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baggage of the Parliament army, and carried off Lord
Essex's carriage.

Near to the old ford over the brook at the bottom of
Bridge-street, Kineton, where a new road was made a few
years ago, some skeletons were found, which, from the
position wherein they were discovered, makes it more
than probable that they were the bodies of some who
were defending the ford against the assaults of Rupert's
soldiers. After a while the cavaliers were disturbed
in their pillaging operations by the near approach of
Hampden's regiments, who, on hearing the guns of the
combatants, hastened to join their companions in arms.
The advanced guard, with some guns they had brought
with them, opened fire upon the cavaliers, who then
retreated from Kineton. Had Rupert held his force well
in hand, and, having driven back the enemy's right, had
formed on the flank of Essex's centre, and charged it
with the same impetuosity with which he had defeated
the right wing, Essex's centre must have been com-
pletely rolled up, and Edgehill not Naseby would have
been the decisive battle of the Civil War. Whether this
would have been an advantage to the country or not, it
is not for me to say : I have only now to do with
describing the battle. While Rupert was attacking the
enemy's left, Commissary-General Wilmot proceeded to



THE BATTLE OF EDGEHILL. 41

attack the left wing. At the first onset he appears to
have driven back the foe, but when he arrived at certain
hedgerows and enclosures which had been lined with
Essex musketeers, his advance was stopped. Clarendon
states that these enclosures were near to Kineton, while
most of the Parliamentary authorities make out that they
were within the lines occupied by Essex's soldiers. The
farm houses of Battle farm and Thistle farm were
probably not in existence at that time, as except in the
case of an old house or two still remaining, where once
there had been a village, single farm houses were seldom
to be met with in the old open fields till many years after
the battle of Edge Hill.

Tradition says, as I have remarked, that there was only
one hedgerow between Radway and Kineton, and that
hedgerow, which still exists, is on the spot occupied by
Essex's centre. The ditches too which are mentioned,
must have been on the lower ground, somewhat to the
rear of Essex's army, where some natural watercourses are
still to be found. Willmot, therefore, in the first instance
seems to have driven back the enemy, but was afterwards
checked in his advance. Some authorities following
Colonel Fiennes and others, state that he was driven back
to the hills, while others say that he lost but little ground.
This and other disputed points have lately been elucidated
by the deep draining and deep cultivation of the land.
The actual area on which the battle was contested, can
now be shown with considerable clearness. I have care-
fully traced out the area on which bullets, cannon balls,
and other relics of the fight have been found by this deep
cultivation, so that I can point out to within a hundred
yards or so, the area on which the combatants contended.
That Wilmot was driven back to the village of Radway
can now be clearly disputed, as no remnant of the fight in
the shape of bullets, skeletons, or cannon balls have been
found beyond this the immediate confines of the two
parishes, and no bullet marks are to be seen on the wall
of the old house. That a number of his raw recruits,
when his force was galled by the fire of Essex's musketeers
and he was obliged to give ground, fled to the hills is
more than probable, just as some of Essex's troops fled to
Stratford when driven back by Rupert, and as the Belgians

VOL. XLVI G



42 THE BATTLE OF EDGEHILL.

fled to Brussels from Waterloo, but that there was not
any fighting between the two forces beyond the first
field or two in Radway parish, as now enclosed is quite
apparent. Simultaneously with these two attacks of the
two, the kind's centre moved forward to attack the centre
of Kssex's army. Now when the king descended the hill
and proceeded to attack Essex's centre, he not only gave
up his impregnable position on the hills, but, as Essex's
centre was posted upon the before mentioned ridge, after
crossing the Radway brook, the king had to ascend the
rising ground to attack the enemy, and to attack them
too as they stood under the cover of the broken ground.
Notwithstanding this, at the outset, he seems to have
driven back the enemy's centre, and advanced through
the bush and furze till he came to the before-mentioned
hedgerow, in front of which the fighting must have been
excessively severe. Here the largest amount of the debris
of the fight are found ; here was the grave in which the
common soldiers were buried. Just at this time, the
attack of Wilmot, on the king's left, began to fail, and he
was driven back some little distance. This, Major Ross,
who is writing accounts of the battles of the Civil Wars,
as military studies, rather disputes. He has not, however
personally examined the ground. The discovery of bullets
in this direction shows that there was heavy fighting on
that spot, to which I assert he was driven back. The
enemy was, therefore, able to attack the king's centre in
an oblique direction with his cavalry. Rapin states that
the attack of the king's centre by Balfour and the cavalry
was from Essex's left wing on the side left exposed by
Rupert. This view Major Ross endorses, and the number
of bullets, skeletons, &c, found in this direction, leads
much to the same conclusion.

