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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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UC-NRLF



SB 3MS 132



FENCES




WILLIAM DILLER MATTHEW




PRESENTED



BY



The Trustees



OF



THE BRITISH MUSEUM



CATALOGUE

OF THK

UNGULATE MAMMALS

IN THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY).



VOL. IV. .-,.//,.,
ABTIODACTYLA,

FAMILIES CEEVID^E (DEER),

TKAGULID^ (CHEVBOTAINS),

CAMELIDJE (CAMELS AND LLAMAS),

SULD/E (PIGS AND PECCARIES), AND

HIPPOPOTAMLD7E (HIPPOPOTAMUSES).



By R. LYDEKKER, F.R.S.



LONDON :

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE
BRITISH MUSEUM.

SOLD BY

LONGMANS, GREEN & Co., 39, PATERNOSTER Bow, LONDON, E.G.
B. QUARITCH, 11, GRAPTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, LONDON, W.

DULAU & Co., LTD., 37, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON, W.
THE MIDLAND EDUCATIONAL Co., LTD., CORPORATION STREET, BIRMINGHAM,

AND AT THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, S.W.

1915.

(All rights reserved.}




:* ; ' : :

.

* . ' ^ */^"0 . > u



EARTH

^OENCE
k .UBRARY



LONDON :

TRIXTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.K., AND GRKAT WINDMILL STREET, W.



PKEFACE

THE preparation of the fourth Volume of Ungulate Mammals
was nearing completion when its author was struck down
by the illness that proved fatal. With his characteristic
devotion to work, he hardly allowed this to make any
difference, under circumstances when most men would have
considered themselves unfit for mental effort. It would
perhaps have been better if the patient had allowed himself
to rest, but the correction of the proofs went on until the
task was completed, only two or three days before the end
came, on April 16th.

Mr. Lydekker, although not a member of the permanent
staff, had been officially connected with the Museum
since 1884. Only those who have seen the work from the
inside will be able to realise the extent and the value of his
services to the Museum, where his colleagues have the
remembrance of a long and highly successful period of help
unremittingly and ungrudgingly given.

The present Volume includes the families Cervidre,
Tragulidae, Camelidse, Suidse and Hippopotamidse, thus
completing the Artiodactyla. Like its predecessors, it has
been prepared by Mr. Lydekker.

It was hoped that the Catalogue would be completed
shortly by the publication of a fifth Volume, including the
Perissodactyla, the Hyracoidea, and the Proboscidea, together
with addenda to the earlier volumes. It is not possible at
present to state whether this intention can be carried out.

SIDNEY F. HAEMEE,

Keeper of Zoology.

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY),
LONDON, S.W.

April 19th, 1915.

808432



I INTRODUCTION

IN the preparation of this volume I liave not had the valuable
assistance of Mr. 1 Maine, wlio, for the first portion of the
period, was away on a hunting- trip in Africa, and during the
remainder was serving his King and country in the war.

As in the case of the previous volumes, I am greatly
indebted to Mr. 0. Thomas for reading the proofs, and using
his unrivalled knowledge of individual specimens and their
localities to correct errors which had crept into the text. In
the present volume my debt to him is still greater, for being
myself incapacitated by illness from coining to London
during the time the proofs were passing through the press,
the drudgery of filling up omissions in the references to
literature fell to his share.

It may be added that I cannot but regret the appearance
in the text of such ugly, ungrammatical, or absurd terms as
"tunjuc," " Oclocoileus," ' ' and " Hippocamelus," f terms
which would never have been admitted by the past generation
of naturalists, from whose instruction and writings I derived
the basis of my zoological knowledge. According, however,
to modern views on nomenclature views largely attribut-
able to the decline in the study of the classics characteristic
of the present age such usage is practically compulsory.
In one case, however, namely, that of the Kashmir stag, I
could not bring myself to replace a classically-formed name
by one of these ill-sounding barbarisms.

E. LYPEKKER.

M'nrrh IQth, 1915.



* Applied to a subfossil deer's tooth, which, in the then state of
knowledge, should have been described as Cervus.

f Given on the supposition that the Chilian guemal was inter-
mediate between a horse and a llama.



CONTENTS



I'AOE

PREFACE . ..... . . iii

INTRODUCTION v



ORDER UNGULATA.
SUBORDER I. ARTIODACTYLA (continued}.
SECTION A. PECORA (continued}.

