J. H. Scott had a fine work of art in " New Shoreham Church", rich
in tone, and cleverly drawn. "An old House, Heufield", and " Bram-
ber Castle", were charming pieces of water-colour work.
Two views of
Boxgrove Church and Priory commanded attention ; the grand, old
edifice and Priory ruins being faithfully depicted, with charming effects
of light aiul shade. Mr. Scott also lent two valuable pictures by
94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS.
Iiis late father, Mr. W. Scott, viz., "Part of Old Shoreham Churcli",
and " Gateway, Newhurst", fine, old drawings. Mr. F. Earp lent
several water-colour drawings (his own), " Interior of New Shoreham
Church"; and several by Mr. George Earp, viz., " Interior of Preston
Church"; "St. Nicholas Church, Brighton, in 1843"; "Hove Old
Church" (two views) in 1838 ; " Hurst Old Church" and " Monuments
in Firle and Preston Churches". The two views of Hove Old Church
were gems, while for clever drawing and attention to details that of
St. Nicholas Church was admirable. Mr. G. De Paris also lent
" Jeake's House, Rye", and " Palmer Church", both by Mr. J. J. Pen-
ley ; and " Pulborough Church", by R. H. Nibbs. Mrs. P. R. Wil-
kinson lent " Cowdray House", by Fred Nash ; and " Hurstmon-
ceaux Church" and " St. Pancras Church", each by Rayner. Mr.
Crawford J. Pocock lent " Bramber" (J. H. Scott) ; " Lewes in
1774, 1782, and 1783" (Lambert); "Old Town Hall and Market
Street, Brighton" (E. Fox), and " St. Nicholas' Church before Restora-
tion" (Nibbs). Mr. G. F. Attree forwarded some interesting pic-
tures, " South View of Brighton, 1743" (Lambert); "St. Nicholas
Church, Exterior and Interior" (Mr. J. J. Penley) ; " Coastguard
Station, Rottingdean"; " New Town Hall, Brighton", with " Old Vicar-
age"; and old tinted lithographs of the Steine and Bathing Station.
The opening dinner took place in the evening, at the Grand Hotel,
under the presidency of Sir James Picton, F.S.A., and was largely
Tuesday, August 18, 1885,
The first place on this day's programme was Chichester. The visitors
started punctually, and the Station was reached about twenty minutes
past nine o'clock. Upon alighting, the party proceeded to the Museum,
situated in South Street, where they were received by the Lord Bishop
of Chichester, the Very Rev. the Dean of Chichester, and the Ven.
After a brief inspection of some of the Roman remains had been
made, Mr. C. Roach Smith, V.P., F.S.A., proceeded to describe the
ancient relics. He spoke on their history and antiquity. He said his
friends had assigned this task to him, and he should endeavour to
achieve what he and others felt had not been done by their predeces-
sors in this field. One of the most important towns in Roman Britain
had not received adequate attention. It represented Regnum, the
capital of the Regni, who were in very early alliance with the Romans :
a fact proved by history, and by an inscription on which he was about
to speak. Its position was shown by the Itinerar]) of Antoninus, in
which it occurred at the end of a long journey from the noi^th ; but
PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 95
because the distance from the next station, Clauscntum, at Bittern,
near Southampton, did not agree with the actual mileage, several had
placed it at Ringwood, in an opposite direction, where the distance
accounted, but where there were no adequate remains. It was pos-
sible that the compiler of the Itinerary might have indicated the terri-
tory of the Regni by the word Regnuvi, and not the capital town ; if
so, the distance would be correct. There was something to favour
this notion in the name Chichester. Unlike other large Roman towns,
there was in it no element of the Roman name, which probably was
civitas, or some such w^ord, with the ci pronounced as chi, for which
there was authority. The notion that the Saxon chief called Cissa
gave name to the town, Mr. Roach Smith said he doubted as being
correct ; and he gave other examples of the same kind, which would
not bear criticism, such as Portsmouth, or its harbour, being so termed
from a Saxon called Port; the Latin porfws, centuries older, being the
real name of the place.
