British Museum (Nat. hist.) Dept. of Geology.

A guide to the fossil reptiles and fishes in the Department of geology and palaeontology online

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UC-NRLF




113KA \T \

.



EARTH

SCIENCES
L1F '7ARY




EARTH
SCIENCES
LIBRARY



A GUIDE



TO THE



FOSSIL REPTILES AND FISHES



IN THE DEPARTMENT OF



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY



IN THE



ZL 3



BRITISH MUSEUM (NATUJUL HISTORY),

CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, S.W.



WITH 165 ILLUSTBATIONS.



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES.

1896.
(All rights reserved,}




PRESENTED



OF



THE BRITISH MUSEUM.




.;-' -7

^Un'^'lX



]



I .



1 d






TO THE



FOSSIL REPTILES AND FISHES



IN THE DEPARTMENT OF



GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY.




BRITISH 'MUSEM' (NATURAL HISTORY),,



CEOlIWELL EOAD, LONDON, S.W.



PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES.



1896.

(All rights reserved.}



SCitiMCES
LIBRARY



LONDON :

HARRISON AND SONS, PEINTEBS IN ORDINARY TO HER MAJESTY,
ST. MARTIN'S LANE.




TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PAGES

TABLE OP CONTENTS .......... Hi, iv

List of Illustrations .......... v-x

Preface xi

Table of Stratified Rocks xii

Introduction xiii, xiv



CLASS 3. EEPTILIA .... 1-63

Order I. PTEROSAURIA . 1

II. CEOCODILIA 4

III. DINOSATTRIA 8

Sub-order 1. SAUBOPODA 9

2. THEROPODA 13

,, ,, 3. OBNITHOPODA 17

Order IV. SQUAMATA 24

Sub-order 1. OPHIDIA ........ 25

,, ,, 2. LACEBTILIA ....... 26

,, 3. PTTHONOMOBPHA ...... 27

Order V. RHYNCHOCEPHALIA . 29

VI. PBOTEROSAURIA . . 31

VII. ICHTHYOSATJRIA 32

VIII. CHELONIA 38

IX. SAUROPTERYGIA 45

X. PLACODONTIA ........ 53

XI. ANOMODONTIA ........ 54

Sub-order 1. PROCOLOPHONIA ...... 55

2. DlCYNODONTIA 55

3. THERIODONTIA 57

4. PARIASAURIA ... (3L



CLASS 4. AMPHIBIA .... 04

Order I. ECAUDATA 64

II. CAUDATA 65

III. LABYRINTHODONTIA 66

Sub-order 1. Microsauria ....... 72

2. Aistopoda 72

,, ,, 3. Branchiosauria ...... 72

FOOTPRINTS 72

PRIMITIVE CHOBDATE ANIMALS . 74

MARSIPOBRANCHU 74

OSTRACODERMI 7(j

a 2



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PAGE

CLASS 5. PISCES .... 79

Sub-class I. ELASMOBRANCHII 81

Order I. PEOSELACHII 84

1C. ICHTHYOTOMI 84

III. ACANTHODII 85

,, TV. SELACHII 85

Sub-order 1. TECTOSPONDYLI 86

2. ASTEBOSPONDYLI 88

Sub-class II. HOLOCEPHALI ,. 93

Order I. CHIM^EOIDEI 93

Sub-class III. DIPNOI ........ 94

Order I. SIRENOIDEI ......... 94

II. AETHEODIEA 96

Sub-class IV. TELEOSTOMI . . . '.'... 97

Order I. CEOSSOPTEBYGII 98

II. ACTINOPTEEYGII 100

Sub-order 1. CHONDEOSTEI 100

2. PEOTOSPONDYLI 103

3. AETHEOSPOKDYLI 107

4. ISOSPONDYLI ....... 108

,, 5. PLECTOSPONDYLI 112

,, 6. NEMATOGNATHI . . . . . . 113

7. HAPLOMI .113

8. APODES 113

9. ANACANTHINI . . . . . . . 114

10. PERCESOCES . . ... . . 114

11. PHAEYNGOGNATHI 114

12. PEECOMOEPHI . 115

13. LOPHOBBANCHII . . . . . . 120

14. HEMIBEANCHII ...... 120

15. PLECTOGNATHI . . . . . . 120



LIST OF ILLUSTK AXIOMS.



