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Part II.

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Combretacese, wliether as climbers often with their grand
inflorescence, or as moderate-sized trees, constitute one of the
greatest ornaments of the tropical landscape, making a splendid
show with their variously-coloured leaves and winged fruits ; by
the abundance of their flowers, especially in the case of the
species which have red blossoms, they produce a wonderfully
magnificent effect : they mostly bloom in winter. Gombretimi
flcmimeum Wehv., a climbing shrub, which is frequent about
Sange in Golungo Alto, has its petals and sepals and even its
bracts coloured bright red, ultimately turning dark blood-red,
and thus presents the appearance of a burning bush. Few species
give from dried specimens any adequate idea of the beauty of the
plants in a growing state. Some species occur only as herbs or
undershrubs, others as trees even to the height of 80 ft., others
again either as small shrubs or mighty climbei^s ; some have a very
wide distribution, as for instance C. constrictuvi Laws., which occurs
on both the western and eastern sides of the African continent,
and which in Angola is difi^used in different forms in the interior,
and is represented in Pungo Andongo by a closel}^ allied species.

Six species of trees or erect shrubs adorn the forests about
Pungo Andongo, and of these one with large glossy leaves and
clusters of blood-red fruits is conspicuous, inhabiting the forests
of the Cuanza valley from Sansamanda to Quisonda, a distance
of at least 75 to 80 geographical miles; Comhretuni constrictum
Laws., an officinal shrub, occurs very abundantly near Can-
dumba ; the scandent species with flaming-red floweis are rarer
than in Golungo Alto and Cazengo ; but G. racemosum. P. Beauv.
with its silky-glossy leaves and scarlet-red flowers produces a
splendid contrast. Several species, which are found in masses in
Golungo Alto, occur in Pungo Andongo singly, and so exei-cise but
little effect as a feature in the physiognomy of the vegetation.

Most species show a considerable vaiiation between the leaves
of their young shoots and those of the older flower-bearing
branches, both in shape and indumentum, so that it is often very
difficult to classify forms of the same species which have sprung
from the same stock but at different periods or have attained a,
greater age ; frequently even the densest tomentum on the radical
shoots becomes obsolete on the flowering shrub. The pubescence,
which is often silky or like felt, and which is whitish or greyish
on the living plant, assumes on dried specimens a tawny or
ferruginous colour, rendering the descriptions taken from herba-
rium specimens mostly erroneous and occasioning wrong diagnostic
characters. For instance, C. holosericeum Sond. is described by
its author as clothed with tawny hairs, while in natuie it shines
with a silvery-white pubescence on its leaves and branches, and
the wings of its fruit, described as yellowish, are really of a
blood-red colour.

The colour of the petals is remarkably constant in the same

338 Lii. COMBRETACE.E. [Terimnalia

species ; Welwitsch never noticed in Angola whitish or yellow
petals in the typically red-Howering species, nor red petals in the
typically white or yellowish species.

The wood of several species of Terminalia and of the arbores-
cent Combreta is very valuable and held in high estimation by the
colonists, as for instance that of the Mueia and the Gususu, The
roots and bark of some species are used as yellow and black dyes ;
and those of others as an astringent in skin diseases and diarrhoea.
T. Catappa L., which has been long cultivated in the Cape de
Verde Islands and in St. Thomas and Prince's islands, is a capital
tree for avenues and moreover supplies well-flavoured seeds.
Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. is well suited for making dams
to prevent the washing away of the beach on the sea-shore ; it
grows almost exclusively and thrives well in salt water, in
company with Avicennia and Rhizophora ; in some negro villages
the bruised leaves are employed for tanning and dyeing brown
fishermen's nets, either alone or mixed with the leaves of Chryso-
balanus Icaco L. The Mube, Combretum holosericeum Sond.,
svipplies the people of Loanda with excellent firewood, and on that
account has become rarer and rarer in that neighbourhood. The
flowers of most species afford ample food for bees.

1. TERMINALIA L. ; Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PI. i. p. 685
(excl. syn. Bucida L.).

1. T. Catappa L. Mant. PI. ii. p. 519 (1771); Welw. Apont.
p. 567 sub n. 164; Laws, in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. ii. p. 416;
Picalho, PI. Uteis, p. 182 (1884).

Buceras Bucida Crantz, Inst. i. p. 133 (1766).

