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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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p. 186, andreanus, p. 186, joretianus, p. 187, devilleanus, p. 187,
cyclorhinus, p. 188, hyemalis, p. 188, Heude, Bull. Soc. Philom.
ser. 7, vol. vi, p. 183, 1882.

Cervus sica, Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 284, 1893, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1897, p. 39, Deer of All Lands, p. Ill, 1898, Great and
Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 229, 1901.

Sika porcorelianus, p. 149, brachyrhinus, p. 151, andreanus, p. 152,
grilloanus, p. 154, dugenneanus, p. 156, joretianus, p. 157, oxyceph-
alus, p. 158, frinianus, p. 159, cycloceros, p. 160, surdescens,
p. 161, lacrymans, p. 162, arietinus,p. 162, yuanus, p. 162, Heude,
Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, 1894 ; scudaensis, p. 98,
blakistonius, p. 98, dolichorhinus, p. 100, aplodonticus, p. 100,
schizodonticus, p. 100, orthopodicus, p. 100, mitratus, p. 102,
ellipticus, p. 103, elegans, p. 103, minoensis, p. 104, rutilus,
p. 195, yesoensis, p. 105, Heude, op. cit. vol. iii, 1896.

Sikaillus sika, infelix, daimius, rex, paschalis, regulus, aceros, sicarius,
dejardinius, consobrinus, marmandianus, latidens, brachypus,
Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. iv, pp. 98-111,
pis. xiv-xix and xxii, 1898.

Cervus (Pseudaxis) sica, Ward, Records of Bifj Game, ed. 6, p. 149,
1910.



108 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Cervus (Pseudaxis) sika, Pococlc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 942.
Cervus (Sika) nippon, Lydekker, Ward's Record? of Big Game, ed. 7,
p. viii, 1914.

SHIKA or SIKA : Japanese Deer.

Typical locality Japan.

The type species ; also type of Sikattlus, the other forms
of which are from the Goto Islands, Japan.

Size typically small, shoulder-height about 33 inches,
but larger in the race inhabiting the Chinese mainland ;
general colour bright rufous chestnut, spotted on the body
with white in summer ; uniformly coloured, or nearly so, in
winter, when it is dark umber-brown, with the hairs
annulated ; a light chestnut patch on the shoulder ; sides of
upper and whole of lower lip white; tail mainly white,
frequently with a narrow black line on the upper surface
and sometimes a dark terminal tuft ; metatarsal tuft large
and white ; insides and part of base of outer surface of ears
covered with white hairs.

The range includes Japan, Northern China, and Man-
churia. Whether all the forms named by Heude under the
headings of Cervus and Sikaillus are identical with the
present species is doubtful ; the so-called C. devillieanus, for
instance, may be Formosan.

A. Size smaller C. n. nippon.

B. Size larger C. n, mantclmricus.

A, Cervus nippon nippon.

Cervus sica iypicus, Lydehker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 39, Deer of
All Lands, p. 112, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc.
p. 231, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 50, 1910.

Cervus nippon typicus. LydeJcker, Ward's Records of Big Game,
ed. 7, p. viii, 1914.

Typical locality Japan.

Size small, the height at the shoulder ranging from about
32 inches to 34 inches ; white area of caudal region large,
extending on to the sides of the buttocks, and completely
bordered with black above and at the sides. Fine antlers
measure from 21 to 26J inches along the curve, with a basal
girth of from 3J to 5, and a tip-to-tip interval of from 12 to
20J inches.



100

The range, on the assumption that C. cuopis is absolutely
identical with the Japanese form, includes a part of China.
60. 12. 12. 1. Shed antlers. Japan.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1860.

63. 5. 28. 1. Shed antlers. Japan.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1860.

64. 12. 30. 3. Skin, formerly mounted. Kanegawa,
Japan ; from a stag presented to the Zoological Society by
J. Wilks, Esq. Type of Rusa japonica.

Purchased (Zoological Society) , 1864.
8.'). 4. 14. 2. Skin, formerly mounted, and skeleton.
Newchwang, Northern China. Type of C. euopis.

Purchased {Zoological Society), 1883.

85. 2. 23. 1. Skull and antlers. Northern Japan ;

collected by H. Fryer, Esq. Purchased, 1885.

85. 2. 23. 2. Skull and antlers, immature. Same locality

and collector. Same history.