The King's centre was now in danger of being utterly
routed. The standard bearer, Sir E. Varney, was killed,
and Secretary Chambers, attended by six troopers, was
carrying off the standard in triumph. Just then Captain
Smith, of Skilts, a Warwickshire squire, was riding with
his groom near the spot, when a boy cried out " They are
carrying off the standard." Putting on an orange scarf
which had belonged to a dead trooper, and calling to some
infantry soldiers to follow him, he attacked Chambers,



THE BATTLE OF EDGEHILL. 43

running him through with his sword, And though after-
wards wounded in the neck with a poleaxe, he pierced
and killed another of his assailants, and the rest ran
away. Then, mounting one of the Soundhead's horses,
and calling on a foot soldier to hand him the Standard, he
rode off with it. Soon after, meeting with some of the
King's horse soldiers that had rallied, he delivered the
Standard to Robert Hutton, who took it to the King ;
and the next day Smith was knighted for his gallant act.
The King seeing that matters were going ill for him in
the centre, left his position near the present church, and,
with the courage he always showed in adversity, went
forward to rally his troops. For a time the King himself
was in great danger of being captured, as he had no
body-guard with him. He was, however, soon surrounded
by some of his own soldiers, and the danger passed away.
Lord Lindsay endeavoured to rally the Royalists, but,
advancing too far in front of his own regiment, was shot
in the thigh and taken prisoner, as was also his son,
Lord Willoughby, who tried to save his father. It was
Lord Lindsay who, before he entered the battle, uttered
these well-known words to God : " Lord ! Thou knowest
how busy I must be this day. If I forget Thee, do not
Thou forget me. March on, boys." The contest must have
been excessively severe. The number of bullets that
have in the last few years been ploughed up or found in
digging the new drain, is, after the lapse of so many
years, very large.

The King's troops contested the ground inch by inch,
and at the end were only driven back some 400 yards from
the front of Essex's position as barely any traces of the
battle have been found on the Radway side of the brook,
or where the brook turns up towards the hill beyond a
straight line drawn in the direction the brook has hitherto
run. Rupert's troops having, as we have seen, been
disturbed in their acts of plundering by Hampden's
advanced guard, retired in straggling order to the battle-
field. On their return, according to Rupert, Balfour's
troops at once returned and formed safely in Essex's
rear. The King who retained at this crisis his full
presence of mind, endeavoured to collect a sufficient body
of the straggling soldiers to charge the enemy on their



44 THE BATTLE OF EDGEHILL.

flank. He was, however, able to get only a few together.
And the success of their efforts seem to show that had
they charged in suilicient number the issue of the day
would have been different. But the men and their horses
were weary. Now was seen the lolly in allowing the
Body Guard to leave the King. Now was seen the mis-
fortune of Carnarvon's troop disobeying their orders and
charging with Eupert's Cavalry. Had they remained in
reserve to act when required and cover the flank of the
centre, a victory, not a drawn battle would have been the
result. As it was Essex's troops would not leave their
good position on the ridge amongst the bushes, so the two
forces for the few remaining minutes of daylight stood
looking at each other ; but night, the friend of weary and
dismayed armies, parted them. Then the King ordered
his cannon nearest to the enemy to be drawn oil", and with
his whole forces spent the night upon the field. His
carriage, which had descended the hill from Knoll End
late in the evening, down a trackway still known as King
Charles's road, drew up at a spot called the King Leys
Barn, where the writer's great grandfather planted a clump
of trees to mark the spot. The trees were cut down in
1863 to enlarge the farm-yard, but the spot is still to be
identified. This spot is half-way between the hills and the
position occupied by the army of the Parliament, and
only 600 yards in the rear of the brook. As the King's
carriage came down the hill it would draw up not in the
front, but somewhere near the rear of his forces.