FAMILY IV. CERVIDJE 1

SUBFAMILY i. MOSCHIN^ . . 3

\

I. GENUS MOSCHUS ..... .3

MOSCHUS MOSCHIFERUS ...... 4

A. Moschus moschiferus moschiferus . . 5

B. Moschus moschiferus sifanicus ... 7

C. Moschus moschiferus parvipes ... 8

SUBFAMILY ii. CERVINJE ..... 8

II. GENUS MUNTIACUS . . .10

I. MUNTIACUS MUNTJAK ... .11

A. Muntiacus muntjak muntjak ... 14

B. Muntiacus muntjak moschatus ... 15

C. Muntiacus muntjak bancanus ... 15

D. Muntiacus muntjak pleiharicus ... 16

E. Muntiacus muntjak rubidus . . 16

F. Muntiacus muntjak robinsoni . . 18

G. Muntiacus muntjak peninsulse ... 18
H. Muntiacus muntjak curvostylis . . .19

I. Muntiacus muntjak grandicornis . 20

J. Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis ... 21

K. Muntiacus muntjak aureus ... 24

L. Muntiacus muntjak malabaricus . . 24

M. Muntiacus muntjak, subsp. . . 25

II. MUNTIACUS LACRYMANS ..... 25

A. Muntiacus lacrymans lacryrnans . . 26

B. Muntiacus lacrymans sclateri ... 26

C. Muntiacus lacrymans teesdalei . . . 27



Y111 CONTENTS

PAGK

III. MUNTIACDS REEVESI ..... 27

A. Muntiacus reevesi -reeves! .... 28
B. Muntiacus reevesi pingshiangicus . . 30
C. Muntiacus reevesi micrurus . . .80

IV. MUNTIACUS SINENSIS . . . . .31
V. MUNTIACUS FE.E ...... 32

VI. MUNTIACUS CRINIFRONS . . .33

III. GENUS ELAPHODUS . . . . . .34

ELAPHODUS CEPHALOPHUS ..... 34

A. Elaphodus cephaloplms cephalophus . . 35

B. Elaphodus cephalophus michianus . . 36

C. Elaphodus cephalophus fociensis . . 38

D. Elaphodus cephalophus ichangensis . . 39

IV. GENUS DAMA 40

I. DAMA DAMA ....... 42

II. DAMA MESOPOTAMIA ..... 45

V. GENUS CERVUS ....... 46

1. SUBGENUS Axis ...... 48

I. CERVUS (Axis) AXIS . . . .49

A. Cervus axis axis ..... 51
B. Cervus axis ceylonensis .... 53

2. SUBGENUS HYELAPHUS . . . . .54
II. CERVUS (HYELAPHUS) PORCINUS ... 54

A. Cervus porcinus porcinus . . . .56
B. Cervus porcinus ancarniticus ... 58

III. CERVUS (HYELAPHUS) CALAMIANENSIS . . 59

3. SUBGENUS Bus A . . . . . .60

IV. CERVUS (RusA[?J) KUHLI .... 61
V. CERVUS (RUSA) ALFKEDI .... 62

VI. CERVUS (RUSA) TJMORIENSIS .... 63
A. Cervus timoriensis timoriensis ... 65
B. Cervus timoriensis moluccensis . . .65
C. Cervus timoriensis tunjuc .... 66

VII. CERVUS (RUSA) TAVISTOCKI .... 70

VIII. CERVUS (RusA) UNICOLOR .... 70
A. Cervus unicolor uiiicolor . . .74

B. Cervus unicolor equinus .... 78
C. Cervus unicolor brookei .... 80
D. Cervus unicolor swinhoei . . . .81
E. Cervus unicolor dejeani . . . .82



OONTBNTS ix

i- v;i:

F. Cervus unicolor mariannus . . . 83

G. Cervus unicolor philippinus . . 84

H. Cervus unicolor basilanensis . . . 85

I. Cervus unicolor barandanus . . . 85

J. Cervus unicolor francianus . . . 85

K. Cervus unicolor nigricans . . . . <S6

L. Cervus unicolor nigellus . . .87

M. Cervus unicolor boninensis ... 88

Oilier Names applied to Eusine Deer . 88

4. SUBMENUS HUCKUVUS. ..... 92

IX. CERVUS (RucERVus) DUVAUCELI . . 93

X. CERVUS (EUCERVUS) SCHOMBURGKI . . 97

XT. CKRVUS (RUCERVUS) ELDI . . 100

A. Cervus eldi eldi . .102

B. Cervus eldi frontalis . . . 104

C. Cervus eldi siamensis . . 104

5. SUBMENUS SIKA .... . 105
XII. CERVUS (SiKA) NIPPON 107

A. Cervus nippon nippon .... 108
B. Cervus nippon raantchuricus . . . 110

XIII. CERVUS (SIKA) TAIOUANUS . . . .110

XIV. CERVUS (SiKA) HORTULORUM . . . .112
A. Cervus hortulorum kortulorum . . . 114
B. Cervus hortulorum kopschi . . . 115
Incertae Sedis ....... 116

6. SUBGENUS CERVUS . . N . . .116
XV. CERVUS ELAPHUS ...... 117

A. Cervus elaphus barbarus .... 120
B. Cervus elaphus corsicanus. . . . 121
C. Cervus elaphus liispanicus . . ' 121

D. Cervus elaphus elaphus .... 122
E. Cervus elaphus atlanticus .... 122
F.^ Cervus elaphus scoticus .... 123
G. Cervus elaphus hippelaphus . . .124
H. Cervus elaphus, subsp. .... 125
I. Cervus elaphus maral . . . .126

XVI. CERVUS CANADENSIS . . . 129

A. Cervus canadensis canadensis . . . 131

B. Cervus canadensis occidentalis . . .132

C. Cervus canadensis merriami . . . 132

D. Cervus canadensis nannodes . . . 133

E. Cervus canadensis xanthopygus. . . 133

F. Cervus canadensis baicalensis 134



xii CONTENTS

PAGE

XI. GENUS PUDU . . 214

1. SUBGENUS PUDU . . . . . .215

I. PUDU PUDU ....... 215

2. SUBGENUS PUDELLA 217

II. PUDU (PUDELLA) MEPHISTOPHILES . . .217

XII. GENUS CAPREOLUS ...... 218

I. CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS . . . . . 219

A. Capreolus capreolus capreolus . . . 221

B. Capreolus capreolus transsvylvanicus . 222

C. Capreolus capreolus canus . . . 228

D. Capreolus capreolus thotti . . . 223

II. CAPREOLUS BEDFORDI ..... 224

A. Capreolus bedfordi bedfordi . . . 225

B. Capreolus bedfordi melanotis . . . 225

III. CAPREOLUS PYGARGUS ..... 226

A. Capreolus pygargus firghanicus . . . 227

B. Capreolus pygargus pygargus . . . 227

C. Capreolus pygargus tianschanicus . . 228

XIII. GENUS ALOES 228

ALCES ALCES . . . . . . . 230

A. Alces alces alces ..... 232

B. Alces alces bedfordise .... 234

C. Alces alces americanus .... 234

D. Alces alces columbae ..... 236

E. Alces alces gigas ..... 237

XIV. GENUS EANGIFER 238

RANGIFER TARANDUS ... . 239

A. Rangifer tarandus tarandus . . . 241

B. Rangifer tarandus fennicus . . . 243

C. Rangifer tarandus pi atyrhynch us . . 243

D. Rangifer tarandus sibiricus . . . 244

E. Rangifer tarandus pearsoni . . . . 244

F. Rangifer tarandus phylarclius . " . . 245

G. Rangifer tarandus caribou . \ . 246

H. Rangifer tarandus sylvestris . . . 248

I. R angifer tarandus terraenovae . . . 248

J. Rangifer tarandus montanus . . . 249

K. Rangifer tarandus dawsoni . . . 251

L. Rangifer tarandus stonei .... 251

M. Rangifer tarandus fortidens . . . 251

N. Rangifer tarandus osborni . . . 252

O. Rangifer tarandus granti .... 253



CONTENTS xiii

r.v<;i.