92. 12. 2. 3-4. Two frontlets, with antlers. Kobe,
Japan. Presented ~by Dr. P. Rendall, 1892.

93. 4. 17. 1-4. Four frontlets, with antlers. From stags
bred at Powerscourt, County Wicklow, Ireland.

Presented "by Viscount Powerscourt, 1893.
95. 5. 25. 1. Skull and antlers of hybrid between
C. nippon and C. claphus. Bred at Powerscourt.

Same donor, 1895.

95. 5. 25. 2. Antlers of a similar hybrid. Same locality.

Same history.

98. 3. 10. 1. Skin, mounted. From a stag bred in
England. Presented ly the Hon. R. Ward, 1898.

5. 5. 30. 29. Skull and skin, female. Nara Ken, Hondo,
Japan ; collected by M. P. Anderson, Esq.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1905.
5. 11. 3. 44. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Yakushima
Island, Southern Japan; collected by Alan Owston, Esq.

Same history.

5. 11. 3. 45-46. Two skulls and skins, female. Same
locality. Same history.

5.11.3.47. Skin, young. Same locality. Samehistory.
". 11. 3. 48. Skull and skin, young. Same locality.

Same history.



110 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

The following specimen may represent a distinct local
race :

7. 2. 13. 1. Skin, mounted. Liu-Kin Islands.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, KG., 1907.

B. Cervus nippon mantehurieus.

Ccrvus mantehurieus, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 169, 1865,
p. 1 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 344, pis. xxxi and
xxxii, 1871 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 908 ; Moellendorff',
Zool. Jahrb. vol. ii, p. 588, 1887 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs,
p. 287, 1893 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 21, 1896.

Pseudaxis mantchurica, Gray, Cat. Euminants Brit. Mus. p. 72, 1872,
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 141, 1873.

Elaphoceros mantehurieus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien,
vol. lix, pt. 1, p. 93, 1874.

Axis mantschuricus, Riitimeyer, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii,
p. 93, 1881.

Cervus sica manchuricus, Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 39,
Deer of All Lands, p. 112, pi. vii, 1898, Great and Small Game
of Europe, etc. p. 232, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 50, 1910.

Cervus nippon manchuricus, Lydekker, Ward's Records of Big Game,
ed. 7, p. viii, 1914.

Typical locality Manchuria ; the type was obtained at
Ying-tzu-koti (Nuchwang), the treaty-port.

Larger than the last, the height at the shoulder reaching
39 inches; the white area in the region of the tail much
smaller, so as scarcely to be apparent in a side-view, but
completely bordered with black ; and spots and a tinge of
red frequently retained on the hind-quarters of females in
winter. No antlers exceeding in size the largest of the
typical race have been recorded.

99. 6. 1. 1. Skin, immature, in summer coat, mounted.
Northern China.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, KG., 1899.



XIII. CERVUS (SIKA) TAIOUANUS.

Cervus taiouanus, Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxix, p. 90,

1860 ; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 376 ; Aoki, Annot. Zool.

Japon. vol. viii, p. 342, 1913.
Cervus taevanus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 152, Trans. Zool.

Soc. vol. vii, p. 345, 1871 ; Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 362 ;

Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 909 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind.



CKKVIIU: 111

Mils. pt. ii, p. 45, 1891; Lydckkcr, Horux and Hoofs, p. 288,

1893, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 45, Deer of All Lands, p. 116,

pi. viii, 1898; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 22, 1896 ;

Bentham, Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 70, 1908.
Pseudaxis taivanus, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 70, 1872,

Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 141, 1873.
Elaphoceros taevanus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien,

vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 599, 1874.

Axis taivanus, Riitimeyer, Abli. scliweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 93, 1881.
Cervus taioranus, Heude, Bull. Soc. Philom. ser. 7, vol. vi, p. 184,

errorim.
Cervus (Pseudaxis) taevanus, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,

p. 51, 1910.
Cervus (Sika) taevanus, Lydckker, Ward's Records of Big Game,

ed. 7, p. viii, 1914.

KWAROKU : FORMOSAN SlKA.

Typical, and only, locality Formosa.

Type of Pseudaxis and Elaphoceros.