Mr. Roach Smith then took in detail the Roman inscriptions found
in Chichester, the first being the indication of a temple to Neptune
and Minerva, now preserved at Goodwood. He said that the inscrip-
tions to Neptune, wherever found, indicated proximity to water; and
no doubt one of the chief approaches to Chichester, if not the chief,
was by water. The temple was dedicated by a collegium, or company
of smiths or general artificers, by authoi"ity of a British Prince called
Cogidubnus, to whom, Tacitus states, the Emperor Claudius gave cer-
tain territories in Britain ; and that he remained in close friendship
with the Romans. The boundary to the north he considered to be
indicated by the foss and vallum which run through the parish of
Funtingdon, by Goodwood, towards, if not quite up to, Arundel, and
also many miles to the west. These collegia held with the Romans the
same position as the trades' companies of the present day, of which, in-
deed, they were the archetypes. No more important evidence had been
found to show, not only the pacific state of south-eastern Britain
under the Romans, but proving also that the Britons preserved their
nationality ; and this had been confirmed by inscriptions found in the
north. As they were about to see the inscription itself, and as
Dr. Birch had promised to speak about the last line, which states that
one Pudens had given the site, he need say no more than this, that he
did not believe this PwcZews had any relation to the Pudens and Claudia
of the New Testament, as some had imagined. The riext two inscrip-
tions were dedications to Nero and Domitian, and another to the Genius
Loci, each of which received attention ; and lastly, two sepulchral
memorials found near the Museum in South Street. Mr. Roach Sarit+K^
pointed out how the stones had first formed part of a great bnihrin«^'^A
that tlicn they had been used f(jr sepulchral memorials beyond tlie
96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS.
south wall, and -altimately that they had again been taken for a public
building. In the vicissitudes of Roman towns such transitions had
been common. During the present year it had been found that por-
tions of the "Wall of London had been composed of sculptures and
funereal monuments. Mr. Roach Smith, after referring to other Roman
remains in the Museum, suggested that it might be more convenient
for Dr. Birch to express his opinions at once on the line containing
the name Pudens. At the same time, he paid a high tribute to the
learning, perseverance, and suavity of Dr. Birch.
The address was extremely well received, and elicited very compli-
mentary remarks from Sir James Picton, Mr. Wright, and others. It
■will be printed as a paper in a future part of the Journal.
Dr. Birch then gave reasons for his belief that he attached no cre-
dence whatever to the assertions that the Pudens of the inscription
was identical with the Pudens of the New Testament ; and he was
supported by the Dean, and, as understood, by the Bishop also, who
with other clergy, was present.
At the suggestion of Mr. Roach Smith excavations had been made
by the Association at the base of one of the mediaeval bastions opposite
the Dean's garden, and the work had been carried out with great
success, revealing a very massive, square basement to the bastion. This
is of Roman work ; thus proving, beyond all question, that the mediee-
val walls stand on the foundations of the earlier ones. The work is
constructed of squared stones of large size ; the mortar being formed
of red, pounded brick. On the square base had been a semicircular
tower of large size, the later one being much smaller. A portion of
the foundations of the curtain-wall had also been laid open, and these
were visited by the whole party upon leaving the Museum. Mr. G. M.
Hills promised a paper on the subject hereafter.
The terraced walk in the grounds of the Deanery, which slope to
the top of the old wall, were traversed, and the visitors next proceeded
to the Bishop's Palace, an old Norman doorway, preserved in the
Theological College House, being pointed out on the way. Here the
walks upon the wall were first visited ; and after a fragmentary Roman
inscription had been inspected, the interior of the Palace was examined
under the guidance of the Bishop. Mr. Hills gave an interesting
description of the architectural features of the building whilst the
party assembled in the dining-hall, drawing special attention to the
famous painted ceiling and to the restorations carried out by the
Bishop. The old kitchen, which is of large proportions, was viewed
with interest ; and a visit was also made to the chapel, which contains
some fine old relics of the past.
The Cathedral was then visited, the party entering by the west door
on quitting the Palace.
PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 07
Mr. Gordon M. Hills gave a lengthy and very interesting lecture in
the sacred edifice on its history and architectural peculiarities. He
said, although Chichester Cathedral was said to be very bare,, so far
as tombs were concerned, he could find tombs for every Bishop of the
see, or could tell what had become of the Bishop when he died.