Island of St. Thojias. — Coast region, in the ascent to Fazenda do
Monte CafEe ; fl. without fr. end of Dec. 1860. Cultivated under the
name of " Amendoeira das Westindias," but a native of the East
Indies. No. 4:293& and Coll. Carp. 19.

Cape de Yerde Islands. — A handsome tree, about 25 ft. high.
Cultivated in S. lago, in Valle de S. Domingo, in gardens, etc., and
called " Amendoeira da India " (the Indian almond tree) : fl. and fr.
Jan. 1861. No. 4293. Ripe fr. Jan. 1861. " Amendoeira das West-
indias." Coll. Carp. 547.

Welwitsch recommended that this tree should be introduced in
Angola. (See Welwitsch, I.e.)

2. T. sericea Burch. ex DC. Prodr. iii. p. 13 (1828) ; Laws., I.e.
Var. angolensis.

T. angolensis Welw. ex Ficalho in Bol. Soc. Georg. Lisb., ser. 2,
p. 708 (Feb. 14, 1882), and PI. Uteis, p. 182 (1884) ; Elliot in
Journ. Linn. Soc. xxx. p. 79 (1894) ; ? 0. Hoffmann in Linnsea
xliii. p. 131 (1881).

Ambaca. — A sparingly leafy tree, 15 to 20 ft. high ; trunk straight ;
head widely spreading ; leaves thinly coriaceous, evergreen, greenish-
glaucous, rather bright, paler beneath ; flowers white. In mountainous
rocky places near the cave at Puri-Cacarambola, at an elevation of
about 3000 feet, not abundant ; fl. middle of Oct. 185G. No. 4339.

Terminidia] lii. combretace^. 339

PuNGO ANDONCiO. — In dry thin open woods near Caghuy : H. Nov

1856, fr. May 1857. No. 4286. A tree of 12 to 20 ft., occurring
throughout Angola, with very hard and durable wood, and known by
the name of "Mueia," wonderfully variable as to the indumentum of
its branchlets foliage and inflorescence ; flowering branches, petioles,
rachis of the racemes, and calyx usually pubescent-hirsute ; petioles
not exceeding h to j in. long, sometimes almost obsolete ; leaves when
old mostly more or less glabrate or thinly puberulous, almost always
oblong-oblanceolate, always deep-green above, canescent or whitish-
glaucous with midrib purplish laeneath ; flowers white, arranged in
simple racemes shorter than the leaves ; stamens 10 ; drupes 1] to 1 J in.
long, borne on a stipes of I to ^ in. long, and surrounded with a rather
rigid wing elliptical in outline and more or less emarginateat the apex,
thinly tomentellous or pubescent on the surface. Abundant, on rocky
hills and at the borders of forests near the fortress ; fl. and f r. Oct. 1 850.
No. 4340. A moderate-sized tree with a narrow head, and affording
excellent timber ; flowers white. In open rocky woods near Caghuy ;
fl. Nov. and Dec. 1856. No. 4341- An evergreen tree, 15 to 20 ft.
high. In the thickets of the fortress near the river Luxillo ; fr. May

1857. No. 4342.

HuiLi.A. — A small tree of 8 to 12 ft. ; branches and branchlets
sparse, deep-purple, glabrous ; leaves alternate, subsessile, oblanceolate,
apiculate, glabrous on both sides, bright-green above, glaucous beneath.
In hilly tall-bushy places between Lopollo and Humpata, at 5000 to
5500 feet altitude : fr. end of May 1860 ; a glabrate form. Nos. 4285
and 4343. CoLi.. Carp. 59.

Var. huillensis.

Foliage pallid, clothed on both sides with appressed incon-
spicuous pubescence.

HuiLLA. — A small tree, of a grey colour, with pallid head and white
flowers. In hilly, bushy, somewhat stony, dry and barren situations
between Lopollo and Nene, at an elevation of 5000 ft. : fl. Dec. 1859,
young fr. Feb. 1860. Nos. 4294 and 4338.

The mueia (pronounced mu-ei-a) has a trunk rarely exceeding 18 in.
diameter : the wood is compact, of tolerably fine grain, yellowish
colour and great hardness, and suitable for the construction of various
agricultural implements, carts, and domestic utensils. See Welwitsch,
Apont. p. 568 under n. 164, and Synopse, p. 18, n. 45.