Type in Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Nearly allied to the typical species, but distinctly
spotted in winter; size medium, shoulder-height about
35 inches ; face shorter, muzzle more pointed, limbs shorter,
and body longer than in Japanese sika; general colour in
summer light chestnut, with large white spots, and a deep
red tinge on the hind part of the neck ; in winter the spots
less numerous ; the black border to the white caudal area
forming a more distinct bar superiorly, and the median black
line on the tail broader than in the type species, and the
dark line down the back more strongly marked. The
metatarsal gland does not appear to be white.

The largest recorded pair of antlers measure 19 J inches
along the curve, with a basal girth of 3|, and a tip-to-tip
interval of 13 inches.

The retention of spots in the winter coat in this southern
species is noteworthy.

63. 5. 28. 2. Pair of shed antlers. Formosa.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1863.

65. 1. 30. 1. Shed antlers, menagerie specimen. Formosa.
Presented ly Dr. P. L. Sclater, 1865.

65. 12. 8. 22. Skin, mounted, and skeleton. Formosa.
Purchased (Zoological Society), 1865.

68. 3. 21. 3. Skin, young, mounted. Probably bred in
London. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1865.



112 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

68. 3. 21. 4. Skin, female, mounted. Formosa.

Same history.
68. 12. 29. 14. Skin, mounted. Formosa. Same history.

XIV. CEEVUS (SIKA) HOKTULORUM.

Cervus pseudaxis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 236, pi. xxvii, nee

Eydoux and Souleyet, 1841-52.
Cervus hortulorum, Swinlioe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 169 ; Lydekker,

ibid. 1897, p. 42, Deer of All Lands, p. 117, pi. ix, 1898, Great

and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 234, 1901.
(?) Cervus mandarinus, Milne-Edwards, Eech. Mamtn. p. 174, 1871 ;

Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 968; Lydekker, ibid. 1897,

p. 44, Deer of All Lands, p. 121, 1898.
Cervus dybowskii, Taczanowski, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 123, Brooke,

ibid. 1878, p. 909 ; Noack, Humboldt, vol. viii, p. 4, fig. 1, 1889 ;

Kohler, Zool. Garten, vol. xliii, p. 28, 1892 ; Lydekker, Horns

and Hoofs, p. 287, 1893, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 40.
(?) Cervus mantschuricus major, Noack, Humboldt, vol. viii, p. 5,

fig. 4, 1889.

Cervus dybowski, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 22, 1896.
Cervus (Pseudaxis) hortulorum, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,

p. 52, 1910.
Cervus (Sika) hortulorum, Lydekker, Ward's Records of Big Game,

ed. 7, p. viii, 1914.

The type specimens were shot in the gardens of the
Summer Palace, Pekin, after its sack on October 12th, 1860 ;
the typical locality of dybowskii is the Usuri district of
Manchuria.

Size large, the shoulder-height reaching 3 feet 7 inches ;
coat profusely spotted with white at all seasons, although
somewhat more fully in summer than in winter, when it is
very long and shaggy ; in winter general colour of body in
sub-adult males bright chestnut-brown ; neck without spots,
bluish grey at base, then a blackish collar, followed by
chestnut; face bluish grey; metatarsal tuft similar to the
hair of rest of shanks in summer, but the centre greyish
white ; thighs and fore-legs greyish brown ; under-parts
greyish white ; tail rather short, white with a black median
stripe, and often a dark band above the white on the
buttocks ; in summer the spots more numerous and the
general colour chocolate-brown. Adult bucks (of the
so-called dybowskii) in winter-coat are described by Noack
as follows : General colour yellowish umber-brown, tending



CERVID^ 113

more to yellow in front and to umber behind, and becoming
darker on the back ; head as far as the nose yellowish
brown, forehead and neck reddish brown, nose greyish red,
upper lip yellowish red, a moderately large dark spot on the
greyish white lower lip ; ears thickly haired, dirty grey




FIG. 21. HEAD OF DYBOWSKI'S DEER (Cervus [Sika] hortulvrum).
From a photograph by the Duchess of Bedford.

internally, rusty red externally; mane on head and neck
long, shaggy, and whitish grey in colour; chest nearly
black ; under-parts whitish grey ; the white caudal patch
bordered in front with black ; tail white with a black tip ;
front-shanks yellowish red, hind-shanks umber-brown, each
with a dark streak in front ; metatarsal tuft not light-
coloured. Fine antlers (fig. 21) measure from 27 to 34 inches.
IV. I



