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consists of a chancel, nave, north aisle, a chapel on the north of the
chancel, north of Avhich is the toAver; and there are north and south
porches. The chancel \\o\y rises two steps aboA'e the naA^e. Some
portion of the old rood-screen remains, the staircase to Avhich is Avithin
the substance of the massive pier on the north side. The sanctuary is
tAvo steps above the chancel, but in this case the level Avas probably
altered in the early part of the se\'enteenth century, by adding a second
step Avhich raises the floor above the base of the responds. The sanctuary
has a solid Avail on the north side, in Avhich is a deep recess haA'ing an
elongated trefoil head of Decorated date, originally used as an aumbry.
The }n'scina on the south side has been Availed up. The chancel arch,
Avhicli is somcAvhat narroAV, is of the Transition Norman period, as is the
greater part of the church. An altar Avas originally ])laced against the
east Avail of the naA'e on the south side, the })iscina of Avhich still remains,
hidden by a high pcAV. There are tAVo lancet AvindoAvs in the south Avail
deeply splayed, one of Avhich has been enlarged externally, and there is a
Decorated AvindoAV in the Avest Avail of peculiar character. OA^er the
south door are the remains of a mural painting in distemper, nearly
obliterated, but shcAving that a })art of the subject Avastlie "Temptation."
Suspeniled over th(i chancel arch is a ludmet, Avhich tradition says belonged
to Colonel Kyrle, an officer souieAvhat notorious i\\ these parts during the
Civil War. He lived and died at Walford Coiu't adjacent, and Avas
buried in the church.

The aisle is narroAV and separated from the nave b}- an arcade of four
bays Avith transitional Norman columns sujiporting pointed arches. A



THE ROYAL ARCIIAEOLOGTCAL INSTITUTE. 497

continuous roof covers both it and the north side of the nave, consequently
the north wall is rather low and Avithout fenestration. The aisle is
lighted from the na^-e and from a deeply splayed lancet window in the
west wall. Under a transition Xornian arch supported upon corbels the
chapel is entered from the aisle by two steps. This is separated from the
chancel by an arcade of narrow pointed arches of the same period. The
eastern part is raised one step continuously Avith the original arrangement
of the sanctuary. In the south east corner of the chapel is a piscina. A
very narrow passage gives admission to the chapel from the tciwer, which
may be considered as the priest's door. The tower is Perpendicular and
was formerly surmounted by a spire, Avhich Avas destroyed by lightning
in the early part of the present century. There are several Perpendicular
windoAvs inserted in the church, the font biding of the same period. The
porches are of Decorated work.

There are numerous mural tablets and other memorials in the church
chiefly to the families Avho liaAT occupied Hill Court adorned Avith their
arms, and there is a tablet of special interest against the eastern Avail of
the chancel commemorating ^A'illiaui Adams. William Adams Avas rector
during the time of the (Ireat Eebellion, and, notwithstanding the violence
of the times and the proscripti(in of the Book of CommonPrayer, A\'ith
great courage and resolution continued to use the Liturgy of the Church
of England during the Avhole of tliat turbulent period. The inscription
on this monument is as folloAvs : —

Qiiam speciosa sunt vestigia

Evangelizantiiim pacem,

Et quaia pi-etiosic sunt cineres

Guliehni Adams ;

Apuil Oxonienses in Collegio Lincohiensi

Artium Magistri ;

Hujusce Parochice, nou solum doctrina} virtute, sed et vitcc integi-itate

Vicarii Dignissimi ;

Liturgifc Anglicana?, inter liorrendas Belli Civilis proeellas :

(In.sultantibus Ecclesiic Anglicamo hostibus)

In Parochia de Bicknor

Assertoris strenui

Lectoris assidui

Abi viator, et si tempora flagitavcrint

Tu fac similiter

Mcorens uxor Margarita, hoc posuit mouumentum

A.D. 1682.

It adds to the interest of this church that rosl)roke the anliipiai'v Avas
sometime its rector and Avrote here many of his Avorks.