Page
FRONTISPIECE. Ichthyosaurus Tenuirostris, Conyb. ; L. Lias, Street,

Somerset.
FIG. 1. Rhaniphorhynchus Muensteri, Goldf. (restoration by Marsl) ;

Lithographic Stone, Bavaria . . . . . . . . . . 1

,, 2. Pterodactylus spectabilis, Meyer ; ibid. .. .. .. 2

3. antiquus, Sommerring ; ibid. . . . . . . 3

4. Pteranodon longiceps, Marsh (skull) ; Cretaceous, ST. America 3

,, 5. Dimorphodon macronyx, Buckl. sp. (restoration by Owen) ;

Lower Lias, Lynie Eegis . . . . . . . . . . 4

,, 6. Crocodilus palustris, Lesson (skull) ; Recent, India . . . . 5

,, 7. Spenceri, Buckland (skull) ; London Clay, Sheppey 6

8. Belodon Kapjfi, Meyer (skull) ; U. Trias, Stuttgart . . . . 7

9. Steneosaurus Heberti, Geoffr. (skull) ; L. Oxfordian, Nor-
mandy . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 7

,, 10. Dacosaurus maximus, Plien. (tooth) ; Kimrneridge Clay, Ely 8

,, 11. Pelagosaurus typus, Bronn (skull) ; U. Lias, Normandy . . 8

12. Diplodocus Icngus, Marsh, (skull) ; U. Jurassic, Colorado . . 9

,, 13. Brontosaurua excelsus^ Marsh (restoration by Marsh) ; U.

Jurassic, Colorado .. .. .. .. .. ..11

,, 14. Hoplosaurus armatus, Grervais (tooth) ; Wealden, Isle of

Wight .. .. 12

,, 15. Allosaurus frag His, Marsh (pelvis) ; U. Jurassic, IS". America 13

16. Megalosaurus Bucklandi, Meyer (restoration) ; Great Oolite,

Stonesfield 14

,, 17. Ceratosaurus nasicornis, Marsh (skull) ; U. Jurassic, N.

America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

,, 18. Teeth (A) of Epicampodon indicus, Huxley, and (B) of
Thecodontosaurus platyodon, Ril. and Stutch. ; U. Trias,

Bengal and Bristol . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

,, 19. Stegosaurus unffidatus^&rsh (limbs) j U. Jurassic, Colorado 17

20. Stegosaurus stenops, Marsh (skull) ; Upper Jurassic, Colorado 18

,, 21. Scelidosaurus Harrisoni, Owen (tooth); L. Lias, Charmouth 19

22. Scelidosaurus ILarrisoni (restoration of skeleton) ; ibid. .. 19

23. Iguanodon Bernissartensis, Boulenger (restoration of skeleton) ;

Wealden, Bernissart, Belgium . . . . . . . . 21

24. Iguanodon (teeth) ; Wealden, Isle of Wight 21

25. Iguanodon Bernissartensis, Boulenger (vertebra) ; ibid. . . 22

26. Iguanodon (tooth) ; ibid 22



VI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page

YiGr. 27. Igiianodon Bernissartensis, Boulenger (skull) ; Wealden,

Bernissart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

,, 28. Teeth of (A, B) Trachodon cantabrigiensis, Lydekker, from
Cambridge Greensand, and (C), Trachodon Foulki, Leidy,
from U. Cretaceous, New Jersey . . . . . . 24

,, 29. Palceophis typhceus, Owen (vertebra) ; London Clay, Sheppey 25

30. Paleryx rhombifer, Owen (vertebra) ; Eocene Phosphorites,

Caylux, France . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

,, 31. Dentary bone of Anguoid Lizard; ibid. . . . . . , . . 26

,, 32. T'aranus Jjengalensis, Daudin (vertebra and maxilla) ; Pleisto-
cene, Madras . . . . . . . . . . . . 2G

,, 33. Platecarpus (pectoral limb) ; Cretaceous, K". America . . 27

,, 34. Platecarpus curtirostris, Cope (skull) ; ibid. .. .. ..28

35. Tooth of Liodon ; L T . Cretaceous, Maestricht .. .. ..28

36. Mosasaurus Camperi, Meyer (jaws) ; ibid. .. .. .. 29

,, 37. Hyperodapedon Gordoni, Huxley (skull) ; Trias, Elgin . . 30

38. Ichthyosaurus communis, Conyb. (skull) ; L. Lias, Lynie Kegis 32

,, 39. Ichthyosaurus trigomts, Owen (vertebra); Kimmeridge Clay,

Stanton 32

,, 40. Ichthyosaurus entheciodon, Hulke (vertebra.) ; Kimmeridge

Clay, Wilts . . . .'.32

,, 41. Ichthyosaurus latifrons, Konig (skull) ; L. Lias, Barrow-on-

Soar ,33

,, 42. Ichthyosauwis zetlandieus, Seeley (skull) ; L T . Lias, Nor-
mandy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

