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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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p. 197, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 68, 1872, Hand-List
Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 140, 1873 ; Gervais, Hist. Nat. Matnm.
vol. ii, p. 261, 1855 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 344,
1871; Fitzinger, Sitzber. If. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. 1,
p. 577, 1874 ; Joleaud, Rev. Africaine, no. 287, p. 5, 1913.

Cervus corsiniacus, Gcrvais, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 3, vol. x, p. 206,
1848.

Cervus elaphus, Loche, Cat. Mamm. Algerie, p. 26, 1858, Rev. Marit.
et Coloniale, 1860, p. 151, Explor. Sci. Algerie, Mamm. p. 34,
1887 ; Blanchard, Tunisie au XX Siecle, Zool. p. 136, 1904.

Cervus corsicanus, Lataste, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xxxix,
p. 286, 1885 ; nee Erxleben.

Cervus elaphus barbarus, Lataste, Explor. Sci. Tunisie, Mamm.
p. 34, 1887; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 65, 1898, Game
Animals of Africa, p. 385, 1908 ; Drewitt, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904,
vol. ii, p. 130; Trouessart, Caus. Sci. Soc. Zool. France, vol. i,
p. 405, 1905 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 31, 1910,
ed. 7, p. 31, 1914.

Typical locality North Africa ; now found in certain
parts of Algeria, Tunisia, and Senegambia, but apparently
very scarce.

Size considerably smaller than in typical race ; bez-tine
of antlers at least generally wanting; general colour dark
brown, with a greyish brown dorsal stripe and irregular
whitish spots on flanks and in some cases on back ; rump-
patch much lighter than back, without dark anterior border,
and including tail. Maximum antler-length 38| inches.

53. 3. 7. 37. Skeleton, female. North Africa.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1853.

63. 5. 13. 3-5. Three shed antlers. Tunisia.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1863.



CEKVIDrE 121

99. 10. 13. 1. Head, mounted. North Africa.

Presented by the Duke of Bedford, KG., 1899.

0. 12. 13. 1. Skin, mounted, in winter coat. North

Africa. Same donor, 1900.

B. Cervus elaphus eorsieanus.

Cervus eorsieanus, Erxlcben, Syst. Regn. Anim. vol. i, p. 307, 1777 ;

Jolcaud, Eev. Africaine, no. 287, p. 5, 1913.
Cervus elaphus eorsieanus, Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 299,

1793 ; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 74, 1898 ; Trouessart,

Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 229, 1910 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West.

Europe, p. 969, 1912.

Cervus mediterraneus, Blainville, Journ. Phys. vol. xciv, p. 262, 1822.
Cervus elaphus minor, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, Suppl. vol. v,

p. 354, 1855 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix,

pt. 1, p. 575, 1874.

Typical locality Corsica, but also found in Sardinia.

Closely allied to the last, with which it apparently agrees
in the general absence of the bez-tine of the antlers, but
smaller, the size being approximately the same as in the
next race, but general colour darker than in that or any
other of the smaller continental forms, the general colour
being dark brown in summer and blackish in winter.

No specimen in collection.

C. Cervus elaphus hispanieus.

Cervus elaphus hispanieus, Hilzheimcr, Archiv fiir Hassen- und
Gesellschafts-Biologie, 1909, p. 313 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West.
Europe, p. 969, 1912.

(?) Cervus elaphus bolivari, Cabrera, Bol. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat.
vol. xi, p. 559, 1911, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 129, 1912.

Typical locality Spain, probably the south-western
districts.

Type in Stuttgart Museum; type of bolivari, which is
from El Parclo, Madrid, in Madrid Museum.

Apparently smaller than in the under-mentioned Scots
race, with the colour more decidedly greyish, and the skull
narrower, more especially in the interorbital region and the
palate.* C. e. bolivari is stated to be a larger form from

* For cranial measurements of this and other races see Miller,
op. cit. p. 982.



122 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

central and northern Spain, but its right to recognition is
more than doubtful.

95. 9. 4. 14. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Goto
Donana, Huelva, Spain ; collected by A. Ruiz.

Presented by the Lord Lilford, 1895.

95. 9. 4. 15. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and

collector. Same history.

8. 3. 8. 14. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality.

Presented by Abel Chapman, Esq., 1908.

8. 3. 8. 15. Skull, with antlers. Same locality.

Same history.

D. Cervus elaphus elaphus.

Cervus elaphus typicus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 65, 1898 ;

Jolcaud, Rev. Africaine, no. 287, p. 1, 1912, partim.
Cervus elaphus elaphus, Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 967,

1912.

Typical locality southern Sweden.

Size large ; rump-patch not markedly lighter than flanks,
and without well-defined black border.

According to Lonnberg, the range seems to have extended
originally over the greater part of Gotaland, but at the
present day red deer in Sweden are confined to southern
Skania, where they are chiefly found on a few large estates,
Hackeberga, Ofvedskloster, Borringe, Sofdeborg, Snogeholm,
Skabersjo, etc. Their number is small, perhaps not more
than about 100 head.

No specimen in collection.