Xear the church is A\^alford Court," Avhere AA'as formeriy a fortiiied
manor house. In the middle of the sixteenth century it Ijehmged to
Colonel Ivyrie, Avho having been for .sometime in the service of the'^Kin"
deserted to the Parliament, and Avas afterwards guilty of many ilisgraceful
acts of dupHcity. The house was converted into a strong' garrison, ac-
cording to tradition, tliat it might not be surprised by a conj) de main
from Goodrich Castle on the opposite side of the river, the courts and
yards being so arranged as to flank and command each other, and the
house could not be taken without fii-st carrying these and a mcnind behind
in Avhich were placed flcld pieces. Fosbroke says that a 91b. shot Ava.s
found there, which Avas in his possession.

LeaA-ing Wulford, the party lu-oceeded a .short distance down the Valley



498 PIIOCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

of the Wye, and crossing the river at Kerne Bridge arrived, at once, at
Flanesford Priory. Sir John Maclean again acted as guide, and remarked
tliat tliis hmise was founded in 1347 by Richard Talbot for Augustinian
Canons. He married Elizabeth, cousin and heir of Adomer de Valence
Earl of Pembroke, and with her had the Castle and INIanor of Goodrich,
with the demesne lands of which, and witli other lands he endowed this
priory; dying in 1356, he was buried therein, but upon the dissolution
of tJie house his body was removed to the parish Church of Goodrich.
His widow Elizabeth died in -IGth Edward III (1372) seized, inter aJt'it,
of the ]Manor of Goodrich and the advowson of tlie church.

Flanesford Priory was always small and obscure. W(! know the name
of but one Prior, Kobert Eisher, who ruled the house at the time of the
dissolution. The revenues then amounted to the clear annual value of
£li 8s. 9d. only, which were derived from the same lands, and no more,
wherewith it was endowed by Richard Talbot and Elizabeth his Avife
nearly tAvo hundred years before. Dugdale says the seal of this priory
has not been met Avitli.

Externally the chief building, Avhich is noAV used as a barn, has the
appearance of a large lofty and dignified church, consisting of chancel
and nave, the galiles heiug surmounted Avith crosses, but the roof has
l)robably been tamj^ered Avith. The interior arrangements are very
perplexing.

•Sir John Maclean said that he regretted that some Members of the
Society better \'ersed than himself in the construction of Augustinian
Priories Avas not present to explain this building. To such an one many
things Avhich perplexed him Avould appear clear. HoAveA^er, in the absence
of a more efficient guide, he would direct the attention of the company to
such details of the building as seemed to him to be best Avorthy of
observation. He remarked that the Avhole of the building A\-as of
iJecorated Avork, thus agreeing Avith the date of the foundation of the
house.

He then conducted the party to a small Aving on the south-east of the
building, and entering a room in the basement, about tA\^enty-four feet by
sixteen feet, evidently of a domestic character, he pointed out a narroAv
staircase in the thickness of the Avestern Avail Avhich led up to the lloor
aboA-^e. There is a chimney place at the south end of this apartment.
It Avas lighted by tAvo square-headed AvindoAvs on the Avest side, noAV
Uocked up, and a small AvindoAv in the east Avail. At the foot of the
staircase was a small AvindoAv, also blocketl up, and a .sniall C[uatre-foil
opening higher up. On the north side is a door leading through a very
thick A\all into another apartment of about the same size Avhich Avould
ajjpear to have had neither fire-place nor Avindows. Ascending to the
lloor above by modern external steps, entrance is gained through a square-
headed opening, close lo Avhich is another similar opening. These
openings are not splayed, and scarcely appear to have been AvindoAvs.
The o\iter room Avhich here, as beloAV, is divided from the inner one by a
thick Avail, is furnished Avith a fire-place at the south end. Sir John
directed attention to the fact that the thick Avail separating the rooms is
a continuation of the south Avall of the great building, and that the
partition betAvcen the inner rooms and that building is merely a flimsy
brick-nogging and Avooden erection of modern date. Above these rooms
ai'e others, to Avhich access is obtained by a common modern step ladder,