43. Skeleton of Ichthyosaurus (restored) ; L. Lias, Lyme Regis . . 34

,, 44. Teeth of (A, B) Ichthyosaurus platyodon, Conyb., and (C)

Ichthyosaurus communis, Conyb. ; ibid. .. .. ..35

,, 45. Pectoral limbs of (A) Ichthyosaurus Conyleari, Lydekker,

and (B) Ichthyosaurus communis, Conyb. ; ibid. . . . . 36

,, 46. Pectoral (A) and pelvic (B) limbs of Ichthyosaurus interme-

dius, Conyb. ; ibid. . . * - 37

,, 47. Trionyx Gergensi, Meyer (carapace) ; L. Miocene, Mayence. . 38

,, 48. Hardella Thurgi, Gray (carapace) ; Pliocene, Siwalik Hills,

India 39

,, 49. Cachuga tectum, Gray (plastron) ; ibid. .. .. .. 39

,, 50. Ehinochelys cantabrigiensis, Lydekker (skull) ; Greensand,

Cambridge . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

., 51. Argillochelys antiqua, Konig, sp. (skull); London Clay,

Sheppey .. .. .". 40

,, 52. Nicoria tricarinata, var. sivalensis, Lydekker (carapace) ;

Pliocene, Siwalik Hills, India . . . / 40

53. Pleurosternum Bullocki, Owen (plastron) ; Purbeck Beds,

Swanage . . . . . . , , .... . . 40

54. Argillochelys cuneiceps, Owen, sp. (skull) ; London Clay,

Sheppey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Vll

Page
FIG. 55. PlesiocJielys valdensis, Lydekker (carapace) ; Wealden, Isle of

Wight 41

56. Platychelys olerndorferi, Wagner (carapace) ; Lithographic

stone, Bavaria . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

57. CTielone (?) Benstedi, Mantell, sp. (carapace) ; L. Chalk, Kent 43

58. Miolania Oweni, A. S. Woodw. (skull and tail-sheath) ;

Newer Tertiary, Australia . . . . . . . . 43

59. Logger-head Turtle (Thalassochelys caretia, Linn, sp.) ;

Eecent 44

60. PsepJiodertna alpinum, Meyer (carapace) ; Trias, Bavaria .. 45

61. Cryptoclidus Richards oni, Lydekker, sp. (vertebra) ; Oxford

Clay, Weymouth. . . . ' . . . . 46

62. Ple-siosaurus Hawkinsi, Owen (pectoral girdle) ; L. Lias,

Street, Somerset . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

63. Sauropterygian Mandibles (A, Peloneustes pMlarcTius, Seeley,
sp., from Oxford Clay ; B. Thaumatosaurus indicus, Lydek-
ker, from Upper Jurassic, India ; and C, Plesiosaurus dolicho-
dirus, Conyb., from L. Lias, Lyme Regis) . . . . . . 47

64. Cryptoclidus oxoniensis, Phillips,sp. (skeleton) ; Oxford Clay,

Peterborough . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

,, 65. Skeleton of Plesiosaurus, restored ; L. Lias, Lyme Regis . . 49

,, 66. Polyptycliodon interruptus, Owen (tooth) ; Greensand, Cain-
bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

,, 67. Peloneustes philarchus, Seeley, sp. (tooth) ; Oxford Clay, Bed-
ford .. .. 50