114 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

along the curve, with a basal girth of from 4J to 5f , and
a tip-to-tip interval of from 18 J to 34 \ inches. The type
specimen of the so-called C. mandarinus, from N. China,
preserved in the Museum at Paris, was described as very
large, with the coat spotted at all seasons, and very long
and shaggy in winter; colour darker than in the typical
Iwrtulorum, and spots less abundant in the winter, when the
neck and limbs are similar in tint to the ground-colour of
the body; under-parts dark; metatarsal tuft apparently
similar in colour to the rest of the leg ; tail comparatively
long, mainly reddish, with little white. These alleged
points of difference need not apparently be of more than
seasonal or individual value; the type specimen having
perhaps been killed before the winter coat was fully
developed.

The two races appear to be distinguished as follows :

A. Bark dorsal stripe not fully developed; spots

more distinct on neck C. h. hortulorum.

B. Dark dorsal stripe fully developed; spots less

distinct on neck C. li. Itopschi.

A. Cervus hortulorum hortulorum,

Cervus hortulorum typicus, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 52, 1910, ed. 7, p. 52, 1914.

The true home of this race is the Usuri district of
Manchuria.

General characters those of the species, with the dark
dorsal stripe imperfectly developed, and the spotting on the
neck very distinct.

61. 6. 2. 1. Skin, mounted, immature. From an animal
killed in the gardens of the Summer Palace, Pekin, October,
1860; collected by E. Swinhoe, Esq. Type; figured by
Gray as C. pseudaxis.

Presented by the Zoological Society, 1861.

61. 6. 2. 2. Skin, mounted, and skull, immature female.
Obtained at the same time and place as the preceding
specimen. Same history.

61. 6. 2. 3. Skull, with antlers, and skin, immature.
From the Summer Palace. Same Mstory.



CERVIDJ3 115

78. 5. 22. 1. Skin, mounted. South Usuri district,
Manchuria ; collected by Monsieur Taczanowski. Co-type
of Cervus dyboivskii. Purchased, 1878.

S.'J. 8. 1. 1-2. Two skulls, female, one immature. Obser-
vatory Island, Korea.

Presented by Capt. A. Carpenter, R.N., 1883.

97. 12. 12. 1. Skin, female, in summer coat, mounted.
Manchuria. Presented by the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1897.

99. 8. 36. 4. Frontlet and antlers. Sutschan Valley,
280 miles east of Vladivostock, north of Manchuria.

Same donor, 1899.

2. 10. 2. 2. Skin, in summer coat, mounted. Same
locality. Same donor, 1902.

B. Cervus hortulorum kopschi.

Cervus kopschi, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1873, p. 574; Brooke,

ibid. 1878, p. 909; Heude, Bull. Soc. Philom. ser. 7, vol. vi,

p. 184, 1882.
Cervus hortulorum kopschi, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of

Europe, etc. p. 239, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,

p. 52, 1914, ed. 7, p. 52, 1914.

Typical locality Kien-chang, Kiang-si, south-western
China.

Dorsal stripe more fully developed, and spots less distinct
on upper part of neck, and not extending so far over
shoulder and thighs as in typical race.

73. 6. 27. 1. Skin, immature, in winter coat, mounted,
and skull. Kien-chang, Kiang-si, near the border of Fo-kien,
south-western China ; collected by E. Swinhoe, Esq. Type.

Purchased, 1873.

1. 3. 2. 18. Skin, with antlers, and leg-bones. Yang-tsi
Valley. Noticed by present writer, op. cit., 1901.

Presented by F. W. Styan, Esq., 1901.

1. 3. 2. 19. Skin, female, in winter coat. Chin-teh,
An-hwei, Yang-tsi Valley. Same history.

1. 3. 2. 20. Body-skin, in summer coat. Same locality.

Same history.

10. 5. 26. 1. Skin, female. Tai-Kung-Shan, An-hwei.
Presented by Commander the Hon. E. 0. V. Bridgeman, 1910.

I 2



U6 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

INCERT.E SEDIS.

Cervus pseudaxis, Eydoux and Souleyet, Voyage de " La Bonite,"
Zoology, vol. i, p. 64, 1841-52 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. 'Soc. 1878,
p. 909 ; Lydekker, ibid. 1897, p. 38, Deer of All Lands, p. 1, 1898.