L J . Eangifer tarandus excelsifrons . . . 258

( L ). Rangifer tarandus arcticus . . . 254

R. Eangifer tarandus groenlandicus . . 256

S. Rangifer tarandus pearyi .... 256

XV. (IKNUS HYDROFOTES . . . . . . 257

HYDROPOTES INERMIS ...... 257

SECTION B. TRAGULINA ~. 260

FAMILY TRAGULID.E ....... 260

I. GENUS TRAGULUS . . . . . . . 261

I. TRAGULUS MEMINNA ..... 262

II. TRAGULUS STANLEYANUS ..... 265

A'. Tragulus stanleyanus stanleyanus . . 265

B. Tragulus stanleyanus per'flavus . ... 266

C. Tragulus stanleyanus rufulus ' . . 267

D. Tragulus stanleyanus formosus . . . 267

III. TRAGULUS JAVANICUS ..... 268

A. Tragulus javanicus javanicus . . . 268

B. Tragulus javanicus napu .... 269

C. Tragulus javanicus canescens . . . 270

D. Tragulus javanicus borneanus . . . 270

E. Tragulus javanicus nigricans . . . 272

F. Tragulus javanicus terutus . . . 272

G. Tragulus javanicus umbrinus . . . 278

H. Tragulus javanicus pretiosus . . . 278

I. Tragulus javanicus pretiellus . . . 274

J. - Tragulus javanicus parallelus . . . 274

K. -Tragulus javanicus lutescens . . . 275

L. Tragulus javanicus flavicollis . . . 275

M. Tragulus javanicus bancanus . . . 275

N. Tragulus javanicus nigricollis . . . 276

O. Tragulus javanicus nigrocinctus . . 276

P. Trrgulus javanicus sebucus . . . 277

Q. Tragulus javanicus billitonus . . . 277

E. Tragulus javanicus amoenus . . . 278

8. Tragulus javanicus jugularis . . 278

T. Tragulus javanicus annae . . . 279

U. Tragulus javanicus bunguranensis . . 279

V. Tragulus javanicus batuanus . . . 279

"NV. Tragulus javanicus versicolor . . . 280

IV. TRAGULUS KANCHIL. ..... 280

A. Tragulus kanchil kancliil .... 282

B. Tragulus kancliil longipes . .' . . 282

C. Tragulus kanchil luteicollis . . . 282



xiv CONTENTS

PAGE

D. Tragulus kanchil subrufus *< . . 283

E. Tragulus kanchil rubeus . . . 283

F. Tragulus kanchil Mvicollis . . . 284

G. Tragulus kanchil carhnatae . . . 284

H. Tragulus kanchil brevipes . .- . 284

1. Tragulus kanchil pallidus . . . , ' . . 285

J. Tragulus kanchil fulviventer "V . . 285

K. Tragulus kanchil affinis . . , . 286

L. Tragulus kanchil ravulus , . . 288

M. Tragulus kanchil lancavensis . a . 288

N. Tragulus kanchil lampensis . . , 288

O. Tragulus kanchil russeus .... 289

P. Tragulus kanchil russulus .... 289

Q. Tragulus kanchil hosei . . . 290

K. Tragulus kanchil everetti . 291

S. Tragulus kanchil pierrei .... 291

T. Tragulus kanchil pelandoc . ' . 292

II. GENUS DORCATHERIUM . 295

DORCATHERIUM AQUATICUM ..... 295

A. Dorcatherium aquaticum aquaticum . . 296

B. Dorcatherium aquaticum bates! . . 297

C. Dorcatherium aquaticum cottoni . . 298

SECTION C. TYLOPODA . . . ... . 298

FAMILY CAMELIDJE . . . . . . . 299

I. GENUS CAMELUS ....... 299

CAMELUS BACTRIANUS ... . . 300

II. GENUS LAMA 301

I. LAMA GLAMA ....... 302

A. Lama glama huanacus .... 302

B. Lama glama cacsilensis .... 304

II. LAMA VICUGNA ... . . 304

SECTION D. SUINA . . . ..... . 305

FAMILY I. SUIDJE . . . . . . . . 306

SUBFAMILY i. SITING . . . , . , r . . 306

I. GENUS Sus . . ; ; . -.'"' v .. . 307

1. SUBGENUS Sus . . . . 308

I. Sus SCROFA . . . ; - . . . . 308

A. Sus scrofa scrofa . . . . 313

B. Sus scrofa meridionalis . . . .313