,, 68. Plesiosaurus EawJcinsi, Owen (vertebra) ; L. Lias, Lyme Regis 50

,, 69. Lariosaurus Balsami, Curioni (skeleton) ; Muschelkalk,

Perledo 51

70. Nothosauriis mirabilis, Minister (palate) ; Muschelkalk,

Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

71. NotJiosaurus mirabilis, Miinster (side view of skull) ; Mus-
chelkalk, Germany . . . . . . . . . . 52

72. Mesosaurus tenuidens, Gervais (pectoral limb) ; Karoo System,

South Africa 53

,, 73. ConcJiiosaurus clavatus, Meyer (humerus) ; Muschelkalk,

Nurnberg . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . 53

,, 74. Cyamodus (Placodus) laticeps, Owen (skull) ; Muschelkalk,

Baireuth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

75. Dicynodon (palate) ; Karoo System, South Africa . . . . 56
,, 76. Lateral view of skulls of (A), Dicynodon lacerticeps, Owen,

and (B), Oudenodon Baini, Owen; ibid. .. .. .. 57

,, 77. TapinocepJialus Atkerstonei, Owen (vertebra) ; ibid... .. 58
,, 78, Galesaurus planiceps, Owen (skull) ; ibid. ,. .. .. 58
79. Naosaurus claviger, Cope (vertebra) ; Permian, Texas . . 59

,, 80. ^Elurosaurus felinus, Owen (skull) ; Karoo System, South

Africa 59

81. Empedias molaris, Cope (skull) ; Permian, Texas . . . . 60

13



Vlll LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page

FIG. 82. Empedias molar is, Cope (tooth) ; ibid. . . . . . . 61

,, 83. Deuterosaurus biarmicus, Eichwald (tooth) ; Permian, Eussia 61

,, 84. Pariasaurus Baini, Seeley (skeleton) ; Karoo System, Cape

Colony .. .. .. ..62

,, 85. MegalobatracTius (Cryptobrancftvs) ScJieucTizeri, Holl; U.

Miocene, QEningen, Switzerland . . . . . . 65

86. Mastodonsaurus giganteus, Jaeger (skull) ; Lettenkohle,

Wiirtemberg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66-

87. Mastodonsaurus giganteus, Jaeger (palate) ; ibid. . . . . 66

,, 88. Capitosaurus robustus, Meyer (skull) ; U. Trias, Wiirtemberg 67

89. Metoposaiirus diagnostics, Meyer (skull) ; ibid 67

90. Loxomma Allmani, Huxley (skull) ; Carboniferous, North-
umberland . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

,, 91. Bothriceps Huxleyi, Lydekker (skull) ; Karoo System, South

Africa 69-

,, 92. Actinodon latirostris, Jordan, sp. (skull) ; L. Permian, Saar-

bruck .. 70

,, 93. Archegosaurus Decheni, Groldfuss (skull) ; ibid. .. .. 71

,, 94. Euchirosaurus Rochei, Gaudry (vertebra) ; L. Permian,

France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

,, 95. Cheirosaurus Barthi, Kaup, sp. (footprints) ; Bunter Sand-
stone, Hessberg, G-erniany . . . . . . . . 73

,, 96. " Lancelet," BrancMostoma (Ampldoxus) lanceolatum ;

Recent . . . . . . . . , . . . . . 74

,, 97. " Hag-fish,' ' Myxine australis\ Recent .. .. ..74-

,, 98. Mouth of Lamprey, Petromyzonfluviatilis; Recent.. .. 74

,, 99. Palce.ospondylus Gunni, Traquair (restored skeleton) ; L. Old

Red Sandstone, Scotland 75

,, 100. " Conodonts " from the Cambrian . . . . . . 75

,, 101. Pteraspis rostrata, Ag. (restoration) ; L. Old Red Sandstone,

Herefordshire . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

,, 102. Pteraspis rostrata (head shield) ; ibid. , 77

,, 103. Cephalaspis Murchisoni, Egerton (restoration) ; ibid. . . 77

,, 104. Pterichthys testudinaritts, Ag. (restoration) ; L. Old Red

Sandstone, Scotland . . . . . . . . . . 78

105. Diphycercal tail . . . 79

106. Heterocercal tail 79

107. Homocercal tail 79-

108. Dermal tubercles of Elasmobranch Fishes 81

,, 109. Port Jackson Shark, Cestracion Philippi, Lacep., from

Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

,, 110. The Ray, Raja Murrayi, Giinther, from Kergeulen's Island 82

,, 111. Spines of Elasmobranch and Chimseroid Fishes .. .. 8&

112. Pleuracanihus Gaudryi, "Brongn. (restoration) ; Coal-
measures, Comtnentry, France . . . . . . . . 84

,, 113. Acanthodes Wardi, Egerton (restoration) ; Coal-measures,

Staffordshire 85



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. IX

' Page

FiQ. 114i.Squatina alifera, Mimster, sp. ; Lithographic Si one, Bavaria 87
115. Squat ina speciosa, Meyer j ibid. .. .. .. ..87

