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^retjaeoloottral Journal,



^rctacoloaical Cnstituif of QTixtai iSntain antJ IhelanD,



Ct)f a?arlp aiiU ii-litiljlf Sgrs.





JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street; LONGMAN & Co., Paternoster Row;

W. PICKERING, Piccadilly; and G. BELL, Fleet Street.
, John Henry PARKER, Oxford. DEI6HT0NS, Cambridge.



: PI









Remarks on Personal Seals
Middle Ajres ,

durino- the) _ „ , „

I T. Hudson Turner 1

Remarks on Medieval Heraldry, with a view"|

to an Ordinary of Arms ; and Suggestions rW. S. W 9

for copying existing examples '

Notices of Recent Discoveries in Chester""

Cathedral, illustrative of the original [ -p, >-, tt

^ , . T.. (' 11. C H 17

arranjiement ol that structure m JSorman

and later times

i A. Milward 41

On certain Ohscure Words in Charters, n

Rentals, Accounts, &c., of property in the VE. Smirke 20

West of England ^

Notice of the Roman Remains lately dis- 1

covered in Lower Thames Street J ' ^^

On Medieval Brick-work R. C. H 34

On the Norman Keep Towers of Conings-
burgh and Richmond

Description of the ancient plan of the-*

Monastery of St. Gall, in the ninth century} ^^''- ^"^^""^ ^^' ^^

On certain Obscure Words in Charters,')

Rentals, Accounts, &c., of Property in the [e. Smirke 118

West of England. — (continued.) -'

The Hall of Oakham Rev. C. H. Ilartshorne ... 124

Tiie Rood-sci-een, Priory Church, Christ-) t, r i.-.

, , „ • I ii. t 142

churcli, Hants )

On a Monumental ElHgy in Conini'ton ) ,r xt r>i i^<-

, ^^ . , , ( M. H. Bloxam 14()

Church, Huntingdonshire )

The Influence of a Parabolic Moulding upon \

the Buddhist Architecture of Western I A. B. Orlehar 173

India J

Some Notes on the Tradition of Playing,'
inflicted ih Punishment of Sacrilege ; the
Skin of the Offender being affixed to the
Church Doors ,

Albeit Way 185


An Account of the Discovery of Koman"]

Remains in the British Hill-Fortress l mi.

called "Cadbury Castle," near Tiverton,


Notice of a Medieval Mimic Entertainment) j ^ -.t/- ,♦ ^ iqo

resembling the modern Punch and Judy... J

Notices of Ancient Ornaments and Appli-) ,„ . xvr nm

^„ , ., ^' lAlbertWay 201

ances 01 bacred Use J

Peverell's Castle in the Peak Charles H. Hartsborne ... 207

On the Sepulchral Slabs existing in the|j,^^^^,^^.^^ ^.j^^^j^^^^ j^j_j)_ __ 3-3
Counties of Northumberland and Durham)

Illustrations of Medieval Manners, Chivalry,) .,, Wav 258

and Costume, from Original Documents .. )

On certain Obscure Words in Charters, ^

Rentals, Accounts, &c., of Property in the rE. Smirke 273

West of England.— (Continued.) '

Berkshire Antiquities I. W 279

Discovery of a Saxon Interment at Longj^^^^. j ^ ^.j^^^^^^^^^ ^_ 2^^
Wittenham )

Observations on the State of Horticulture in 1

England in Early Times, chiefly previous rT. Hudson Turner 295

to the Fifteenth Century ^

Domestic Architecture of the Thirteenth and I T tt p 311

Fourteenth Centuries )

Original Documents 57, 152, 316

Archaeological Intelligexck (53, 154,217,322

Notices of Recekt Publications 74, 168, 230, 338


Those marked thus * are plates to be inserted in the places indicated.


Ground-plan of Chester Cathedral . , . . .19

Roman Remains lately discovered in Lower Thames Street: —

General View of the Remains . . . . .25

Ground -plan of the same . . . . .26

Flue tile ....... 27

Dwarf pillars, or " pila; " . . . . .28

Plan of Hypocaust . . . . . .29

Roman Pottery . . . . . .33

Small jug of Glazed ware . . . . • ib.

Drain tile . . . . . . . ib.

On Medieval Brick-work : —

Brick panel, quatrefoil shape . . . . .34

Fragments of bricks, &c., (seven examples) . . . 37 — 39

General Plans of Coningshurgh and Richmond Castles . . .43

Section of Postern, Coningshurgh Castle . . . .46

of the ground floor and of the first floor of the same . . 47

of the second and third floors of the same . . .49

■ of the ground floor of Richmond Castle . . .54
of the first and second floors of the same . . .55

Decade ring, found near Cork . . . • .63

with oval facet, representing St. Catherine, found in Norfolk . 64

found near Kingston . . . . . ib.