C. Sus scrofa castilianus . . . 314

D. Sus scrofa bceticus . . - . . . 314
E. Sus scrofa barbarus . . . . .315

F. Sus scrofa sennaarensis 315



< '< >NTENTS XV

PAGE

(I. Sus scrofa lybicus ..... 316

H. Sus scrofa attila 316

I. Sus scrofa nigripes . . . . * . 317

J. Sus scrofa moupinensis .... 317

II. SUS CRISTATUS ...... 318

A. Sus cristatus cristatus .... 319

B. Sus cristatus jubatus .... 320

C. Sus cristatus jubatulus .... 320

III. SUS LEUCOMYSTAX ...... 321

A. Sus leucomystax leucomystax . . . 322

B. Sus leucomystax taivamiK .... 322

IV. Sus VITTATUS . . . . . .323

A. Sus vittatus vittatus ..... 325

B. Sus vittatus milleri 325

C. Sus vittatus floresianus .... 325

D. Sus vittatus andamanensis . . . 326

E. Sus vittatus nicobaricus .... 327

F. Sus vittatus peninsularis .... 327

G. Sus vittatus rhionis . . . . 327

H. Sus vittatus andersoni .... 328

I. Sus vittatus niadensis .... 328

J. Sus vittatus babi ..... 328

K. Sus vittatus natunensis .... 329

L. Sus vittatus mimus ..... 329

M. Sus vittatus timoriensis .... 329

V. SUS CELEBENSIS ...... 331

A. Sus celebensis celebensis .... 332

B. Sus celebensis nehringi .... 333

C. Sus celebensis philippensis . . . 333

D. Sus celebensis minutus .... 334

E. Sus celebensis mindanensis . . . 334

F. Sus celebensis amboinensis . . . 335

G. Sus celebensis ceramicus .... 335

H. Sus celebensis borneensis .... 336

Incertfe Sedis 336

VI. Sus VERRUCOSUS 336

VII. SUS BARBATUS 338

A. Sus barbatus barbatus .... 340

B. Sus barbatus gargantua .... 341

C. Sus barbatus oi 341

D. Sus barbatus ahaenobarbus . . . 342

E. Sus barbatus balabacensis . . . . 342

F. Sus barbatus calamianensis . . . 343

2. SUBGENUS PORCULA ...... 343

VIII. SUS (PORCULA) SALVANIUS .... 343

IV. b



XVI CONTENTS

PAGE

II. GENUS BABIRUSSA . . . . . . 344

BABIRUSSA BABYEUSSA. ..... 345

A. Babirussa babyrussa babyrussa . . . 345

B. Babirussa babyrussa celebensis . . . 346

III. GENUS POTAMOCHCERUS ..... 348

I. POTAMOCHCERUS LARVATUS .... 349

A. Potamochcerus larvatus larvatus . . 350

B. Potamochcerus larvatus hova . . . 350

II. POTAMOCHCERUS CHCEROPOTAMUS . . . 350

A. Potaniochcerus'chceropotamus chceropotamus 352

B. Potamochcerus chceropotamus maschona . 353

C. Potamochcerus chceropotamus daenionis . 354

D. Potamochcerus chceropotamus nyasae . . 354

E. Potamochcerus chceropotamus johnstoni . 355

F. Potamochcerus chceropotamus keniae . . 356

III. POTAMOCHCERUS HASSAMA . . . .357

IV. POTAMOCHCERUS POROUS .... 357
A. Potamochcerus porcus porcus . . . 358
B. Potamochcerus porcus pictus . . . 359
C. Potamochcerus porcus ubangensis . . 360
D. Potamochcerus porcus albifrons . . . 361
E. Potamochcerus porcus congicus . . . 361

V. POTAMOCHCERUS INTERMEDIUS . . . 361

IV. GENUS HYLOCHCERUS ...... 362

HYLOCHCERUS MEINERTZHAGENI .... 363

A. Hylochcerus meinertzhageni meinertzhageni 864

B. Hylochoerus meinertzhageni rimator . . 364

V. GENUS PHACOCHCERUS ...... 365

PHACOCHCERUS JETHIOPICUS ..... 366

A. Phacochcerus aethiopicus aethiopicus . . 367

B. Phacochcerus aethiopicus sundevalli . . 368

C. Phacochcerus aethiopicus massaicus . . 370
D. Phacochcerus sethiopicus delamerei . .371
E. Phacochcerus aethiopicus aeliani . . .371