Mr. C. Roach Smith then resumed his post as guide to the walls
from the West Gate, round the entire circuit, to a well-preserved bas-
tion in the south-east wall, discovered by himself and Mr. John Harris
a few years since.
After luncheon a visit was paid to Boxgrove Priory Church, where
Mr. C. Lyiiam read a paper which has been already printed at pp.
At the close of the paper Mr. Lynam was thanked for his valuable
contribution, and a vote of thanks was also accorded to the Rev. W.
Barnett, the Vicar, who in reply said it gave him great pleasure to
receive the Association. The church, naturally, was a subject of great
interest to him. He had been there for many years, and had seen
some great changes in its form ; but his desire had always been to
make the sacred edifice stand for many more ages, and he hoped the
efforts made would meet with success.
A short time having been spent in viewing the Priory ruins from
different points, the party proceeded to Goodwood Park, the seat of
His Grace the Duke of Richmond and Gordon. The whole of the
lower suite of apartments were inspected, the splendid paintings and
tapestries being greatly admired; and afterwards Dr. S. Birch, F.S.A.,
commented on the well-known Roman inscribed stone which occupies
such a high place of honour in the grounds, and which was alluded to,
as will be seen above, during the visit to the Chichester Museum.
By the time the tour of inspection at this mansion was completed,
the afternoon had well advanced, and the road was once again taken
for Chichester, en rotde for Brighton.
At half-past eight a public meeting was held in the King's apart-
ments, Royal Pavilion. Mr. T. Morgan, V.P., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer,
The Chairman said it was with great pleasure the members com-
menced their proceedings in Sussex that day in real earnest ; yet,
notwithstanding Monday, the opening day of the Congress, had been
given up to entertainments and introductions to a number of gentle-
men in the town and country, which conduced so much to o-ood
feeling in gatherings of that kind, and furthered the objects of the
Association, they did some very good work on that day. He men-
tioned the names of Archdeacon Hannah, Mr. Willett, Mr. Sawyer,
and Mr. Lomax, the learned Curator of the Museum; and he men-
tioned them amongst other names in the locality because they set
98 PTIOCEEDIXGS OF THE CONGRESS.
to work at once, bringing them into the midst of thoir labours,
and took them to that Museum, which certainly was an ornament to
Brighton; rendering, as it did, credit to the Mayor and gentle-
men who were concerned in the collection of such a large number
of antiquities, and in the possession of such a fine library. They
were very much gratified with the Roman antiquities, which afforded
ample evidence of the occupation of the county by the Romans. He
might allude to the specimens found at Portslade and on the Ditchling
and Lewes Roads. He was particularly struck with the collections of
Roman coins of the third brass, which were found near Eastbourne.
They were remarkable as covering a very small space of time, from
A.D. 253 to 275. He referred to the collection, for which the Museum
was celebrated, of flint instruments from Cissbury and Scandinavia,
all of which were much commented upon by Mr. Willett. He was
very glad to have the opportunity of studying the connection between
the different stone instruments, for their Society had endeavoured to
bridge over the great space of time which existed between the stone
age and the historical age, and he was very glad to see that anti-
quaries of the stone age had in late years moved in the same direction.
He referred to the collection of pictures, and said they were very
much indebted to those gentlemen who had given themselves the
trouble of collecting pictures of the places they would visit in their
perambulations ; pictures of the churches, cathedrals, and homesteads,
and Tudor as well as the other mansions for which the county was
celebrated. It had given a good zest at the commencement of their
travels, and he was sure the Society greatly appreciated it. In con-
clusion the speaker referred to the wonderful and unique font of
St. Nicholas Church, which he said was eloquently and feelingly
described by the Ven. Archdeacon Hannah. He was glad to hear
that in the evening they were likely to have a further illustration of the
same subject by the same learned gentleman, together with illustra-
tions of some of the earlier fonts in Sussex. He then referred to the
principal objects of antiquity which had been visited during the day,
after which the following account was given of the explorations of
Cissbury by Mr. Ernest Henry Willett, P.S.A.