116. Raja clavata (jaws of male and female) ; Recent . . . . 87

117. PtycTiodus deciirrens, Ag. (arrangement of teeth) ; English

Chalk 88

118. Skull of Notidamis ; Eecent 88

119. Notidamis gigas, Sism. (teeth); Ked Crag. Suffolk .. .. 89
120. Jaw of Port Jackson Shark, Cestracion Philippi ; Eecent .. 89
,, 121. Lepracanthus Colei, Owen (spine) ; Coal-measures, Euabon 90
122. Acrodus Anningics, Ag. (teeth) ; L. Lias, Lyme Kegis . . 90
123. Hybodus (dorsal spine) ; Wealden, Sussex 90

124. Jaw of AsteracantJius (StropJiodus medius, Owen) ; Great

Oolite, Caen, Normandy . . . . . . . . 91

125. Cochliodus contortus, Ag. (teeth) ; Carboniferous Limestone,

Armagh 92

,, 126. Odontaspis elegans, Ag. (tooth) ; London Clay .. .. 92
,, 127. Carcharodonmegalodon, Ag. (tooth) ; Suffolk Crag.. .. 92

128. Edaphodon lepiognathus, Ag. (lower jaw) ; M. Eocene,

Bracklesham Bay 94

129. African Mudfish, Protopterus annectens ; Kecent . . . . 94
130. Australian Mudfish, Ceratodus Forsteri ; Eecent . . . . 94
131. Mouth of Ceratodus Forsteri 95

,, 132. Dipterus Valenciennesi, Sedgw. and Murch. (restoration) ;

L. Old Eed Sandstone, Scotland 95

133. Phaneropleuron Andersoni, Huxley (restoration) ; U. Old

Eed Sandstone, Dura Den, Fife .96

134. Coccosteus decipiens, Ag. (restoration) ; L. Old Eed Sand-
stone, Scotland 97

135. Jaws of Dinichthys ; Devonian, N. America .. .. ..97

136. Polypterus bichir ; Eecent .. .. .. .. ..98

137. Holoptychius (restoration) ; U. Old Eed Sandstone, Scotland 98

138. Glyptolcemus Kinnairdi, Huxley (restomtion) ; ibid. .. 98

,, 139. Osteolepis macrolepidotus, Ag. (restoration) ; L. Old Eed

Sandstone, Scotland 99

140. Undina (HolopJiagus) gulo, Egert. (restoration) ; L. Lia,

Lyme Eegis 99

141. Elonichthys striatus, A g. sp. (scales) ; Carboniferous .. 100
I42.Palceoniscus macropomus, Ag. (restoration) ; Kupferschiefer,

Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . t . , , 100

,, 143. Eurynotus creaatus, Ag. (restoration) ; L. Carboniferous,

Scotland . . . . . . . . . . . . tt . . 101

l^.Platysomus striatus, Ag. (restoration) ; Magnesian Lime-
stone, Durham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

,, 145. Skeleton of Sturgeon, Acipenser ; Eecent . . . . . . 102



X LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page
FIG. 146. Chondrosteus acipenseroides, Ag. (head restored) ; L. Lias,

Lyme Regis .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 104

147. Dapedius politus, Leach (restoration) ; ibid... .. .. 104

148. Lepidotus maximus, Wagner (restoration) ; Lithographic

Stone, Bavaria .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 104

149. Portions of Pycnodonts 105

150. Ainia calva, Linn, (skeleton of recent fish) ; North America 106
151. Eu t gnathus orthostomus, Ag. (restoration) ; L. Lias, Lyme