F. Phacochcerus aethiopicus fossor . . . 372

G. Phacochcerus aethiopicus bufo . . . 372

H. Phacochcerus aethiopicus africanus . . 373

SUBFAMILY ii. DICOTYLIN^E ...... 374

VI. GENUS DICOTYLES 374

1. SUBGENUS DICOTYLES ..... 375

I. DICOTYLES PECARI ..... 375

A. Dicotyles pecari pecari V . . . 376

B. Dicotyles pecari ringens .... 378

C. Dicotyles pecari spiradens . . . 378



CONTENTS XV11

PAGE

2. SUBUENUS PECAKI ...... 379

II. DICOTYLES (PKCAHI) TAJ AC c .... 879

A. Dicotyles tajacu tajacu .... 380

B. Dicotyles tajacu torvus .... 382

C. Dicotyles tajacu niger .... 382

III. DICOTYLES (PECARI) ANOULATUS . . . 383

A. Dicotyles angulatus angulatus . . . 383

B. Dicotyles angulatus sonoriensis . . . 384

C. Dicotyles angulatus humeralis . . . 384

D. Dicotyles angulatus crassus . . . 385

E. Dicotyles angulatus yucatanensis . . 385

F. Dicotyles angulatus crusnigrum . . . 385

G. Dicotyles aDgulatus nanus . . . 386

FAMILY II. HIPPOPOTAMID^: ...... 386

I. GENUS HIPPOPOTAMUS ...... 386

HIPPOPOTAMUS AMPHIBIUS 387

A. Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius . . 389

B. Hippopotamus amphibius tschadensis . 390

C. Hippopotamus amphibius kiboko . . 391

D. Hippopotamus amphibius constrictus . 391

E. Hippopotamus amphibius australis . . 392

II. GENUS CHCEROPSIS 392

CHCEROPSIS LIBERIENSIS ..... 393

INDEX 395



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Fig. 1 .Lower Front Teeth of Elk (Alces alecs) . (From Miller,

Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) .... 2
,, 2. Skull of Musk-Deer (Mosclius moschiferus) . . 6
,, 3. Head of Indian Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak vagin-
alis). (From a photograph lent by the Bombay
Natural History Society) ..... 13
4. Skull and Antlers of Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) . 14
,, 5. Skull and Antlers of Eeeves's Muntjac (Muntiacus
reevesi) and Bridgeman's Muntjac (M. sinensis).
(From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910) ... 29

-Head of Ningpo Tufted Deer (Elapliodus cepJialophus

michianus). (From Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876) 35

-Side View of Skull of Ningpo Tufted Deer (Elaphodus
ceplialoplius michianns) . (From Lydekker, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1904) . . . . ' . . .37

-Front View of Skulls of Ningpo and Ichang Tufted

Deer. (From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904) . 38

-Side View of Skull of Ichang Tufted Deer (Elaphodus
ceplialoplius icJiangensis). (From Lydekker, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1904) 39

,, 10. Palatal Aspect of Skull of Fallow Deer (Dama dama).

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . .41

,, 11. Lower Front Teeth of Fallow Deer (Dama dama).

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . . 41
-Head of Persian Fallow Deer (Dama mesopotamica) . 46
-Lower Front Teeth of Ked Deer (Cervus elaphus).

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . . 47

,, 14. Skull and Antlers of Chital (Cervus [Axis] axis) . 50

,, 15. Skull and Antlers of Hog-Deer (Cervus [Hyelaphus]

porcinus) ........ 55

,, 16. Frontlet and Antlers of Javan Eusa (Cervus [Rusa]
timoriensis tunjitc). (From a specimen in the
collection of Sir E. G. Loder, Bart.) ... 68
17. Skull and Antlers of Sambar (Cervus [Rusa] unicolor) 72

., 18. Head of Swamp -Deer (Cervus [Rucervus] duvauceli).

(From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1899). . 95



xx LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Fig. 19. Skull and Antlers of Schomburgk's Deer (Cervus
[Rucervus] schomburgJci) . (From a photograph

lent by Messrs. Eowland Ward, Ltd.) ... 98
,, 20. Head of Thamin (Cervus [Rucervus] eldi) . . . 101
,, 21. Head of Dybowski's Deer (Cervus [Sika\ liortulorum).

(From a photograph by the Duchess of Bedford) . 113
-Palatal Aspect of Skull of Bed Deer (Cervus elaphus}.

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . .119
-Antlers of Eastern Red Deer, or Maral (Cervus elaphus

maral) ..... ... 127

,, 24. Head of Wapiti (Cervtts canadensia) .... 180

,, 25. Skull and Antlers of Yarkand Stag (Cervus ijark&nd-

ensis) ......... 140

,, 26. Skull and Antlers of Sikhim Shou (Cervus wallichi

affinis] 143

,, 27. Head of Hangul (Cervus cashmiriensis) . . . 148
,, 28. Head and Neck of Thorold's Deer (Cervus albirostris] 150
,, 29. Head of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) .