Hoop ring, found at Attleborough, in Norfolk . . . .65

Seal of the Tinners of Cornwall ..... ih.

Personal seal of the 1 tth century, representing the man in the moon . 67
Sepulchral Brass of a knight and lady, from Allertou Maulevcrcr Church,

Yorkshire . . . . ' . . . .68

Founder's tomb, Gilling Church, Yorkshire . . . .69

Doorway in staircase, St. Clary's, Beverley . . . .73

*Rood-screen, Christ Church, Hampshire . . . . ib.

Buckler's History of St. Alban's: —

Interior of Belfry . . . . . .74

Turret on" the south transept . . . . .75

Norman balustre shaft, Norman impost and window from staircase . ib.

Elevation of the north transept . . . . .76


Two Folding Plans of the W^onastery of St. Gall, in Switzerland: —

No. 1. Fac-siinile of a drawing of the ninth century, being apian of the

Monastery ......

No. 2. Key to the fac-simile .....

Oakham Castle, Rutlandshire: —

Doorway of the principal entrance, and section of arches

Window, Exterior and Interior

South-western and north centre capitals, and south-eastern corbel

Elevation of the If all, east end

Plan of the Hall . . . .

Section of arch ....

Gold Annilla, found at Virginia, co. Cavan

Ring of twisted gold wire found in Ireland

Gold reliquary, in possession of the Rev. W. Maskell

Supposed Talismanic inscribed ring, found at Calne, Wiltshire

Bronze pointel found at Frittenden, Kent

Small steel seal, with three revolving facets, found at Winchester

Coffin-lids, discovered at St. Pierre, Monmouth .


Indian Architecture : —

Fig. 1. Mouldings of a Buddhist Base . . . .

Fig. 2. Pillar at Kenneri ; Fig. 5. Parabolic Emblem ; Fig. 6. Pilaster of

Buddh- Ghosh .....
Fig. 4. Screen at Kenneri ....

Fig. 3. Pilaster at Kenneri ; Fig. 8. Balustrade Pillar at Kenneri
Fig. 7. Banded Pilaster at Kenneri
Fig. 9. Balustrade Pillar at Kenneri; Fig. 11. Balustrade Pillar a

Elephanta .....

Fig. 12. Inscription under the Niche of Buddh-Ghosh
Figs. 13 and 14. Mouldings at'Elephanta
Fi'^. 15. Inscription in an unfinished Cave at Kenneri

Armillas found in the ancient shaft, Cadbury Camp

Bronze ring, found in the same ....

Engraving of a Medieval Mimic Entertainment, resembling the modern Punch
and Judy . . ....

Illuminations from MSS. in the Public Library, Rouen

Peverell's Castle in the Peak: —

West and South Views of Castle

General Plan, and Details

Eastern side, and interior of West side of ditto

Views of Garderobe ; Head of Door, East side ; Ground-plan

of Basement Floor, First Floor, and Second Floor
Section of remains of herrins'-bone work

Druidical Circle and plan, Isle of ]\Iull

Representation of ancient Irish Ring-money

Remarkable Fibula found in excavating for the Ely and Peterborough Railway

and Plans



Armillae found with the Fibula ..... 220

Saxon Fibula, in the possession of Mr. W. Hedley, of Monkwcarmouth . 221

Side view of ditto, with its outer case removed . . . . ib.

Iron ring, supposed to be the coronal of a lance, found at Hildersham . 227

"Decorative Tiles, coloured, from the Cathedral, Oxford • . . 232

Decorative Tiles of the Fifteenth Century, Great Malvern Abbey Church . ib.

Examples of Decorative Tiles, from Great Malvern and Canterbury Cathedral . 233
Decorative Pavement Tiles. — Tile Monument, formerly in the Chapter-house,

Abbey of Jumieges ...... 234

Antiquities from the Museum of the Hon. Richard Neville, at Audley End . 235
Representation of a Roman Thuribulum of Terra Cotta, Bronze Tweezers, and

Roman Terra Cotta figure symbolical of Plenty, discovered in Essex . 236

Doorway to Chantry Chapel, Bothwell Church, Scotland . . . 239
Cross of Muiredach, Monasterboice, with representation of the Sculpture ; Cross

of Cong, and Stone Chalice, from the R. I. Academy . . 242
Views of St. Doulough's Well, Scurloughstown Castle, and Bee-hive House,

