.

Rev. J. Fuller Russell in 1874, from the No. 15, 645.)

VOL. XXXIV. 3 j^



492 PROCEEDINCR AT ISfEETINGS OP

liistoiy, and lie mentioned it purely as a valuable archaeological fact,
tliough bearing on a question of the present day as to Avhich the votaries
of either opinion ought to be grateful for the irrefragable evidence of
historical monuments.

Mr, Fairless Barber wished to add a few words to what Mr.
Beresford Hope had told them about the recovery of the choir and
transept of this noble church, and its preservation for use according to
the services of the Churcli of England. It was probably the only
Cistercian church in England thus preserved and used/ for the rule
Avhich led the monks of this order to seek quiet and secluded sites for
tlieir abbeys, away from the haunts of men, left their churches, on the
AVTeck of the monasteries in the sixteenth century, practically unavailable
for any parochial purpose.

In the simplicity of its architecture there was everything that was
characteristic of the early Cistercian type of building, and the church, as
it now stood, would serve well to reproduce for them the corresponding
jiortions of the still larger church at Byland, the only difference being
that there were aisles on the west side of the Byland transept.

Here at Abbey Dore the conventual buildings were, Ijy reas(in of the
exigencies of the site, placed on the north side of the church instead of
the south side, Avhich was the more usual arrangement, and the traces of
them, apparently hitherto unexplored, would be found disposed round
the enclosed space, which still roughly indicated the original cloister
garth. So far as coidd be seen without digging there appeared to have
Iteen no material departure from the model plan of an abbey of this
order, as laid down by Mv. Edmund Sliarpe, Avhose loss all students of
architecture, and specially of Cistercian iMiildings, must ever deeply
deplore. A small excavation recently made at tlie entrance to the
vestil)ule of the Cha})ter House has disclosed the bases of the shafts by
whicli the portal was decorated, and there can be little doubt that a careful
and not very expensive exploration of the other remains surrounding the
cloister would yield details and mouldings of very consideral)le intensst.

Tlie tower on the south side of the church has lieen a puzzle to many
persons. It is in harmonious correspondence Avitli the rest of the fabric,
l)ut is really, he believed, the work of a later time, and, possibly, of Lord
Scudamore, when he re-roofed and refitted the structure for the services
of the Church. jSI^o early Cistercian church had a tower, for, to have had
one, woidd have been contrary to the second nde of the first division of
their constitutions, Avhich runs thiis : —

" IJr' f/irrih/rs la])i(loi>< ctd Cfunpni/ns: Turres lapidcie ad cami)anas non
hant, iK.'C ligncic alt itudiuis immuderata^ (pue ordinis dedeceant siiuplici-
tatem."

Sir Gilbert Scott, who Avas prevented from l)eing presc^ni, contriljuted
the following remarks : —

Though unable to join the excursion in Avhich Abbey Uore will be

^ Scarborough has been classed by Kectfay, by Hemy IV. The vicarage

some as a Cistercian church. It was continues to this day as at fii'st ordained,

certainly given to a Cistercian abbey and in fact the chui'ch never seeras to have

a vicai-age ordained therein, to which the lost its original i)arochiaI character, and

abbot and convent of Albemarle, an alien the continuance of divine service in it

Cistercian house, piesented up U> the furnishes no renl jiai-allcl to its revival

time of the seizure of the possessions of and coutiniiaiice at Abbey Dore.
the alien jirimics, including ScarljoinMigh



THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 493

visited, 1 take the liberty of ofi^iiing a few uhservations suggested by a
recent visit.

Tlii.s Cistercian iik mastery, f(jmi<le(l prnl)alily in the time of King
Stei)heu, but its cliurch, as J think, built in the time of King John, was
dissolved in the twenty-seventh of Henry A""!!!, 1535; and the church
reduced to a ruin.

Its architecture may be said to be of an intermediate character, between
what we call " the Transitional Style " and the developed Early English.
The greater jjart of its colunuis and shafts retaining the square abacus of
the one, but others having the round abacus of the other. It is a tran-
sit/'on ffom ". triuixifio)). Xothing can be more beautiful than the internal
architecture of this church. It represents just the interval which elajjsed
at Hereford betAveen the transitional work of Bishop de Yere and the
building ul the Lady Chapel, and is, in my opinion, more beautiful than
either. It has cast oft" the semi-Konianesipie asperity of the one, and has
not descended into the typical normalism of the other. I recommend its
details to careful study and examination, as being of a period of art not
abundantly re})resented, but one of peculiar originality and refinement.
The foliage in its cajjitals is partly of an Early English character, and
partly in a style more Bijzantine or Bii:Mi(t!ne><qu(' than R(fmanesque. It
is of a Greek tyjie, such as I calh-d attention to in my Paper read two
years ago at Canterbury.