Axis pseudaxis, Gray, Cat. Ungutata Brit. Mus. p. 214, 1852 ;
Fitzinger, Sit^ber^ Jc. AJc. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 274, 1874.

Sikelaphus pseudaxis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii,
p. 146, 1894.

" The animal which has been figured under the name of
Cervus pseudaxis" wrote Gray in 1852, " was obtained by
MM. Eydoux and Souleyet in Java, but they did not believe
that it was a native of that country. It lived several years
in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, and hence a series of its
horns was procured and figured ; and while there it bred
with the common axis, and the mule produce was fertile.
Some naturalists have given the Sooloo [SuluJ Islands, near
the Philippines, as the habitat of this specimen, but I do not
know on what authority." Brooke observed that he
hesitated to identify it with " any species of the subgenus.
The type specimen is still preserved in the Museum
d'Histoire Naturelle at Paris; but though I have often
carefully examined it, the absence of the skull, and the great
uncertainty of the locality where it was procured, render it
impossible to form a decided opinion." Sclater suggested
that it is really the same as C. taiouanus, in which case that
name would have to be superseded, pseudaxis being the
earliest of all.

6. SUBGENUS CERVUS.

Elaphus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 307, 1827.
Harana, Hodgson, Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. i, p. 154, 1838.
Pscudocervus, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. x, p. 904,

1841.

Strongyloceros, Oiven, Brit. Foss. Mamm. and Birds, p. 472, 1846.
Eucervus, Aclogue, Faune France, Mamm. p. 71, 1899 ; nee Gray.

Antlers usually with at least five tines inclusive of a bez
(second), which may, however, be absent, and the brow-tine
forming an obtuse angle with the beam ; bare portion of
muzzle (muffle) extending but slightly below nostrils ; hind-
pasterns as in Eusa ; metatarsal gland hairy; tail short;



CERVID.K 117

general colour uniform, typically with a large light rump-
patch ; young spotted.

The distributional area includes Europe, North Africa,
Asia north of the outer range of the Himalaya, and North
America.

The following is a " key " to the species :

A. Muzzle dark ; hair of withers not reversed.

<i. Light area of buttocks yellow, at least in

region of tail.

a'. Antlers with more than 5 tines, of which
the terminal ones are arranged irregularly
and often cupped ; tail longer ; under-parts

not conspicuously darker than back C. elaphus.

b'. Antlers generally with more than 5 tines,
of which the 4th is the largest, and, with
those above it, placed in a plane parallel
to axis of head; tail shorter; under-parts

conspicuously darker than back C. canademis.

c'. Antlers usually 5-tined, with the 4th tine
small and the two terminal ones forming
a fork placed transversely to long axis of

face ; tail medium C. yarkandensis.

b. Light area of buttocks white ; tail very short.

a'. Muzzle mainly dark, lower lip and chin

fawn or brown; ears long and pointed,

with sinuous upper margins.

a". A larger or smaller white rump -patch ;

antlers (5-tined) sharply angulated and

bent forwards at 3rd tine, in such a

manner that tips of the 5th are inclined

inwards C. ivallichi.

b". White area restricted to hind aspect of
hams ; a brownish patch on croup in

advance of tail; antlers wapiti-like C. macneilli.

b'. Muzzle pale fawn, lower lip and chin
white ; ears bluntly pointed, with straight
upper margins; antlers approximating to
those of C. ivallichij but less bent for-
wards ; white area of buttocks much as in
C. macneilli C. cashmiriensis.

B. Muzzle white ; hair of withers reversed C. albirostris.



XV. CEKVUS ELAPHUS.

Cervus elaphus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758, ed. 12,
vol. i, p. 93, 1766 ; Ken-, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 298, 1793 ;
F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pis. 93 and 94, 1820;
Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 24, 1823 ; H. Smith,
Griffith' 's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. iv, p. 90, 1827 ; Jenyns,