Bishop's Island ...... 243

Sepulchral Slabs in Northumberland and Durham : —

From St. Mary's and St. Andrew's, Newcastle. — Bamburgh, Newbigging,

Horton, and East Shaftoe, Northumberland . . . 2-33
Ayclifie, and Church near Darlington, Durham. — Horton. — Hexham. —

St. Mary's, Gateshead. — Woodhorn, Northumberland . . 256

Saxon Remains found at Long Wittenham, and Blewbury, Berkshire: —
Dagger; Skeleton, shewing the position; Silver Studs and Central por-
tion of the Shield; Fragment of the Vase; at Long Wittenham . 291
Hook, Sword, and Spear-head, at Long Wittenham. — Bronze Instrument,

and Fragment of Pottery, at Blewbury . . , 293

Horticulture in England in Early Times: —

Garden of the Fourteenth Century, from a MS. of the Romaunt d'Alex-

andre, Bodleian Library ..... 295

Fifteenth Century, from a MS. of the Romaunt de la Rose,

British Museum ...... 309

Domestic Architecture of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: —
House at Charney, Berkshire, West Front . . .311

Ground-plan of ditto . . . . . . ib.

Exterior of Chapel and Solar ; and Interior of Chapel . . 313-

Interior of the Solar . . . . . ib.

Fire-place of Lower Story of South Wing, and Plan of Upper Story of ditto ib.

Window in the Gable . . . . . ib.

Low side Window in the Hall . . . . .314

West Front, wdth Plan of House, Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire . . 315

Antiquities discovered in tumuli in Dorsetshire .... 323

Tore, Armillae, and Celt of bronze, found on Hollingbury Hill . . 325

Antiquities discovered at Kingston on Thames .... 327

Ornamented object of Bronze ..... 328

Iron Axe-head," found in the bed of the Thames at Kingston . . 329

Anglo-Saxon Bell, found near Ofla's palace, at ^larden . . . ib.

Anglo- Roman Quern, found near Rugby . . . . ib.



Chalice and Paten, from Chewton Mendip Church, Somerset

Figures with Braccas, from Trajan's Column

Ladies with Bracelets, from a Greek Vase, and Roman Armillse

Roman Armilla of Gold found in Cheshire

"Various forms of Roman Spears

Roman Needles and Hair-pins, with Head-dress

Amphora and "Wine- cart ....

Tewkesbury Abbey Church: —

Turret and Pinnacle ; Bay of Nave ; Abutting Arch
The Le Despenser Monument

Tower at Egilsha, in the Orkneys






91 1 ct)aeo logical 3fouvuaL

MARCH, 1848.


The object of this paper is to draw attention to the varie-
ties of personal seals used in this country during tlie mid-
dle ages ; to submit a general classification of the devices
which occur on them, and by the aid of dated examples
to refer, approximately, certain subjects, of very frequent oc-
currence, to their respective periods. By confining myself
within these limits I must necessarily omit any consideration
of the great or state seals of England^ as well as of corporate
seals, both ecclesiastical and secular, as, strictly, they do not
fall under the denomination of personal seals. It wall be
convenient also to reserve, for another opportunity, the sub-
ject of seals purely heraldic in character, although they are
named in the classification which I have here attempted.

At the beginning of the last century the learned Bishop
Nicolson observed*", " whether the Norman nobility brought
their use of large seals into this kingdom, or found it
here, I am not certain ; but here they had them, presently
after their arrival." The progress of archaeological study has
removed all uncertainty on the subject : the use of seals, as a
legal formality, was introduced into this country by the Nor-
mans. After the Conquest seals became component parts of
legal documents, and it is to the legal importance which
attached to them, that we owe the preservation of many
thousands of impressions dating from the close of the eleventh

» It is to be hoped that Professor Willis seals, of which a portion has already ap-
iiiay have leisure to complete, at no dis- peared in this Journal, see vol. ii. p. 14.
tant period, his admirable essay on these '' Historical Libraries, ed. 1776, p. 198,



to the end of the fifteenth centnry. As land became more
and more siibinfendated, and wealth generally, more distri-
buted, the use of seals was diffused among all classes legally
competent to acquire or aliene property.