We have here another fact to show the King's centre
was not driven back to any great extent. That many of
their enemy, unused to warfare, fled for refuge to the top
of the hill when the battle was somewhat against them,
we know was the case, as one-third are said to have fled
the field. But that the King was driven back to the hills
either in the centre or to the left, is from these facts
simply impossible. The next morning the King walked
to the village of Eadway, where he breakfasted at a
cottage, in which was preserved the old table, on which
his meal was served. The cottage was pulled down in
1882. Neither party was anxious to resume the battle ;
the Parliamentarians had a wholesome dread of Eupert's
cavalry, while the King found that Essex's infantry,



THE BATTLE OF EDGEHILL. 45

which had been for many weeks longer in training
than his own — for his own troops had only been formed
into an army after his arrival at Shrewsbury, September
the 20th, — were better soldiers than his own. A small
troop of the King's cavalry, however, went forward,
under Captain Smith, and brought off four guns which
had been left close to Essex's position. Towards noon
the King sent his herald, Sir William Neve, with a
proclamation of pardon to those who would lay down
their arms. This proclamation he was not allowed to
distribute, He brought back, however, tidings that Lord
Lindsay had died of his wounds, as there was no surgeon
to attend him. In the afternoon Essex drew of! his forces
towards Kineton, and from thence marched to Warwick.
The King, seeing this, went back with his two sons to
the hospitable quarters of Mr. Chauncey, of Edgecott. On
the Tuesday morning, Rupert's cavalry followed the
retiring army almost to Warwick, and found that they had
left many of their wounded and some of their carriages
at Kineton. On the Wednesday the King's army was
numbered, when it was found that the numbers were
greater than he expected, those that had run away in the
midst of the battle having rejoined regiments. The
number of soldiers on each side was somewhere about
10,000. The dead, which amounted to about 1,200, were
buried on the field of battle, in a field just in front of the
oft mentioned hedgerow, in the parish of Kineton, by Mr.
Fisher, the vicar. The officers were buried by themselves,
about 200 yards distant, in a north easterly direction.
The army, finding themselves masters of the situation,
marched to Edgecott, and from there to Banbury, where
they stormed the castle. The statement of the numbers
killed is given by the Eev. Mr. Fisher.



NOTES ON ROMAN ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS FOUND
IN LEICESTER, AND NOW IN THE TOWN MUSEUM. 1

By G. E. FOX, F.S.A.

The Town Museum of Leicester possesses one of the
largest collections of architectural fragments of the
Komano-British period 2 that can be found in this country,
mostly derived from excavations made for various pur-
poses and at various times, within the lines of the walls
of that ancient city.

Before proceeding to describe in detail these relics of
the Eoman time, it will be necessary to give a slight
sketch of the site on which they have been found.

The present town of Leicester, has within the last fifty
years far outgrown the narrow limits of the older city.
But in so doing, it has left very distinct traces of the
ancient boundaries. On examining the map, it will be
seen that the streets called Soar Lane and Sanvy Gate
on the North, Church Gate and Gallowtree Gate on the
East, and Millstone Lane and Horsefair Street on the
South, form three sides of a parallelogram, on all which
sides the walls of the mediaeval town are known to have
existed, which walls there is very little room to doubt,
were built on the foundations of the walls of the Roman
city of Ratse. There is no trace of the fourth wall, on
the West side, but it is scarcely to be supposed that the
Roman town was not completely surrounded by a mural
defence. It is conjectured that the western wall ran
from a point where the northern one touches the river
Soar, to some point west of Southgate street, where it
joined the southern wall. The huge mass of masonry

1 Read at the Monthly Meeting of the 2 The Museum Committee having

Institute, November 1st, 1888. The fol- lately decided on a re-arrangement of

lowing paper does not pretend to deal this collection, in order to its better dis-

with all the Roman Architectural Anti- play, the re-arrangement has been carried

quities found in Leicester, but only with out with great judgment by the present

those preserved in the Museum. Curator, Mr. Montagu Browne, F.Z.S.