THE KOYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL IXftTITUTE. 499

protected on the toj) by a panelled screen of ancient wood-work.
This screen does not, however, api^ear to be in situ, and as these floors
intersect the windows they Avould not seem to have formed part of the
original construction, and it is supposed the roof was open. This apartment
is lighted by a handsome window in the east wall of peculiar design.
It would appear to liave been of a single light. The arch is erpiilatcral
and cinque-f oiled, and divided at the springing by a transom resting on
trefoil brackets and forming the well known "shouldered" opening so
characteristic oi the Edwardian i)eriod. On each side in the splay at the
bottom of tliis window is a projection like a stone seat. There was also
a cusped window of smaller size, now blocked up, in the north wall.

Proceeding to the interior of the main building, Sir John called
attention to the fact that it Avas originalh' of two stories, as shcAvn by the
floor-line all round ; he pointed out that on the south side, about two
feet six inches above such floor-line is a gi-aceful piscina Avith a cinque-
foiled head, whilst directly opposite on the floor level is a very noble
chimney place, precisely like one in Goodrich Castle, and probably the
Avork of the same man. He pointed out that about two or three feet east
of the piscina a screen crossed the building, as indicated by the corbels
remaining in the walls Ijelow the floc>r level, an<l by lioles in the walls
in a vertical direction above.

The basement storey in this building was ligiited by tAvo square headed
two-liglit AvmdoAvs on the south side, and the upper floor had four large
AvindoAvs Avith equilateral arches of peculiar character, somcAA'hat of a
flamboyant type. Like the eastern Avindow above mentioned, the liead
Avas separated from the loAA'er part of the AA'indoAV by a transom supported
by trefoil brackets at the springing. Sir John thouglit that it was clear
the chapel Avas on the ujjper floor and lighted by tAVo, or perhaps three of
the AvindoAvs last mentioned, the fourth being on the east of the screen,
and the hall or refectory Avas probably on the opposite side embracing the
gTeat fireplace. On the east of the fireplace Avas a AvindoAv similar to
those on the south side ; at a little distance Avestwards Avas a square
headed thi'ee-light Avindow, and stiU further west on the north side a
smaller smgiedight AvindoAV Avith a cinquefoil head, AA'hich probably
lighted another apartment ; in the basement, near the Avest end, Avas a
.small square grated Avindo\v.

The west front had a handsome elevation. A sijuai-e headed doorAvay
leads into the basement floor, and over this, on the level of the upper
floor, is an e(juilateral arched doorAvay flanked hy cinquefoil headed
niches. Beyond these, and someAvhat higher, Avas on each side an
equilateral arched AviiuloAv. The principal entrance njust hove been
approached by external steps.

West of this entrance there is noAv a modern bniMing, though llie
northAvest angle consists of ancient Availing.

Sir John expressed his opinion, though .someAvhat hesilatingly, that the
upper flo<jr on the main building Avas appropriated to the chapel, refectory,
hall, and other common apartments ; that the basement, or substructure,
AA'as used for oHices and storerooms, and that in the eastern end were tlie
priors' lodgings, dormitories, &c.

Passing the priory steAvs the party proceeded to Gooilrich Castle.

A visit Avas paid by the Institute to this remarkable fortress in 1860,
Avhen the nunnbers met at Gloucester, and on Avliich occasion the castle
VOL XXXIV. 3 s