3. T. benguellensis Welw. ms. in Herb., sp. n.

An inelegant shrub, sub-arborescent, 4 to 6 ft. high or
occasionally higher, remarkable for the hardness of its wood and
rigidity of its ramifications ; branches virgate, subterete, glabrate
below, shortly pubescent or felted above, the older ones sub-
spinescent in consequence of the stiff pin -like character of the
patent alternate lateral branchlets, which are leafy in a fasciculate
manner at the apex ; indumentum pallid ; leaves alternate
.scattered or mostly crowded at the tips of the branchlets, obovate,
rounded and often apiculate or emarginate at the apex, more or
less wedge-shaped at the base, thinly coriaceous, deep-green and
glabrescent or obsoletely tomentellous above, pallid and felted
beneath, entire, 1 to 2] in. long by 4 to 1 g in. broad ; petiole
i to ^ in. long, hairy or subglabrate ; inflorescence in the axils
of the uppermost leaves ; fruits racemose, bright blood-red, oval-

340 Lii. COMBRETACE^. [Terininalici

oblong, glabrate, drupaceous, surrounded by a broad flat purplish
wing, 1| to 2 in. long by | to 1 in. broad, emarginate at the
apex, somewhat narrowed towards the base ; central portion bony,
very hard, 1 -seeded; fruiting racemes 1 to 2 5^ in. long, pedicels
ranging up to ^ in. long.

Benguella. — In bushy places at the sea coast near the city ; fr.
June 1859. Nos. 4290 and 4344.

Var. ovalis.

Fruit oval in outline, li to 1| in. long by 1 to Ig in. broad,
deep blood-red ; leaves rather oblanceolate, nearly glabrescent
except the veins beneath.

MosSAMEDES. — In sandy thickets, near the town, at Boca do Rio
Bero, on the sea coast ; fr, July 1859. Nos. 4291 and 4337. Coll.
Carp. 106 and 548.

HuiLLA. — In bushy, hilly, rather dry places between Lopollo and
Nene ; fl. Dec. 1859. youn^ fr. Feb. 1860 (fr. April). No flowers have
been preserved. No. 4292.

4. T. brachystemma Welw. ms. in Herb., sp. n.

A tree, 15 to 20 feet high, glabrous throughout except the very
young leaves pedicels bracteoles and part of the flowers, with the
habit of an Anacardium ; head very broad ; branches patent ;
leaves alternate, scattered on the barren shoots, crowded at the
extremities of the flowering branches, sessile or at length shortly
petiolate, obovate or obovate-elliptical, rounded obtuse or
emarginate and abruptly acuminate cuspidate apiculate or
mucronate at the apex, gradually attenuated towards the base,
deep-green above, whitish -glaucous beneath, 2| to 6| in. long
by Ig to 2 1 in. broad, entire, thinly coriaceous; venation in-
conspicuous ; flowers polygamo-dicecious, ^^ in. diam., on short
pubescent pedicels, arranged in spikelike shortly pedunculate
racemes 1 to 2 in. long ; bracteoles lanceolate, about equalling
the pedicels, pubescent outside, deciduous ; calyx yellowish -green
or whitish, puberulous or glabrescent, 5-cleft ; lobes deltoid at
the base, with a prolonged tip ; stamens shorter than or scarcely
exceeding the calyx ; ovary pilose ; style prolonged, glabrescent ;
fruit glaucous-purple, glabrate, oval, somewhat compressed,
surrounded with a broad wing, emarginate at the apex, some-
what narrowed or nearly rounded at the base, 1 to 1|^ in. long
by 1 to Ig in. broad.

HuiLLA. — In open woods, in rocky places, at an elevation of 5000
to 5600 ft., between Lopollo and Empalanea ; fl. Oct. 1859 ; fr. May
1860. Nos. 4287 and 4345. Cf. Coll. Carp. 86.

2. GUIERA Juss. ; Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PI. i. p. 687.

1. G. senegalensis Lam. Tabl. Encycl. ii. p. 486, t. 360, fig. sup.
(1793); Pers. Syn. PI. i. p. 470 (1805); Poir. Encycl. Meth.
Suppl. ii. p. 861 (1811); Guill. & Perr. Fl. Seneg. p. 282, t. 66,
fig. 2 (1833) ; Laws, in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. ii. p. 418.