Regis 105

,, 152. Caturusfurcatus, Ag. (restoration) ; L. Lias, Lyme Eegis . . 107

153. AspidorhyncTius ornatissimus, Ag. (restoration) ; Lithographic

Stone, Bavaria . . . . . . 108

,, 154. Leptolepis dubius, Blainv. sp. (restoration) ; ibid. ., .. 108

,, 155. Skeleton of Common Perch .. .. 109

156. Cycloid and ctenoid scales , . . . . . . . . . 109

157. Diplomystus brevissimus, Blainv. sp. (restoration) ; U. Creta-
ceous, Mount Lebanon .. .. .. .. .. ..110

158. Rhinellusfurcatus, Ag. (restoration) ; ibid. .. .. .. Ill

159. Capelin, Mallotus villosits, in nodule of Glacial Clay, Green-
land Ill

,, 160. Eurypholis Boissieri, Pict. (restoration) ; U. Cretaceous,

Mount Lebanon .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 112

161. Phyllodus petiolatus, Owen (pharyngeal dentition) ; London

Clay, Sheppey 115

162. Semiophorus velicans, Ag. ; Eocene, Monte Bolca .. .. 117

,, 163. Sparnodus ovalis, Ag. ; ibid. .. .. .. .. .. 119

,, 164. Smerdis minutus, Ag. ; Eocene, Aix in Provence, France .. 120

165. Diodon Scilla (teeth) ; Miocene, Malta 121



PREFACE.



THE First Edition of tliis Guide was issued, without
illustrations, on the 19th April, 1881 ; the second in 1882,.
illustrated with thirty-one wood engravings ; a third, slightly
altered, appeared in 1884. A fourth Edition, almost wholly
re-written, with many fresh illustrations, appeared in 1886,.
and a fifth, with only a few alterations, in 1888. The sixth
Edition appeared in April, 1890, and 3,000 copies were sold up
to October, 1895. Of these six editions, altogether 18,000
copies have been issued.

The publication of Mr. R. Lydekker's Museum Catalogues-
of the " Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia," Parts I-V. (1888-90),
and Mr. Arthur Smith Woodward's Catalogue of the Fossil
Fishes, Parts I-III. (1889-95), and the very numerous and
important additions made to the exhibited series of specimens
have necessitated the re-arrangement of a great part of these-
Collections, and also changed the plan of the Guide.

The writer is largely indebted to the authors of Nicholson's
and Lydekker's "Paleontology" (Vol. II., " Yertebrata," by
R. Lydekker), from which numerous notes and extracts have
been made in the compilation of this Guide. The part relat-
ing to the Fossil Fishes has been entirely re-written by Mr.
Arthur Smith Woodward. Mr. C. W. Andrews has also-
obligingly assisted in the preparation of this work.

HENRY WOODWARD.

Department of Geology,
8th April, 1896.



TABLE OF STRATIFIED ROCKS.



1


SYSTEMS.


FORMATIONS.


LIFE-PERIODS.


c



















x


Terrestrial, Alluvial, Estuarine, and










BECENT <


Marine Beds of Historic, Iron,









b


(


Bronze, and Neolithic Ages






ff


c




Peat, Alluvium, Loess






** H







Valley Gravels, Brickearths






CQ ^


rt


PLEISTOCENE


Cave-deposits






*





(250 ft.)


Raised Beaches
Palaeolithic Age






|


_


I


Boulder Clay and Gravels











PLIOCENE f


Norfolk Forest-bed Series
Norwich and Red Crags










(100 ft.) ( coralline Crag (Diestian)






m




MI ( 9 CE ^ E | (Eningen Beds Freshwater, Ac.






J


H


EOCENE j Fluvio-marine Series (Oligocene)






ffj




(2,600 ft.) I


London Tertiaries } ( Nummulitic Beds >


1


B i ,;


Ii


''


(


Maestricht Beds




S f -I


J




CBETACEOUS \


Chalk




2 "S e


.53




(7,000 ft.) 1


Upper Greensand
Gault




* a

53 c .2


M




NEOCOMIAN {


Lower Greensand
Wealden


jljl




(


Purbeck Beds


I a 3 -g




I


Portland Beds


V *^ rg *g




JUBASSIC


Kimmeridge Clay (Solenhofen Beds)
Corallian Beds


.s | s Ij




(3,000 ft.)


Oxford Clay
Great Oolite Series


1 E 1 &






Inferior Oolite Series


"* c 1 S" *" S




I


Lias


1 ! |


i3






Rhaetic Beds


l


g




TBIASSIC (


Keuper


H







(3,000 ft.) ;


Muschelkalk
Bunter


1




.






a








PEBMIAN or (
DYAS <

(500 to 3,000 ft.)


Red Sandstone, Marl > , . .
Magnesian Limestone. &c. j Zechstem
Red Sandstone and Conglomerate
Hothliegende


Range of !









CABBONIFEBOUS \


Coal Measures and Millstone Grit




cL




(12,000 ft.) <


Carboniferous Limestone Series








^ .