500 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

was (Irscriltcd l)y llie late Mr. Ilartslioiue and INIr. J. H. Parker. (See
Journal, vol. xvii, p. 348). Its most notable constriictioual feature is
perhaps the entrance, which exhiliits a skill and complication in arrange-
ment for security rarely equalled. It comprises a dark vaulted passage
fifty feet in length, which was defended l)y a drawbridge covered by
loopholes in either flanking tower. About eleven feet within the })assage
was a massive gate, over which were machicolati(ins for pouring down
boiling water or molten lead on the heads of assailants. Six and a lialf
feet beyond this was a portcullis, and seven feet further a second port-
cullis, the space between these lieing likewise protected by loo[»holes and
machicolations. About two feet further inward was another strong gate;
and about six feet beyond this on the right a small door leading to a long
narrow gallery formed in tlio Ibickness of the wall, and which Avas the
means of access to the loo}»holes in tlie eastern tower, as well as to others
that commanded the brow of the steep preci})ice towards tlie noi-th-east.
The castle in its origin is proliably the Avork of Hugh de Lacy, the
founder of Llanthony Aljbey, avIio held feudal sway over Hereford and
INIonmouth during the reign of William Kufus. It seems, after De Lacy's
death (without issue, in 1131), to have passed into the liantls of the king,
for in the eleventh year of Henry II (1165) it was held by William
Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, Avho paid about thirty shillings annually to
the CroAvn for possession. The male line of the INIarshalls became extin(;t
in 1245. The seal of Walter, tlie last Earl of Pemljroke Init one, Avas
foun<l amongst the ruins some yeai's since. The constableship of the
f()rtress iiassed into the hands of De A'alences, and through them to John
Coniyn. Elizabeth Comyn, one of his three children, became the Avife of
Richard Talbot, by Avhich union (ioodi'ich Castle became possessed by the
ShreAvsbiiry family, and Avas for some centuries their prini'i]ial seat. It
derives most renown from having been the seat of the invincible Sir Joliii
Talbot, to Avhom it descended in 1420. It remained in jiossessiou of the
Talbots till 1616, Avhen it passed by marriage, into that of the Dukes of
Kent, and from them by purchase to the ancestor of Mrs. INlarriot, the
]ii-esent })ossessor. Its poAver of resistance Avas tested in the (ireat
Rel)ellion, Avhen it Avas at first occupied by the Parliament, but in 1646
Avas garrisoned for the King l)y Sir Richard Lingley. After an eightet^i
Avei'ks siege by Colonels Birch and Kyrle the garrisoned cai)itulated, Avheu
it Avas I'ednced to its present ruintnl state,

Retiu'uing to Ross the party lunched at the. Royal Hotel and sul)se-
fpiently Adsited the church, with the " lieaA^'U-directed spire." This
building Avas undergoing the process of restoration, and a rood loft })iscina
had been lat(ily uncovered. Among the displaced monuments Avere
efligies of a Rudhall and his Avife (1636) of the school of Nicholas Stone.
Tlie members returned to Hereford a half-past five.

Tlie Historical Section met at half-past eight, in the A\"ool]iope, Club
Room, the Rev. K. S^iurrell in the chair, Avhen j\Ir. J. Tom liurgess's
pa]>er on "The Family of Lingen" Avas read by ]\Ir. Hartshohnk,
(priiiteil at p. .'573). A jiaper on "Roman Herefordshire," by ]\fr. W.
T]iom])son \Valkiii, was ]iartly read by tlu^ Chairman, (printeil at ]x 349),
and Mr. S Tucker (Rouge Croix) folloAved Avith a ]iapi'r "On the
Discovery of i\\v. Remains of -lolm, iirsj Marl of Shrews] airy," wliicli is
printed at p. 386.



THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE. 501

]\Iiiii(lay, August 13.