NOTES ON ROMAN ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENTS. 47

called the Jewry Wall, occurs in the centre of this supposed
line, and has been considered with great probability, to
be the western gateway of the Roman city. Westward
again of this supposed wall, and at no great distance from
it, the river Soar flows in an irregular line, from south to
north. As Roman remains have been found quite down
to the brink of the river, and between it and the supposed
line of the Roman western wall, there must have been a
suburb here, if the western wall lay on the conjectured
limit. The discussion of this question does not, however,
come within the scope of this paper ; it is enough to
state that all the relics preserved in the museum, with
a few exceptions, were unearthed within the boundaries
just mentioned, viz., the lines of streets whose names have
been given, on the north, east and south sides, and the
banks of the river Soar on the west. Within the area
just described, two lines of main streets will be seen to
cross each other, the one running east and west, consisting
of High street and St. Nicholas street, (in which latter
street most of the Roman remains have been found), and
one from north to south, High Cross street and Southgate
street. As is so usually the case where a town sprang up
again on a deserted Roman site, and even within existing
Roman circumvallations, the mediaeval lines of communica-
tion do not represent the Roman ones. Thus in Leicester
the streets named are of mediaeval origin, though perhaps
in High Cross street, there are faint indications that it, in
part, followed one of the Roman ways. The greater
number of architectural objects preserved in the museum,
came from the four streets mentioned above. The excep-
tions are fragments of a mosaic floor, and a short column,
both of which came from the ruins of a villa in a field,
called the Cherry orchard, near Danett's hall. This is a
site, west of the old town about three quarters of a mile
from the present West Bridge. It will be described
further on.

Returning now to the consideration of the fragments
in the museum, the most prominent of these form the
group numbered from 4 to 7b. 1 in which all the parts are

1 The reference numbers given in this repeated in the plan and plate accompany-
paper are those borne by the objects ing this paper,
themselves in the museum, and are



48 NOTES ON ROMAN ARCHITECTURAL

placed as they appeared in situ. The following sentences,
recording their discovery, (in St. Nicholas Street, Novem-
ber 1867), are quoted from a Report for the year 1867, in
the transactions of the Leicester Architectural and Archae-
ological Society. 1

" During excavations at the north-east corner of that
street" (St. Nicholas Street) " abutting upon High Cross,
the workmen came upon portions of two Roman columns
standing upon a plinth, at a depth of between fourteen
and fifteen feet from the present surface. The plinth of
wrought stone, one foot thick, rested upon a rubble wall
or foundation. The two columns with their bases com-
plete, stood (measuring from the centre of each), 10 feet
I Of inches apart. They were each 1 foot 11 inches in
diameter. The height of the portion of one was,
including the base 4 feet 4 inches, the height of the other
also including the base and a portion of the column found

at its side and replaced, 6 feet 2f inches." " It

should be mentioned that in the year 1861 remains of
other columns were found in the same locality, one column
being discovered in a direct line with those now under
notice." This is No. 8 in the museum and on the
map. There are some slight differences of dimension and
proportions in these three bases found on the same spot,
but they are practically the same, and all belonged to the
same building.

The large drum of a column marked No. 4 has a
dowel hole in the top and a lewis hole cut through it,
and near this, what looks very like a mason's mark in the
shape of an incised letter T. The hollowed stone which
lies on the plinth, in this group, between the columns
appears to be part of the guttering which ran in a
line with the plinth, to receive the rain dropping from
the eaves of the portico or colonnade. The drum of
a column lying next it is interesting for the following
reason. In every Roman site in Britain where columns,
or capitals, or bases are found, there is evidence of the
lathe being used in forming them, and in this Leicester
collection that evidence is not wanting. Even such
heavy masses of stone as the drums of shafts seen here,
have been turned into shape in the lathe. If this

1 Vol. III. Part 4. 1874. p. 334.



FRAGMENTS FOUND IN LEICESTER. 49

drum (No. 6) be examined, it will show a dowel hole
in each end meant to contain a ping of wood, in which
the rods of iron forming an axis are fixed, and
at one end a second hole near the circumference to
receive the elbow from this axis, without which the
movement of rotation could not be imparted to the stone
to be worked upon.