G. glandulosa Sm. in Pees, Cycl. vol. xvii. (1811). Gujera
senegalensis Gmel. Syst. ii. p. Qlb (1791).

Guiera] lii. combretace.I':. 341

MossAMKDES. — A robust shrub, climbing high and widely, becoming
hoary ; leaves opposite, densely tomentosc beneath and also white-
punctate above. Abundant in tall thickets in Mata dos Carpenteiros ;
without either fl. or fr. July 1859. Nos. 4289 and 4346.

3. LAGUNCULARIA Gajrtn. f.; Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PI. i. p. 688.
1. L. racemosa Gsertn. f. Fruct. iii. p. 209, t. 217, f. 3 (1805) ;
Welw. in Proceed. Linn. Soc. ii. p. 328 (1854); Lawson in Oliv.
FI. Trop. Afr. ii. p. 419.

LoANDA. — A shrub standing erect, or a small tree of 5 to 7 ft. ;
flowers white. Abundant and nearly always in company with
RJuzophor(( and Aviceinud, at the muddy sea-shore, near the city of
Loanda; at Zamba grande, frequently inundated by the sea; fl. July 1854.
No. 4347- Abundant also in like company on the island of Loanda,
at Cabo Lombo, etc. ; fl. from Oct to Dec. 1853.

4. COMBRETUM Loeflino-, Iter, p. 308 (1758) ; L. Syst. edit. 10,
p. 999 (1759); Benth. & Hook. f. Gen. PI. i. p. 688.

1. C. Klotzschii Welw. ex Laws, in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. ii. p. 422,
quoad speeim. Welw.

Goi.UNCio Alto. — A gigantic shrub, climbing high ; sarmentose
branches 20 to 25 ft. long ; leaves thick, not coriaceous, fallen at the
time of the flowers ; flowering branches often 2i ft. long, as well as
the whole inflorescence, except the petals, glandular-viscid ; calyx
nerved-striate, pale-greenish, almost yellow-greenish ; petals of a deep
red-scarlet colour ; styles far exceeding the 10 stamens. In the more
elevated thickets and on sparingly-leafy trees at the skirts of forests,
on the north-east side of the mountains of Serra de Alto Queta ; fl.
and fr. July 1855. No. 4300.

2. C. oxystachyum Welw. ex Laws., I.e., p. 422.

Bumbo. — A shrub, ?> to 5 ft. high, softly pubescent throughout,
sparingly and patently branched ; branches sometimes elongate-
sarmentose ; leaves alternate or opposite ; flowei's scarlet, arranged in
acutely conical spicate racemes 2i to 3 in. long, terminating the branches
and branchlets ; calyx-teeth long, acute, gradually acuminate ; petals
lanceolate, acuminaite, rigid, hairy outside ; stamens 10 ; fruit 5- or
4-winged. In rocky tall-bushy places near Quitibe de Cima, at an
elevation of 2000 to 2500 ft., sparingly ; only one shrub seen in fl. and
(very few) fr. ; June 1860. No. 4309.

3. C. celastroides Welw. ex Laws., I.e., p. 422.

HuiLLA.— A much-branched shrub, 4 to 7 ft. high, very rarely
arborescent but scarcely scandent, or frequently a bush with a trunk
and more or less climbing branches, with the habit of a C'elasirus ;
leaves lepidote beneath ; flowers yellow, tetramerous ; calyx densely
lepidote : disk present ; fruit densely lepidote. In hilly places amongst
tall bushes from Mumpulla up to Lopollo, especially in Morro de
Lopollo ; fl. bud Oct., fl. Dec. 1859, fr. March 1860 ; also in rocky
places, fr. end of March 1859 ; and in forests above Lopollo, Dec.
1859. Nos. 4370, 4389. Cf. Coll. Carp. 657 (part).

4. C. grandiflorum G. Don in Edinb. Phil. Journ. 1824, p. 340 ;
Laws., I.e., p. 423.

C. Afzelianuni G. Don, Gen. Syst. ii. p. 666 (1832).

342 Lii. coMBRETACEiE. [Combretum

Sierra Leoxe. — A climbing shrub, 4 to 6 ft. high ; shoots 6 to
10 ft. long, scandent in all directions or pendulous-nodding ; leaves
glossy, blackish-green, coriaceous ; flowers sanguine-red, brilliant, very
handsome. In elevated forests at the cataract of Sugar-loaf Mountain
above Freetown ; fl. Sept. 1853. No. 4311.