Mr. Willett said he had not prepared a paper, but he hoped to give
a slight resume of the work that had been done at Cissbury, the ancient
British encampment they were about to visit on the morrow. It dif-
fered from a great many of the ancient British earthworks, and was
one of the most important from its having been a centre (and a very
large centre) of implement-manufacture. Here flint was found in the
softened state in which it could be worked. At a certain depth from
the surface it was found in very fine quality ; and it was undeniable,
from the extent of the c:allerics, that the shafts had been excavated for
PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 09
ilie purpose of getting flint. Nothing had been done recently at Ciss-
biiry, tlie excavations having been begun in 1873, and finished in
1878, and therefore they must excuse him if he repeated that whielx
had ah'cady been said. He then proceeded to read extracts from
articles written by General Pitt-Rivers, himself, and others, on the
subject. In 1868, Colonel (now General) A. Lane-Fox, F.S.A., wrote
a paper on the Sussex hill-forts, and on the principles of castramcta-
tion, which a most careful examination of the whole series led him to
conclude had been adopted by the tribes who had constructed them.
In the course of his inquiry, and in the description of the seventeen
earthworks that lined the Sussex Downs, he mentioned the occurrence
in several places of various pits in and about the camps. The instances
were at Wolstanbury, Highdown Hill, Mount Caburn, and Cissbury ;
most notably the latter. This paper was shortly followed by another
giving a detailed account of the extensive excavations carried on by
him at Highdown and at Cissbury. In this communication he dwelt
at length on the pits situate within the latter camp, their character
and contents ; the flint implements especially were elaborately classi-
fied, and fully described by him. The examination of about thirty
pits resulted in the information being gained that they were from 20
to 70 ft. wide, and of a depth of from 5 to 7 ft. below the surface ; that
they contained a great quantity of flint implements, a few bones, dead
land-shells, charcoal, and fragments of coarse pottery, distributed in
layers of red clay and chalk-rubble, the pottery being only found im-
mediately beneath the turf. In considering the object and use of these
pits, General Lane-Fox stated that he believed them to have been for
the purpose of obtaining flint for manufacturing implements, and sub-
sequently to have been used for habitation ; and he (Mr. Willett) could
add confirmatory evidence of both these theories. On the side of one
of the pits at Cissbury it appeared that there were some scratchings
which Mr. Park Harrison had tried to make people think were inscrip-
tions ; but General Pitt-Rivers said, according to that the civilisation
of the early Britons must have been more forward than is generally
supposed, as it was populai'ly considered that the Britons were not
able to write in those times.
A few remarks were oflcred on the matter by Mr. Walter Myers,
F.S.A. ; the Chairman, and others; and thanks wei'e accorded by
acclamation to Mr. Willett for his lecture.
This was followed by a paper by Mr. E. P. L. Brt)ck, F.S.A., Hon.
Sec, on " Peculiarities of Sussex Churches", which has been printed
above, at pp. 35-44.
] 00 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS.
Wednesday, August 19, 1885.
To-day, the first point, Lancing', was reached about half-pasi nine
o'clock. Conveyances were in readiness, under the charge of Mr.
W. Ling of Brighton, and a pleasant drive took the members to the
ivy-clad church at Sompting. The church is one of the most remark-
able in the county, and repays examination, being one of the remaining
examples of Anglo-Saxon architecture, of which some vestiges appear
in the foundations of the wall of the east end as well as in the tower.
Mr. Brock said this was one of the churches to which he referred
the previous evening in his paper on Sussex churches. He ventured
to say that they might go all through England and not find another
Saxon tower possessing its original roof. He was well aware that the
covering had been renewed more than once, and it might be that
none of the actual woodwork of Saxon times remained in the roof;
but any one looking at the tower must come to the conclusion that
the four pointed gables which supported the spire were original, and
therefore it followed that the spire must have been of that form from
the commencement ; and this was very remarkable, because there was
no other example in England even, of this design, of a later date. On
examination it would strike every one who knew the churches along
the course of the Rhine, that it was of a type common to foreign
churches of any antiquity. The dates of many of those in Germany
were fairly well known to German antiquaries ; but they were later, in
the eleventh century, than this might be supposed to be ; therefore it
raised a question as to where the type of this tower originally came
from, because they found it in England earlier than it was found in
Germany itself; but he concluded that it was a type of design very
common when this tower was erected, and that the Saxons of England
ancf Germany were well aware of it.