Not only was this method employed in Britain, but it
appears to have been in use in Gaul also, for M. de
Caumont, in his work on Grallo-Koman antiquities, says
that the form of capital the most frequently found in
France must have been turned. Some of the bases in the
Leicester collection have been thus worked ; certainly the
portion of small shaft with its base (No. 15) has been
formed in this manner. The little column, found on
the site of Wyggeston's Hospital, High Cross St., July
the 27th, 1875, looks very like the column of a colonnade
of the upper story of some building, which had a hand-
rail from shaft to shaft. The hole for the tenon of the
rail, cut as small as possible so as not to weaken the
shaft, with the little bracket worked on the shaft under
it, to carry the greater width of the rail, are noteworthy.

St. Nicholas Street yielded further specimens of the
Roman builders' work. No. 2a and No. 10 bases, and
No. 3, a capital, (see plate), were found in this. street
between the Methodist Chapel and the corner of the line
of houses known as the Holy Bones, facing St. Nicholas
churchyard.

Here, fortunately, we have a capital of one of the
columns, of somewhat remarkable form, a peculiar variety
of the Doric. There is another in the Museum, No. 19,
resembling it, but more elaborate and of smaller dimen-
sions. It is a singular fact that this capital (No. 3) is
not unlike in section the fragment of a capital of one
of the columns of the portico of the building supposed
to be the Basilica of Lincoln, lending probability to the
idea that it exhibits a local variety of the Doric order
employed in the Midlands. In the necking of the large
capital (No. 3) and in the mouldings of the base No. 9,
may be observed deep holes and grooves. Such grooves
occur opposite each other in the upper mouldings of
the bases of the columns, in situ, of the portico at

VOL. XLVI H



50 NOTES ON ROHAN ATCOTTTTECTURAL

Lincoln, just named, and they may be seen cut into the
sides of capitals and bases on most Roman sites. They
indicate, with little doubt, in many instances, the
existence of screens of open work of simple geometrical
pattern fixed between column and column, or used to
fill either square or arched openings affording light and
air to the interior of buildings. In Rome itself, and
in the principal edifices of important continental cities,
these screens were either of marble or bronze. In this
distant province they were, more probably, of the humble
material, wood, bronze being too costly to be much in
use. To a certain extent barriers of latticed work of
this character may be considered the prototypes of the
traceries which filled the windows of churches, and the
arcades of cloisters, in the middle ages.

The two bases Nos. 13-14, were found, in situ, in
July, 1861, close to St. Martin's church. The following
extract from the report for that year in the Transactions
of the Leicester Architectural and Archasological Society,
gives the details relating to their discovery. " The
excavations at St. Martin's, Leicester, have brought to
light many antiquities of great interest. Several consider-
able portions of the foundations of ancient walls have
been discovered, and upon removing the earth — in July
last — on the north side of the church close to the
palisading dividing the church ground from the Town
Hall lane, the workmen came to a rubble wall of
considerable thickness, surmounted by a wrought stone
platform, upon which stood the bases of two massive
Doric columns, each about two feet in diameter. These
columns in all probability formed a portion of a
colonnade, which, judging from their size and the space
intervening between them — about ten feet — would be
of considerable length." I will here only remark that
the section of these bases shows a comparatively late
date, being much ruder than the profile of those found
at the corner of St. Nicholas street.

A few other fragments will attract attention, Nos. 21 to
26, part of well carved impost moulding, and what may
possibly be the stones of an arch all found in High
Cross street at its junction with Blue Boar lane. Also,
may be noted the Corinthian capital, the only one of that



FRAGMENTS FOUND IN LEICESTER. 51

order in the collection (No. 17), found in a garden in
Talbot lane. It is very rude in execution and doubtless
very late in date, and its effect much injured by the loss
of the volutes.

Last but not least in interest, the fountain tank No. 12
must be noticed (for section see plate). This was
discovered September 5th, 1862, at No. 52 High Cross
street, near its junction with St. Nicholas street, at a depth
of about 10 feet in excavating for a cellar. It may have
been a street fountain, but if objection be made that it is
too small for that purpose, then it must have stood in the
peristyle of some important house. Its finely moulded
outline, unfortunately not perfect in any one part, may,
with some attention still be made out and is worthy of
study. There are traces of a lining of the usual pink



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