Ambriz. — Sporadic, in rocky thickets alongside streams between
Ambriz and Quizembo ; fl. Nov. 1853. No. 4310-

5. C. constrictlim Laws, in Oliv. Fl. Troi?. Afr. ii. p. 423;
Ficalho, PI. Uteis, p. 183 (1884).

LoANDA. — A large shrub, 5 to 7 ft. high, with stems in some cases
erect, in others climbing amongst other shrubs or decumbent ; leaves
deciduous at the flowering season ; flowers whitish ; anthers brick-red.
Abundant in moist thickets between Quicuxe and Mutollo, but rarely
flowering : at Quicuxe with leaves and without fl. April and July 1854.
Native name " Mafucama-huje " or " Muhondongolo." No. 4302.

IcoLO E Bengo.- — By thickets in rocky situations near Prata ; fl,
Sept. 1854. Native name '' Muhondongolo." No. 4304.

LiBONOo. — A small shrub, mostly only 1 to 3 ft. high, rarely attain-
ing 3 to 5 ft., mostly but not always leafless at the time of flowering ;
branchlets virgate-sarmentose ; leaves opposite, membranous but rather
fleshy, quickly dropping in the course of drying ; calyx-limb glabrescent ;
petals elongate-spathulate, obtuse, rather shaggy, whitish ; stamens 10,
with red anthers. In dense thickets at the edges of forests in the
more elevated parts of the district, at the banks of the river Lifune ;
fl. without leaves Sept. 1858. Native name " Muandongolo." No. 4303.

GoLUNGO Alto. — A climbing shrub, 3 to 5 ft. high, with sarmentose
branches variously curved or elongate-straight ; petals of a pale
sulphur colour, woolly-ciliate. In rocky thickets near Cambondo and
Cabanga Cacalunga, sporadic ; fl. and young fr. Oct. 1855, ripe fruit
Jan. 1855. Native name "Muhondongolo" or " Mochondongolo."
Nos. 4282 and 4305. A low scandent shrub ; leaves grass-green,
pendulous by reason of the weak petioles being always bent and
twisted in various ways : odour of the bruised branches and foliage
resembling that of Prnnux Padui^ L., not noticed in the root, which is
recommended by the natives as an excellent remedy in the case of
worms {Ascaridcs) in children. In thickets about Sange, sporadic ;
without either fl. or fr. beginning of June 1855. Native name
" Muhondongolo." No. 4306.

Ambaca. — A sarmentose shrub, 2 to 4 ft. high, with numerous stems,
mostly leafless at the time of flowering ; leaves membranous but rather
rigid : flowers white except the brick-red anthers, decandrous ; calyx
rather shaggy, with a campanulate limb and 5 teeth ; petals elongate-
spathulate or lanceolate-spathulate, shaggy, whitish, erect, far exceeding
the calyx-limb. Not uncommon but sporadic, in bushy rocky places
near Puri-Cacarambola ; fl. and also leafy branches Oct. 1856. Used
oflBcinally by the natives. This No. is referred in Welwitsch's
herbarium, to Lawson's variety /3, though the next species, C. rigidi-
fol'mm Welw., better suits Lawson's description. No. 4307.

A decoction of the root or a tepid infusion of the bark is administered
to children suffering from intestinal worms {A^inir'ides) ; it is usually
leafless at the time of flowering. Another form of the native name
is " Muandongolo." The green leaves when rubbed give off the smell
of cyanic acid.

6. C. rigidifolium Welw. ms. in Herb,

An erect shrub, 3 to 4 ft. high ; stem with a few subterete

Combretum\ lii. coMBRETACK.t;. 343

branches springing from neiir its base, dark-ashy rather strict
and straight and puberulous towards the extremities ; leaves
mostly ternate, oval, shortly acuminate to an obtuse or apiculate
apex, somewhat cordate at the base, minutely white-dotted and
glabrous on both faces except the puberulous clearly marked
venation, the principal veins of which are impressed on the upper
face, sub-glaucescent above, thinly coriaceous, veiy rigid, 3 to G in.
long by 1 ^ to 3 wide ; petiole tawny-tomentellous or obsoletely
so, g to i in. long, thickened towards the base ; inflorescence
axillary, densely racemose, brown-tomentellous oi- densely
pubescent, about half as long as the leaves ; pedicels ranging
up to \ in. long ; flowers white, pentamerovts ; calyx densely
pubescent, almost tomentose, constricted above the ovary, the
free portion somewhat funnel-shaped, ^ in. long, glabrous inside
except dense brush-like hairs at the base, teeth deltoid, short :
petals oblanceolate, shaggy, veiny, longer than the calyx-teeth.
y\f in. long; stamens 10, unequal, exserted, glabrous, inserted on
the calyx-tube at different heights near its middle ; style glabrous,
exserted rather beyond the filaments.