After Mr. Brock had described the details of the tower, the sacred
edifice was, by kind permission of the Vicar, entered, and a Norman
doorway, a Norman window, and several important particulars pointed
Mr. Gordon M. Hills said when a proposal was made to restore the
church, a set of plans were prepared, and submitted to the Incor-
porated Society of London, with a request for a grant ; but they were
so horrified with the proposals to remove the Perpendicular windows,
and insert Norman windows from the imagination of the gentleman
furnishing the drawing, that they declared they woidd be no party to
the restoration unless more competent advice was taken. It was then
that he had the pleasure of accompanying Mr. Carpenter there, and a
most extensive examination was made.
PROCEEDINGS OF Tllli CONGUE.SS. 101
Tlie Rnv. R. Edgar Williams, the Vicar, expressed a debt of grati-
tude to the members of the Association for paying him a visit. He
said he was glad to gain such a large amount of information with
reference to the church, for although he was only recently appointed
to it, he already had a great attachment for it.
The carriages wore again entered by the party, and Broadwater
Church was reached. This large, cross-church has a nave with north
and south aisles and north porch, central tower with north and south
transepts, and chancel. The general character is that prevailing
throughout the district, viz.. Transition Norman, though the richly
carved east and west tower-arches may be rather earlier.
Mr. Brock remarked that if an archaaologist desii'ed to find a church
in Sussex entirely of one age and date, he would be disappointed.
He was, however, glad of this, because if there was one thing more
than another which added a charm to an ancient church, it was
the ability to unravel the periods of its enlargements and alter-
ations, which combined so many epochs in the history of the parish.
In Saxon times Broadwater was a place of some importance, and the
existence of such a large church indicated that the parish must have
retained its ancient importance to our own days, because it was a
parish church rather than a monastic one ; large as it might seem, and
curious as were its arrangements. The original plan exemplified very
much what he said the previous night with regard to the use of the
central tower in early times, with the chancel to the east, and the nave
to the west. He expected, originally, there was no north transept, and
he was not sure whether there was a south transept. He said this
because under the tower was a part of a Norman window very much
older than the arch beneath it. He expected the transepts were added
in order to complete the cross-form. Speaking of the arches under
the tower, he said they were among the most beautiful they would see
in Sussex. Whether the west arch was originally semicircular or not,
and was pointed afterwards, he was unable to say. It probably was so.
Next came, in order of date, the chancel ; and much as the members
might admire its pretty vaulting, with the clustered shafts which sup-
ported it, the fatal desire to have things uniform in churches had led
to the recent removal of windows of a date later by fifty years than the
vaulting. Most important history was obliterated by the desire to have
everything of a uniform character, and much havoc and destruction
had been worked in this way. He pointed out the corbels which ori-
ginally supported the rood-loft, and after referring to further details,
said the party were greatly indebted to the clergyman of the parish
for his courtesy in allowing them to inspect the church.
Sir James Pictou followed, and said he believed the church was ori-
ginally a long building from end to end, with the tower in the centre.
102 PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS.
Many had, no doubt, seen Iffley Churcli, near Oxford, and he thought
that was like the original church built at Broadwater. Alluding to
the differences in the arches under the tower, he said he expected they
were both semicircular ; and that finding they were both getting out
of shape, one was allowed to remain, and the stones were taken out of
the other and rebuilt in a pointed arch, as the decorative portions near
to the keystone showed they had been patched up to make them fit
into their positions.
The famous Roman encampment at Cissbury was the next spot
visited. Many of the party quitted the carriages soon after passing
Broadwater Common, and walked over the Downs, from which a
splendid view of the coast can be obtained ; whilst others kept to the
road as far as possible, and then ascended the hill on the western side.
Mr. Walter Myers, F.S.A., and Mr. Ernest Willett, F.S.A., com-
mented upon the encampment ; the former speaking at some length,
and explaining the way in which flints were prepared for spear-heads
and other ancient instruments of warfare. Several very fine specimens
were produced, the best being exhibited by Lieut.-Colonel Wisden,
J. P., the occupier of the land. One or two good finds were made, and
altogether the rather expended visit was rendered most interesting.
Descending the hill on the western side, the party proceeded to Fin-
don, where lunch was partaken of at the Gun Inn. The church here