My object, however, in AVTiting these observations is less architectural
or orrhmoloijkul than moral. There is a history connected with this
church more valuable and more impressive liij far than that of its
architecture. I refer to the history of its restoration from a state of
dcsdlate ruin to its uses as a House of (UxL

It is said that, about a century aftfr the dissolution of the monastery,
"the parishioners were destitute (if a place for Divine Service and the
worship of God, till l)y private permission they 'oegan to assemble them-
selves in this place, not evidently known whether ever a consecrated place
or noe, but ruinous and mean howsoever, and in former time before their
assembly in it, altogether ])rophaned and applied to secular and base uses,
and in every condition and state of it wholly become a Lay fee."

"We ftnd "for several years successively, that sometimes forty-eight, ami
sometimes fifty .shillings sterling, and no more, was paid . . . for
serving the cure of Dore."

" So iiiiserahhj poor this stipendary ciu'e ! so sad and ruinous the fabric
of this church ! till God was pleased to put it into the heart of John Lord
Viscount Scudamore, to pity both their circumstances and eftectually
redress them both."

We learn that this nobleman — to Avhom both this " lay fee " and the
alienated tithes belonged — "upon his reading of Hooker's Eccledudkal
Politte, seems first to have apiirehended by that excellent book .
that tithes, howsoever alienated, were the Church's pi'oiierty and right."

Lord Scudamore " having an intimate friendship with Bisho}) Laud,"
then Bishop of Bath and AVells, "consulted on the validity of his aii-
ce.stor's purcha.se of the Rectory of Door, and the conveyances of other
tithes l)y other means, so far as his conscience was concerned."

Laud's rei)ly is one of the most striking and remarkable documents
extant on fsuch a su1)ject.

He decline.'; to pronounce on the question "Whether tythcs be due to



494 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

tlic i)iirst, and him cmly jnre (h'chio, l)y divine Law, or [only] by ecclesi-
astical constitntioii." He say.s tliat, " If tythe.s l)e due oiiJyhj ecclesiastical
and civil laws, or either of them, then the Church and the State may alter
tlie law oi tythes upon just and good grounds," "but if your conscience
be persuaded that tythes are due only by cluu'(;h or state law, then you
are either trulij or erroneously persuaded." . . . "If you be
erroneously persuaded, then you shoiild not keep nor sell, because you
have a better guide than an erring conscience."

He answers the plea that his " ancestors had bought them," V)y saying
" It was of hii>rt]iat had no rigid to f<et/, and fhei/ had as little to buy.
For if one man be so daring as to sell God's altar, yet his daring is no
\\ arrant for /////? to sell, or another to buy it." To the plea that Henry
YIII had reserved an annual pension to his heirs, he replies : " He did
Init sell one part of the sin, and reserve the other. Loth he was it seems
to part with all, and fain he would his heirs should inherit some little
of it," &c.

To the arg-ument that it was made a Lay-Fee by an Act of Parliament,
he re])lies : " "Well, if any man think an Act of Parliament is an abso-
lution from sin against the moral law of God, he is much out of his way,
and it Avill ho. a ]ioor plea at another Barr."

If the appropriation of tithes to abbeys by the Pope be pleaded, he
says : " Let the Church of Rome answer that sin ; their fault cannot
excuse another." " So," he adds, " / tldnli this is clear: if tythes be ,
due,/M/-e dlchw moral t, which is the opinion of many great divines, yoa
cannot hold impropriations to your own use without sin."

The argument is carried on at great length, and the result was that
Lord Si'udauKjre at once determined on the restitution of all the tithes he
hold to their respective churches ; and the old statute of mortmain being
inter})reted with rigour, he obtained fronr the King, Charles I. a special
licence to enable him to do so.

" Thus licensed, the Lord Scudamore set about re-edifying of this
venera1)le place, which had been reduced to a condition so ruinous and
mean, that one, who * well remembered the building of the church at
Door, saith, i\[r. John Gyles, otherwise then called Sir Gyles, curate here,
before the present church was rebuilt, read prayers under an arch of the
old demolished church, to preserve his Prayer-Book from wett in rainy
weather.' "

My author — Mathew Gibson, Rector of Door — evidently uses "re-
edify" and "rebuild" for "restore" and "reinstate:" and he goes on
to say : " It is apparent from the sinr/le'Cloysfer [the aisle] on each side,
an<l the douhle-doyder [the ambulatory and chapel] at the east end, and
tlie breaches u])on tlie west, that it was anticntly built after the cathedral
forni ; and that it was the quire and the cross-isle of the sunqjt nous Abbey
Church.

"The roof, Avhich his lordshij) timbered and tiled entirely new (for it
is su]>posed that it was arched witli stone, and leaded formerly), is very
lofty and magnilicent ; the tower Avhicli he raised upon an old arch, neat
and strong ; the tr<insept or slcreen di\'iding the chancel from the body of
tlie churcli, Ixiih beautiful and grand; the carved (r/f^y-j^^/cre, very .suit-
abli' and jnoper ; the .sYYy/,s- decent and uniform ; and, in short, everything
far surjtassing anything in these parts, and every Avay suitable to the
liMiioiir i4 C.id, and llie credit of tlie pioiis Kcslorer of it."