On personal seals of this early date, that is of the eleventh
and twelfth centuries, wdiich may be termed the first period,
the devices are entirely arbitrary and literal in character.
Thus barons and persons of knightly degree «= used seals repre-
senting a horseman, armed at all points, spurring to the fight,
or riding, falcon on wrist, to the chase. The seals of females,
single or married, sometimes bore their effigies attired in a
costume generally indicating that of their time : besides these
rude attempts at the human figure, birds, as eagles or hawks,
lions, dragon-like forms, crescents and stars in a variety of
combinations, and fleurs-de-lis are the subjects which most
commonly occur. No device adopted at this time was suf-
ficiently distinctive in character to identify the ownership of
the seal ; that object was attained by the surrounding legend,
containing the title or name of the person to whom it be-

The shape of seals used by secular persons during this
period was generally circular ; the seals of females, like those
of ecclesiastics, were mostly of a pointed oval form ; the
circular model however appears to have been the most

There are no reverses to baronial or knightly seals of this
date, produced, as was the case at a later period, by impressing
a smaller seal, termed a secretiim or privy-seal, on the back of
the wax after the application of the great seal. The earliest
example of this fashion, with which I am acquainted, is the

<^ It appears that during the twelfth it was under age and therefore not entitled
century, it was not customary for a person to use a seal ; but it is obvious that the
entitled by birth to the honour of knight- same disability would have prevented him
hood, to use a seal until he had received from alienating property ; moreover it is
that distinction. Thus Geoffrey de Man- well known that in early times, knight-
deville, son and heir of Geoffrey earl of hood was often conferred on individuals
Essex, says, in a grant to the prior and before they had attained their legal ma-
convent of the Holy Trinity, London, jority. I would suggest therefore, that, as
"istam cartam feci signari sigillo dapiferi the ordinary device on knightly seals, an-
mei, Henrici filii Geroldi, donee sim miles terior to tlie introduction of armorial bear-
et habeam sigillum, et tunc earn firmabo ings, was a kniglit on horseback, the
proprio sigillo." By some authors an ex- meaning of the grantor's words may be
pression of this kind, of which there are simply that not being as yet a knight, he
other examples, (Selden's Titles of Honour, could not use a seal with the device appro-
vol. iii. col. 595, ed. Wilkins; Nicolson's priate to that digniry, to which by birth,
Historical Libraries, p. 198, ed. 1776,) has as an earl's son, he was entitled. This
been taken to mean that the person using Geoffrey de MandevilJe died circa 1167.


seal of John, as earl of Mortaiiie, of the close of the twelfth
century, subsequent to 1170; on its reverse is the im-
pression of an antique gem with the legend, ij< secReivM


The wax used in taking impressions of seals during the
eleventh and twelfth centuries appears to have been generally
white ; there are a few examples of red wax, but the colour
seems to have been only ap[)lied superficially, and is usually
more or less volatilised. Towards the end of the twelfth cen-
tury green wax became very common ; the colouring matter
pervading the whole substance of the material ; and it may
be remarked that seals of this colour are in all instances better
preserved than those of white or red ; owing probably to the
improved com[)osition of the wax rather than to any other

On reviewing the seals of the first period we see in them
all the defects common to archaic art of whatever kind :
poverty of invention, a want of imitative power, and a rude
and superficial execution.

The introduction of heraldic insignia at the close of the
twelfth century had the natural effect of producing a large
class of seals exclusively armorial in character, and it is re-
markable that from this date a decided and progressive
improvement may be traced in the design and execution of
personal seals. At the commencement of the thirteenth cen-
tury the legal necessity for these instruments was thoroughly
established, and it is obvious that there must have been at that
time, as in our own, a large number of persons who would

" Badly engraved in Sandford's Genea- 1360, (Add. Ch. B. M. 6334.) The seal
logical History, &c. p. 55. Numerous of Seiher de Quincy is also worthy of
impressions of it are extant. There is a attention as an early, perhaps the earliest,
very fine one in the muniment room of instance of horse-furniture heing decorated
Oriel College, Oxford. The next in point with armorial bearings; but all the seals
of date, I believe, is on the reverse of the of this great baron are remarkable for
seal of Seiher de Quincy, afterwards earl their beautiful execution, particularly
of Winchester, (Cart. Antiq. B. M. xxii. those made after his creation as earl of
9,) of the time of John, ante 1210; it is Winchester. I should observe, before
a kite-shaped shield charged with his closing this note, that there is preserved
arms, without a legend. The obverse of in tlie British Museum, an impression of
this seal is curious, as presenting a a seal and counter-seal (secretum) sup-
mounted knight riding to the left, a posi- posed to be of Robert, sumamed Le
tion very rare on English seals ; it may be Bossu, earl of Leicester, who died in
remarked on the seal of Ilelias de Albe- 1167; I have not yet had an opportunity
niaco, (Cart. Antiq. lb., 45, B. 27,) circa of examining it, and therefore cannot
1180. This arrangement is not uncom- vouch for the evidence on which the con-
mon on foreign seals, for example, on the jectural date is founded. It may possibly
bullae of the kings of Castile and Leon ; be the seal of Robert Blanchemains, his
see a charter of Alphonso XL, dated son, who died in 1 190.


require them in the ordinary transactions of hfe, and yet
were not entitled to bear armorial distinctions, then the pre-
rogative of the knightly order. Thus yeomen, merchants,
substantial artificers, and the like, in short all persons compre-
hended by the term middle class, continued to fashion their
seals according to their own taste, and in the same arbitrary
manner as they had done at the earlier period ; occasionally
with slight modifications imitative of heraldic arrangement,
as in the use of shields.