PUNGO Andoxgo, — In thickets along the margins of Pauda forests,
near LuxiUo, sparingly, only two specimens seen in fl. (and afterwards
in vain sought for in fr.), end of Oct. 1856. No. 4308.

Nearly related to Muandongolo (C. cunstrictaui Laws.).

7. C. racemosum P. Beauv. Fl. Owar. ii. p. 90 t. 118 (1818) ;
Guill. & Perr. Fl. Senegamb. p. 285, t. 67 (1833); Laws, in Oliv.
Fl. Trop. Afr. ii. p. 424.

GoLUNGO Alto. — A divaricately branched shrub, 3 to 4 ft. high,
rambling, scarcely scandent ; leaves thick but soft, clothed beneath
with a whitish tomentum ; flowers purple. By secondary thickets
between Trombeta and Cambondo, rather rare : fl. l'.> Sept. 1854.
No. 4299. A slender sarmentose shrub, much branched from the base,
occasionally standing erect ; branches very long, sometimes deflexed.
sometimes scandent, or twisted and twining, aculeate ; prickles strong,
recurved, acuminate ; adult leaves brightly shining, green, the young
leaves whitish-yellow or yellowish-tomentose : flowers atro-purpureous
or blood-red purple, subsessile ; bracteoles small, narrow, acute ; calyx
clothed with short shaggy downy hairs, the tube obtusely 4-angled, the
limb funnel-shaped or elongate-campanulate, shaggy inside about the
insertion of the stamens, naked and with a purple gloss at the base
about the insertion of the style, mouth ciliate, 4-toothed, teeth from
a broad base abruptly long-acuminate, erect ; petals 4, obovate- or
ovate-lanceolate, erect, mostly rather acute but occasionally hooded at
the apex or folded or rather obtuse or quasi-spathulate, rather fleshy
and rigid, glabrous inside, denselj' shaggy outside, more or less bearded-
ciliate on the margin, atro-purpureous or yellow-reddish, much longer
than the calyx-teeth ; stamens 8, very long, inserted in two rows,
exserted, straight, radiately arranged ; style glabrous, straight, central,
nearly as long as the filaments ; fruit smooth, 4-augled, green-reddish.
In the drier thin hilly thickets near Bango Aquitamba and Bumba ;
fl. and young fr. Sept., fl. and ripe fr. on the same branches Oct. 1855.
No. 4353.

PuNGO Andongo. — A sarmentose shrub, 4 ft. high ; fruit rose-

344 Lii. COMBRETACE.E. [Combvetiom

purple. By the thickets of the fortress, near Luxillo, rather rare ; fr.
Feb. 1857. Xo. 4354.

8. C. flammeum \Vehv. ms. in Herb.

C. racemosum, var. flammeum Welw. ex Laws, in Oliv. Fl.
Trop. Afr. ii. p. 425.

GoLUNGO Alto. — An arborescent shrub, very widely and highly
but not very highly climbing. Sange, fl. July 1856. No. 4295.
Near Sange, 31 March 1856 ; fl. and fr. on the same plant. No. 4296.
In Molemba (cf. Ficus) groves at Sange ; ripe fr. Nov. 1854. No. 4297.
By side of and on the road from Cambondo to Trombeta : in
the rainy season, Sept. 1854:, without fl. or fr. No. 4298. A very
beautiful prickly shrub, climbing extensively but not to a great
height, glandular-downy when young ; leaves not coriaceous, opposite
or occasionally ternate, pellucid-punctate, ciliate on the margin with
hyaline hairs ; petioles in old age after the fall of the blades changed
into turned-back prickles ; the floral leaves, bracts, pedicels, flowers,
and the whole inflorescence carmine, flowers very handsome, tetra-
merous, nearly sessile, appearing principally in the middle of winter
and then often a plant of this shrub covers fences for a distance of 18
to 30 ft. and makes it blaze as if on fire, afterwards flowering in Nov.

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