THE ROYAL AllCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 495

Matlu'W Gibson goos on to describe its " consecration and dedication/'
" Avliicli was performed [on Palm .Snnday, a.d. 1634] by J)(r.) Tlieophilu.s
Field, r>isliop of St. David's, by virtne and authority of a commission
from Dr. Mather Tf '/»//, ]5ishc>i) of Hereford, detained in necessary atten-
dance upon his ]\Iajesty in his Royal closet."

The account of the ceremony is extremely minute and interesting ; and
it followed in the main Bishop Andrew's form of consecration. He goes
on to say, after reference to the Temple at Jerusalem, "xVnd as the AH<ir
there had been i)rophaned, so the Comiaun'ion TahJc here had been pulled
down, and buried in the Ruines of the Church ; till, carrying a great deal
of stone away for common uses, it was dug uji, among the rest ; and appro-
priated (if by way of abuse I may be allowed to call it so, though I
tremble at it) to the Hdlthnj of Meat and makiiai of Clic'sf iipun. Thus it
continued for a while till it was very strangely {though without a miracle)
discovered Avhat it was, whereiipon the Lord Scudamore, when he rebuilt
this church, Avith great awfulness, ordered it to be restored and set upon
three pilasters of stone. ^Vhere noAv it stands, the most remarkable
Communion Table of any in these Parts, being one entire Stone, twelve
f<3ot long, four foot broad, and three inches thick. The fine east window
over the Communion Table was made by the Lord Scudamore, and the
glass so painted by him, as I have been told, at the expense of one hundred
pounds."

And thus the restored church stands, after more than two centuries,
little changed but by time and neglect. The seventeenth century roofs,
ceilings, screen and fittings, still bear silent witness to the pious and
conscientious zeal of the good Lord Scudamore ; and I woiUd say, as
emphatically as I can find words to express, that in all future restorations
and repairs, it is the duty of all concerned to pay as pious and reverential
regard to the v:orhs of this admirahle man, as to those of the original
builders of the church.

GEO. GILBERT SCOTT. ^

9th August, 1877.

The carriages conveyed the members to "Whitfield, where they were
most hospitably entertained by the Rev. Archer Clive. Some time
was spent in examining the collection of pictures and portraits, con-
spicuous among the latter being some fine examples of Rubens.

The party proceeded from this well faA'oured spot to Madley Church, a
late Decorated structure, and one of the finest churches in the West of
England. ^Ir. F. R. Kempson, under whose direction it was undcrgoijig
restoration, gave a descriptioJi of the church, which appears from the
f(j;indations lately discovered to have been originally a small crucif(jrm
Xorman church. !Mr. Beresford Hope said that they had that day seen
a series of churches illustrative and forming a compendiiun of the history
of our ecclesiastical progress and change of thought and fasliion. First
was Kilpcck, which was completed nearly as they had seen it, in the
t-arlicst ]icriod after the Xorman comiuest. Al)bey Dorc was of the
thirteenth century, but showed also what restoration Avas like 200 years
ago ; and, lastly, they saw around them ]\[adley, a thoroughly English
church of the last period of fourteenth century architecture.

* Thu members uf the lustitiite w ill tbi.s last contributiuu of the uuthur tu the
have a mclauchuly iutcrcit iu rcadiuj^' pages of the Jmrnal.



496 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

Time did not allow tlic jwirty to accept j\Ii'. Wegg Prosser's kind and
hospitable invitation to visit St. Michael's Priory at I)(4mont, and the
interesting Phillipps' MSS. and books there preserved, but the memljers
saw in passing the stately cluirch erected from Pugin's designs.

Hereford was reache<l at half-past seven o'clock.

The Architectural Section met at nine in the Woolhope Chib-room,
the Rev. H. jNI. Scarth, in the chair, when Sir Gilbert Scott's notes
on *' The Seventeenth Century Restoration of Ablx^y Dore " Avere read
(printed at p. 492.)

jMr. Eloxaji said he hardly thoiight that the altar was the original one.
The altar slabs were generally of great ihickncss. There was a very thick
one at Peterchurch.

Lord Talbot said that the type of fonts was a particulai- feature in
Herefordshire. They Avere different to anything of the sort he had seen
elsewhere, and their size was very remarkable.

Several of the mendjcrs having spoken of the expedience of the ddhris
being removed from the foundations of the monastic buildings at Abbey
Dore, the meeting separated.

Saturday, August 11.

At 9.45 an excursion was made by rail to R(jss, A^'alford Church,
rianesford Priory and Goodrich Castle. On arriving at Ross carriages
were in Avaiting at the railway station, by Avhich the party proceeded at
once to the Church of St. Laureiice at Walford, which is the more
interesting from having, as yet, escaped "restoration." Sir John Maclean
acted as guide and pointed out the chief objects of interest. The church



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