For a time they were content "wdth the small variety of
devices already described; the fleur-de-lis, birds, Agnus Dei,
&c. ; then rebuses on the christian or surname were adopted :
these Avere c|uickly followed by symbols of occupation or
handicraft ; thus, the miller would bear an ear of corn fleur-
de-lise ; the musician his viol or croute, the farrier or smith
proclaimed his calling by a horseshoe, and the schoolmaster
figured on his seal with that valuable instrument and symbol
of discipline the birch. About the same time that grotesques
make their first appearance on marginal paintings in manu-
scripts, that is at the commencement of the fourteenth cen-
tury, we find them on personal seals, and they are met with
in great variety throughout the same period.

The several types or devices above enumerated, sometimes
in combination with architectural details, are those which are
of chief occurrence from the thirteenth to the end of the
fom'teenth century. It was during this, which I would call
the second, period that medieval seals attained their highest
artistic excellence. The impulse given to all branches of the
arts soon after the accession of Henry the Third, apparent in
all the monuments of that reign, is nowhere more conspicuous
than in the design and execution of seals ; and these objects
continue to present features of considerable beauty from that
time until the year 1400.

The shape of seals during the thirteenth centmy was
generally oval, more or less acute ; so ordinary was this form
that any one having to arrange a mass of unsorted deeds
might easily pick out most of those anterior to the year 1300
by merely observing the contours of the seals. As no rule is
without exception, so there are many circular and even heater-
shield shaped seals of this date ; but the ovoid will be found
to predominate. I do not pretend to offer any decided opinion
as to the symbolical import of that form ; although it may be


assumed with great probability that it was suggested by the
conventional method of representing the sacred nimbus which
prevailed from a very early period.

The wax used during this period is generally dark green,
and less frequently red or white.

Having before alluded to the secretum or counter-seal, I
may here remark that it is of ordinary occurrence on baronial
and knightly seals after the year 1200, from which period the
use of it may be considered to have been fully established ;
but not for the purpose of sealing either letters missive or
deeds, except in connection with the great-seal. Thus Wil-
liam earl Warenne concludes a letter to Hubert de Burgh,
the elusticiary of Henry the Third, entreating pecuniary aid,
" and because I have not my great seal with me, I have
caused the present letters to be sealed with my private seal^."

After the year 1400, personal seals, which are not of armo-
rial character, gradually decline in importance both as to size,
style of design, and execution. Thenceforth many represent
simply merchants'-marks rudely executed, monograms, or a
letter surmounted by a coronet, often the initial of a saint's
name, or of the name of the individual, although not entitled
to bear the coronet by nobility of birth. Merchants'-marks
which appear to have been imitated from the Flemings during
the reign of Edward the Third, and became very common
during the fifteenth and early part of the sixteenth century,
both on seals and signet rings, are composed of a private
cypher combined with the initials of the owner's name. They
offer a somewhat cm-ious field for research, and are often very
useful in identifying the persons by whom domestic, and parts
of ecclesiastical, edifices on which they occur were built. They
were more generally used in the great sea-ports on the eastern
coast of England*" than in the south ; a fact which is readily
accounted for by the frequent intercourse between those ports
and Flanders. It may be observed also that such marks be-
longed chiefly to woolfactors, or merchants of the staple.

There is another, and most interesting, class of subjects,
examples of which are common from the twelfth to the fifteenth
century. 1 allude to those afforded by antique intaglios which

* " Quia autem magnum sigillummeum tion of the merchants'-marks of Norwich,

mecum non habui, presentes litteras pri- has been formed by W. C. Ewing, Esq.,

vato sigillo meo feci sigillari." Ancient of tliat city, and will shortly appear at

Letters in the Tower of London, vol. A. the expense of the Norfolk and Norwich

' A very curious and extensive collec- Ari-hi-nlogical Society.


were very frequently used as personal seals during the middle
ages. They were ordinarily set in silver, and surrounded by
legends suggested by a mistaken interpretation of the subject
represented^, or containing the name of the owner. Few of

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