DEVONIAN & OLD j


Upper Old Red Sandstone








||




BED SANDSTONE 1


Devonian












(5,000 to 10,000 ft.) ^


Lower Old Red Sandstone
Ludlow Series








I




SILUBIAN <

(3,000 to 5,000 ft.) (


W'enlock Series
Llandovery Series
May Hill Series











OBDOVICIAN (


Bala and Caradoc Series
Llandeilo Series











(5,000 to 8,000 ft.) |


Llanvirn Series






r




X"


Arenig and Skiddaw Series






a.*




CAMBBIAN J

(20,000 to 30,000 ft.) (


Tremadoc Slates
Lingula Flags
Menevian Series
Harlech and Longmynd Series






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DEPARTMENT OF

GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY.



INTRODUCTION.

NEARLY every city has within its bounds some relics of earlier
times, when a more ancient people occupied the same spot.

Thus below modern London we find various layers of
accumulated soil, each marked by tokens of former times.
In one we find the charred relics of the wooden buildings
which preceded the more modern brick and stone houses ; be-
neath this are found weapons, coins, and pottery, telling of
Norman and Saxon times. More than 20 feet down we come
upon the relic-bed of Roman London, and in some parts two
Roman periods have been recognised with remains of buildings
at different depths. At a still lower level, along the course of
the ancient Wall-brook, remnants of pile-dwellings have been
discovered, which were probably occupied by an earlier British
race.

In the ancient gravels of the Thames Valley, both beneath
and around London, stone implements, left by a yet earlier
people, have been frequently met with, associated with bones
and teeth of the Mammoth.

If in a similar manner we investigate those larger layers of
Chalk and Limestone, Sandstone, Clay, or Slate, composing the
Earth's crust, we not only find that they rest upon one another,
so that we can judge of their relative age by the order of their
superposition, but that, like the layers of soil below London,
they are often full of relics which tell of the former inhabitants
that lived, flourished, and died out, to be succeeded by another
race which have in their turn shared the same fate.



XIV INTRODUCTION.

Geology deals with the Earth, the composition of the various
strata, or layers, of which it consists, their present and former
extent, and the physical conditions under which they were
deposited, and the changes they have since undergone.

Palaeontology deals with the remains of ancient life found
in the various layers, and strives, by comparison with living
forms, to restore the successive faunas and floras which have
passed away, and to trace by those relics their past dis-
tribution, and thus to show the evolution of life on the earth
from the earliest times to our own.

So many good books on Geology and Palaeontology have
been published * that it is not necessary to give in such a guide-
book as the present a treatise on the science, but merely to
explain that the Yertebrata in the Galleries are arranged
according to their zoological classes, orders, and families (so far
as these can be ascertained) ; and upon the label to each is
placed its name, its geological position, and the locality whence
it was derived. In the Invertebrata and Plants each class is
also grouped chronologically in order, from the latest deposits
to the earliest in which it occurs.

Whenever a specimen has been figured and described in a
scientific work, a green disk is affixed to it, and a reference is
given to the author, and to the name and date of the work
where it was published.

Explanatory labels and illustrations have been introduced in
many instances, to afford fuller information to visitors respecting
the objects exhibited.

A plan of the Gallery will be found affixed to the wall in
each room, which will serve to show the general arrange-
ment of the cases and their contents. The small Table of
Strata, on p. xii, is given to indicate the range in time of the
great groups of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Invertebrates,
and Plants.

H. W.

* See specially "Manual of Palaeontology," by Prof. H. Alleyne
Nicholson and R. Lydekker, in 2 vols. (3rd Edition). Wm. Blackwood and
Sons, Edinbiirgh and London. 1889.



GUIDE TO THE DEPARTMENT



GEOLOGY AND PALAEONTOLOGY.



REPTILIAN GALLERY.*

THIS Gallery is devoted to the exhibition of the remains of Reptilian
fossil Reptilia, a class which includes the Tortoises and Turtles, -^foiiJ
Snakes, Lizards, Crocodiles, and a large number of extinct No. 1.
forms, the exact zoological position of many of which we can
only judge by analogy. Like the Mammalia, the Reptilian class
lived both on land and in the water; some being evidently
fitted for terrestrial locomotion by their well-developed legs ;
others, as shown by their paddle- shaped limb-bones, must have


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Online LibraryBritish Museum (Nat. hist.) Dept. of GeologyA guide to the fossil reptiles and fishes in the Department of geology and palaeontology → online text (page 1 of 10)