A large |>ai'tv started in carriages at lialf-^'ast nine for Credriiliill,
]Mi»ccas and Iked ward inc. Credeuliill eliurcdi, Avliieh Avas first reached,
AV'as described In' ^[r. IVresforil Hnpe. Tlie cliief features of the Imikliug
are dpeiiiugs or ]iassages on either side of tln' {•liauwd arcli, somewhat
simihir to those of an earlier periml in Ashley Church, Hampshire. A
window in the chancel coutain.s iigure.s of Thomas a Beckett and Thomas
de Cantilu])e, in painted glass of the middle of the f(jurteenth century.
To the north east of the church, a steep ascent brought the vi.sitors to the
top of Credeuliill Camp, now covered with forest. This Avas originally a
Ih'itish stronghold, hut sulise(piently converted hy the Komans into a
summer camp to "■ Magna Castra," Kenchester (see p. 366). The party
after having hi'en Imspitahly entertained with light refreshments hj- the
Kev. (I. H. Jhdmer, jiroceeded to ]'>yford, the heights of Kenchester being
seen in the distance. At IJyford a short stay Avas made to inspect the
Transitional church Avith its (>xcellent Early English arcade into tlui
chancel aisle, and the Court a restored house of the time of Henry YIII.
The _j(nn'ney Avas continued to M(jnnington Church, a fifteenth century
building, A'irtually built in 1679. Mr. IJeresford Hojje pointed to it as
an instance of the snr\'ival, almost amounting to a rcA'iA'al of Gc^lhic in the
seventeenth century. The double trausomeil Avinilows Avere very good
examples f()r so late a period. The Avoodwork, ])articidarly the chancel
screen, Avas especially noticeable. The latter, thoiigh renaissance in design,
had the outline and proportions of a media-val one. This Avas not merely
a post-Kef ormational, but a ])ost-restorational screen, an unusutd oc<;ui-
rence ; that at Ingestre (1676) and 8t. Peter's, Cornhill, Avere other
instances. Xear the porch is the trailitional graA^estone (jf f)Aven (.ilen-
doAA^er. After Aasiting the manor house of 8ir Thomas Tom^ikin, the
restorer of the church, the carriages crossed the Wj'e and arrived at
lialf-))ast one at Moccas Court, a house built by the brothers Adams, and
charmingly situated in a line Avooded park, on the banks of the river.
The I'ai'ty Avas most hospitabl}' received and entertained by the Kev. Sir
(Jeorge and Lady Cornewall. The church in the i)ark Avas sul)se(pu'ntly
Aisited and described by Sir (leorge Cornewall. This interesting Ivirly
]S'(jrman church, ccjnsists of nave, choii-, and apsidal chancel, in i)lan ])r( -
cisel}' like Kilpeck, but there is very little ornament displayed, i)robably
OAA'iiig to the fact that the building stone employed in its erection is a very
porous traAertine, quarried on the estate ; it is soft in Avorking and hardens
on ex))osure, but Avill not readily bear tooling, except in the simplest of
chamfers. All the decorative features are of Ihnestone, brought from a
distance for the imrpose. The south door has a lintel deejily hatched Avith
the diagonal lines fre<iuently employed by Norman builders ; above is a
tympanum shcjwing the Tree of Life, Avith tAvo animals, apparently
mules, in the act of devouring human figures, A\-ho are suspended heads
downwards. On the Avalleil-U]) north door is a someAA'hat siuular subject
in a tympanum. The church Avas re^taircd by AVestmacott in the
begiiniing of the century, and restored a feAV years ago by ^Ir. Gilbert
Scott.

Mr. Bekesfoku HorE observi'd that this was a ihurcli l»uilt prior to tlie
days Avhen the structural distinction between the chuir or chancel and the.
sanctuai'v Avas obliterated. Tlicre Avas a stroni; family likeness between



502 PROCEEDINGS AT MEETINGS OF

tliis (;liuicli and the oiitj ;it Kilpeck; "wliile Ijnlli (lis|i]aycd 8umc iugi'uiuu.s
rarviug and planninj^f ; Ijut any one who looked to villaL;(' clmrclics ol' tliu
Xornian period for l)i,L!,li art would certainly he disap])ointed. Art and
tlie vague sort of criticism in wliicli "like" and "dislik(!" had a i)lace
had notliiuy to do witli them. They were specinicnrt, so t<i speak, in the
"museum" of ecch'siological science, and slum Id ho luuidled accurdingly
as interesting to a rcl urologists. Any criticism oJi their relalivt' appear-
ance, or frihhling testhetic commentary upon and comparisoii of them,
he should look u))on as waste of words. Their value Avas not their
intrinsic heauty, hut their associations, history and plan.