(From a photograph lent by Mr. E. S. Cameron) . 157
,, 30. Pampas Deer (Blastocerus bezoarticus) . . . 190
,, 31. Head of Chilian Guemal (Hippocamelus bisulcus).

(From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1899) . . 195

-Skull of Pudu (Pudupudu) . - . . . .216
-Palatal Aspect of Skull of Roe (Capreolus capreolus).

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe] . . 220
,, 34. Lower Front Teeth of Roe (Capreolus capreolus).

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . . 220
35. Palatal Aspect of Skull of Elk (Alces alces). (From

Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . . . 231
,, 36. Side View of Head of American Elk, or Moose (Alces

alces americanus). (From a specimen in the posses-
sion of Mr. J. K. Paisley, of Ottawa) . . . 235
Muzzle of American Elk (Alces alces americanus) . 236
Muzzle of Ontario Elk (Alces alces columbce). (From

the type specimen, in the collection of Capt. E. C.

Hamilton) . . . ... . .237

39. Front View of Head of Alaskan Elk, or Moose (Alces

alces gigas] ......... 238

,, 40. Lower Front Teeth of Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

(From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe) . . 240
,, 41. Side View of Skull and Antlers of Novaya Zernlyan

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus pearsoni) . . . 245
,, 42. Front View of Head of Woodland Caribou (Rangifer

tarandus caribou], with the antlers in "velvet" . 247



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS \\i

PAAl

Fig. 43. Side View of Skull and Antlers of Mountain Caribou
(Ranaifer tarandus montaniis'). (From '1th Report
of New York Zoological Society) .... 250

44. Side View of Skull and Antlers of Barren-Ground
Caribou (Rangifer tarandus arcticus). (From 1th
Report of Nciv York Zoological Society) . . 255

,. 45. Skull of Chinese Water-Deer (Hydropotes inermis) . 259
.. 46. Skull of Indian Chevrotain (Tragtilus meminna) . 263

., 47. Right Upper and Lower Cheek-Teeth of Wild Boar
(Sus scrofa). (From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western
Europe] 309

,, 48. Transverse Sections of Lower Canines of Sus scrofa

and S. verrucosu*. (From Stehlin) . . . 310

.. 49. Side View of Skull, with the lower jaw detached, of
Wild Boar (Sits scrofa). (From Miller, Cat. Mamm.
Western Europe) 311

50. Frontal and Palatal Aspects of Skull of Wild Boar
(Sus scrofa). (From Miller, Cat. Ma mm. Western
Europe) 312

,, 51. Skull of Babirusa (Babirussa babyrussa celebensis).
(From Gray, Hand-List of Thick-skinned Mam-
mals) 347

,, 52. Skull of Southern Bush-Pig (Potamochoerus chcero-
potamus). (From Gray, Hand-List of Thick-
skinned Mammals) ...... 352

53. Skull of Camerun Bush-Pig, or Bed Biver-Hog
(Potamochoerus porcuspictns). (From Gray, Hand-
List of Thick -skinned 'Mammals) . . . . 359

,, 54. Head of Wart-Hog (Phacochoerus cethiopicus) . . 367

,, 55. Palatal Aspect of Skull and Lower Jaw of Hippo-
potamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) . . . 388

.. 56. Fore-feet of Pigmy Hippopotamus (Chceropsis liberi-
ensis) and Ordinary Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus
ampJiibins). (From Pocock, The Field, 1913) . 394



CATALOGUE

OF

UNGULATE S.



VOL. IV. ?' : ||:r.:; : :.

SUBORDER ARTIODACTYLA (continued).
SECTION A. PECORA (continued).

FAMILY IV. CERVID.E.

PECORA, in which the cranial appendages generally
restricted to the males, and in a few cases absent even in
that sex take the form of (usually) branched, bony, solid,
deciduous antlers, supported on permanent skin-covered
pedicles arising from the frontal bones; upper canines
generally present, very long in those genera which lack
antlers in both sexes ; lower canines with simple, uncleft
crowns (fig. 1) ; cheek-teeth generally low-crowned (brachyo-
dont); lateral toes generally present, with the constituent
bones fully developed ; lateral metacarpals wanting either



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 1 of 36)