118 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Brit. Vest. Anim. p. 37, 1835 ; Bell, Brit. Quadrupeds, p. 394,
1837, ed. 2, p. 348, 1874; Keyserling and Blasius, Wirbelth.
Europ. vol. iv, p. 26, 1840; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim.,
Mamm. p. 170, 1842 ; Owen, Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1843, p. 236, 1844 ;
Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 177, 1843, List Osteol. Brit. Mus.
p. 64, 1847, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 227, Cat. Ungulata Brit.
Mus. p. 195, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 68, 1872,
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 139, 1873 ; Blasius, Fauna
Deutschl. vol. i, p. 439, 1857 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit.
Mus. p. 257, 1862 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 342, 1871 ;
Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. i, p. 565, 1874 ;
Danford and Alston, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 276, 1880, p. 54 ;
Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 911 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol.
Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 293, 1884 ; Lydekker, Cat. Foss.
Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 94, 1885, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1890,
p. 363, Horns and Hoofs, p. 271, 1893, British Mammals, p. 240,
1896, Deer of All Lands, p. 64, 1898, Great and Small Game of
Europe, etc. p. 209, 1901 ; Woodward and Sherborn, Cat. Brit.
Foss. Vert. p. 330, 1890 ; Nehring, Tundren und Steppen, p. 110,
1910 ; Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 322, 1891 ;
Satunin, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. vol. ix, p. 309, 1896 ; Biichner,
Ann. Mus. Zool. St. Petersb. 1896, p. 387 ; Millais, Mamm. Gt.
Britain, vol. iii, p. 91, 1906 ; Nitschc, Studien iiber Hirsche,
pi. i, 1898 ; Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. iii, no. 9, p. 9, 1906 ;
Winge, Danmarks Fauna, Pattedyr, p. 171, 1908; Trouessart,
Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 228, 1910 ; Ward, Records of Big Game,
ed. 6, p. 1910, ed. 7, p. 1, 1914; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West.
; Jole



>. 968, 1912 ; Joleaud, Rev. Africaine, no. 287, p. 1, 1913 ;
Loder, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1914, p. 488.

Cervus (Elaphus) elaphus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. v, p. 307, 1827.

Cervus (Strongyloceros) elaphus, Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm. and
Birds, p. 472, 1846.

Eucervus elaphus, Aclogue, Faune France, p. 71, 1899.

Cervus vulgaris, Botezat, Morphol. Jahrb. vol. xxiii, p. 115, 1903.

Cervus (Cervus) elaphus, Pocock t Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 941.

BED DEER.

The typical species.

Typical locality southern Sweden ; the range includes
the greater part of Europe (but not the Italian peninsula),
and extends at least as far east as the Caucasus and the
Caspian provinces of Persia.

Size typically large, the shoulder-height reaching 4 or
4J feet. Antlers rounded, and, when fully developed with
a bez-tine and a total of more than five points, of which the
terminal ones may form a cup, the fourth tine not specially
large nor situated in the same fore-and-aft plane as those
above ; ear longer than half the length of head ; tail moder-



110

ately short and pointed, and light rump-patch of moderate
dimensions ; general colour reddish brown in summer,
greyish brown in winter, typically with the under- parts
lighter than back (which may have a blackish spinal stripe),
and never strongly contrasted with the upper-parts ; mane not




FIG. 22. PALATAL ASPECT OF SKULL OF RED DEER

(Cervus elaphus). % nat. size.
From Miller, Cat. Mam in. Western Europe.

darker than rest of coat ; no conspicuous whitish markings,
except occasionally the rump-patch.

The following is a tentative " key " to the races :

A. Size small or medium, under-parts lighter.
a. Size small, bez-tine usually wanting.

a' . Size smaller, colour darker C. e. corsicanus.

&'. Size larger, colour lighter C. e. barbarus.

c'. Size smaller, colour greyer, skull narrower C. c. hispanicus.



120 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

b. Size larger, bez-tine usually present.
b'. Size larger, cqlour redder, skull wider.
b". Eump-patch not markedly lighter than

flanks or black-bordered in front C. e. elaphus.

c". Eump-patch markedly lighter than

flanks, usually black-bordered in front .. C.e. hippelaphus.
c'. Size smaller, rump-patch black-bordered
in front.

c". Colour paler and greyer C. e. atlanticus.

d". Colour darker and less grey C. c. scoticus.

B . Size large, under-parts darker C. c. maral.

A. Cervus elaphus barbarus.

Cervus barbarus, Bennett, List Anim. Gardens Zool. Soc. p. 31, 1837 ;
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 227, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus.



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 10 of 36)