Tu the centre of the chancel is an effigy of the time of Edward II,
placed upo^i a high panelled tomh. Concerning this monument IMr.
Hartshorne said it was one of the most rcmarkahlc effigies in England,
and in considering this extremely curious Jigurc it would he desiraVile in
({uote an ahstract from the Sprritlain Rrtjnlc, a Latin MS. of the early part
of Ihe fourteen til century, Avhich gives the following description of the
costume of an armed knight : —

" The following accoutrements arc necessary — coverings for his legs
made of well hlacked soft linen, Avhich should extend to the knee hand
of his chaucons or hreeches, over these steel shin pieces, so high as to he
fastened with a double hand ; the horseman is to put on linen drawei's,
and over these steel coverings for the knees. The upper part of his
h( (dy should he covered Avith a linen hody armour reaching down to the
middle of his thighs, over that a hreast-plate of iron, extending from the
hreasts to the hands of the chaucons, then a strong firm hauherk,
succeeded hy a hody covering of linen Avithout sleeves. Let him have
tAvo swords, one of which let him Avear in his helt, the other let him
hang at his saddle how, a dagger or Avar knife, a steel helmet on his
head, Avith an entire coA'^ering for his face ; let him carry on his neck a
solid shield hung hy a strong thong; lastly, a sharp javelin ni steel."
Mr. Hartshorne pointed out Iioav closely this descriptinn applied
to the effigy, calling special attention to the quilted gamheson, the
hauherk, the haketou of scales, and the unusual shape of the surcote
Avhich, Avith its Avide opening in front, possessed for horsemen the
practical advantages of the cyclas Avhich Avas introduced at this period.
With regard to the haketon of scales he said that, Avitli the exception
of a garment of a somcAvhat sindlar kind represented on an effigy
in St. Peter's Church, Sandwich, it Avas, as far as he Avas aAvare,
the only scul])tured example of scale hody-arnrour represented upon an
efHgy in England. The rare occurrence of this defense Avas the more
surprising since scale armour Avas used from the earliest to comparatively
late times. It is represented Avith great fre(iuency in the Assyrian
s<;ulptures, Avhere it appears to have been Avorn in any direction. It Avas
wi.irn hy the Greeks and specially by the Romans, and in the tAvelfth
century the Emperor Henry V clothed a body of his troops in an
i 111 penetrable scale armour of ho]-n. In England it occurs frequently
npi.n l)rasses, as "scaly-toes" so-called, or other smaller portions of detail.
It, was in common use in the time y\\ ilie Mnquvror jNIaximilian, and Avas
enq»loyed in Toland in llie lime nf .bilin S.>])ieski. Tlie elhgy probably
represents a member nf the Freiie family, Avho were lords of Moccas, anil
may be dateil about 1330.

The nieiiil»i'rs then examined a curious sun-dial in the garden in the




Effigy in Moccas Church



THE IIOYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTlTLTi:. 503

fuj'ui oi ;i St. Aiidiew's crosy, rained upon a pedestal, the Aarious .sidiis
hti'uv^ cut into as many dials, Avitli English and Latin inscriiitions. Tliis
sun-dial rcsoniblcs in its general eliaracter that in the desolate eoitityaid
of the ancient nianur house of the T)ovc's at Upton near IVtei'bordUgh,
and may bo compared "with nue at Xelburne House in Scotland, Aviiich
exhibits sixty dials.

Leaving ]Moccas tlie party ilrove thr(jugh tlie }>ark, jjassing .some line
oaks of high antiij^uity, and arrived at Urcdwardine ehuich. The
strong detiection of the chancel from the centre line of the nave
was pointed out and the great size of the font, -which was formed,
like others that had been seen during the week, of a block of
conglomerate. There were evidences of the early Xorman (irigin of the
church, but many changes and additions had bee)i made in the thirteenth
and fouiteenth centuries. The Rev. J. Housemax offered the party tea
at the cliarmingly-situated rectory on the edge of the ^Vye, but time did
not allow of si-eing the site of Ered-wardine castle and its earthworks on
the south side of the church. Hereford was reached at half-past seven.

The general concluding meeting was held in the "Woolhope Clu1>room
at nine, the Kev. J. Fuller Russell in the chah*. A cordial vote of
thanks to the Bishop of Hereford (who was unavoidably absent) was



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