E. Cervus elaphus atlanticus.

Cervus elaphus atlanticus, Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. iii, no. 9, p. 9,
1906; Collett, Bergens Mus. Aarbog, 1909, no. 6; Trouessart,
Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 228, 1910 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West.
Europe, p. 967, 1912.

Typical locality Hitteren Island, Trondhjeni, Norway ;
the range including the west coast of Norway from Stavanger
Fjord north to about latitude 65.

Size smaller and colour paler than in typical race, with
a distinct blackish band on front border of rump-patch.

No specimen in collection.



GERVIDJ! 123

F. Cervus elaphus scoticus.

Cervus elaphus scoticus, Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. iii, no. 9, p. 11,
1906 ; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 228, 1910 ; Miller,
Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 968, 1912.

Typical locality Glenquoicli Forest, Inverness ; the wild
red deer of the west of England and Ireland are provisionally
included in this race.

Closely allied to the Norwegian race, but darker and less
grey. According to Miller, the cranial characters given by
Lonnberg as distinctive are inconstant.

689, 1). Frontlet and antlers. England. No history.

46. 11. 20. 17. Frontlet and antlers. England.

Purchased (Leadbeater), 1846.

47. 12. 11. 16. Skull, with antlers. England.

Purchased (Baker), 1847.

49. 3. 5. 1. Frontlet and antlers. From a peat-bog, at
a depth of about 20 feet, at Diglis, near Worcester, 1844.
One of the specimens referred to on page 475 of Owen's
British Fossil Mammals and Birds.

Presented by Jabez Allies, Esq., 1849.

50. 11. 22. 67. Skeleton. Probably British.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1850.
63. 11. 16. 5. Skin, mounted. Alnwick Chase, North-
umberland.

Presented by the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., 1863.

86. 6. 10. 1. Skull, without antlers. Loch Sunart,

Argyll. Presented by Gen. Hamilton, 1886.

96. 12. 21. 1-5. Three skulls and two pairs of antlers.
Isle of Jura. Presented by H. Evans, Esq., 1896.

97. 4. 3. 3. Skin, mounted. Woburn Park, Beds.

Presented by the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1897.
6. 2. 26. 1. Skull, female. Exrnoor, Devonshire.

Presented by R. A. Saunders, Esq., 1906.

8. 2. 10. 1. Skull and skin, female. Fort William.

Presented by W. Jones, Esq., 1908.

9. 1. 15. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Balmacaan,
Inverness. Presented by Bradley Martin, Esq., 1909.

9. 1. 15. 2. Skull and skin, female. Same locality.

Same history.



124 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

11. 2. 21. 1-2. Two frontlets and antlers. Jura, Ardgour,
Argyllshire. Presented by F. Hamilton- Leigh, Esq., 1911.

14. 2. 22. 1. Skull and antlers. Exmoor, Devon.

Presented by Morland Greig, Esq., 1914.
3. 11. 6. 1. Skin. New Zealand; introduced.

Presented ~by St. George Littledale, Esq., 1903.

G. Cervus elaphus hippelaphus.

Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 298,

1792.
Cervus elaphus germanicus,* Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 434,

1822 ; Lonnberg, ArJciv Zool. vol. iii, no. 9, p. 14, 1906 ;

Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 228, 1910; Miller, Cat.

Mamm. West. Europe, p. 965, 1912.
Cervus elaphus albus, Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 435, 1822

(nomen nudum) ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix,

pt. 1, p. 575, 1874.
Cervus elaphus albifrons, Reichenbach, Sdugeth. vol. iii, pi. iii, a,

1845.
Cervus elaphus varius, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix,

pt. 1, p. 574, 1874.
Including :
Cervus balticus, ^

Cervus albicus, I Matschie, Weidwerk in Wort u. Bild, vol. xvi,
Cervus rhenanus, j p. 187, 1907.

Cervus bajovaricus, J
Cervus elaphus neglectus, Matschie, Deutsche Jdger-Zeitung, vol. Iviii,

p. 688, 1912 (Posen).

Cervus elaphus visurgensis \ Matschie, op. cit. p. 734, 1912 (Upper
Cervus elaphus debilis / and Lower Rhineland).
Cervus elaphus saxonicus, Matschie, op. cit. p. 737, 1912 (Saxony).

Typical locality Germany, whence the range probably
extends at least as far east as the western Carpathians.

Equal in size to typical race, but with the rump-patch
distinctly lighter than flanks and usually bordered in front
with a well-marked black or blackish band.

Of the above mentioned local forms named by Matschie,
Cervus balticus has the beam of the antlers evenly and
gradually concave on the inner border and the points of all
the tines directed inwards. Typical locality Liebemuhl,
Ostpreussen. In albicus the beam is bent abruptly inwards

* It seems doubtful whether the " Cervus germanicus " of Kerr,
loc. cit., was intended for a species- name.



CERVIM 125

at the level of the trez-tine, the points of the inner tines
are directed inwards, and those of the outer prongs upwards.
Typical locality Muskau, Oberlausitz, Silesia. In rUenanus
the beam is bent abruptly inwards at the level of the trez-
tine, and the points of all tines are directed upwards.
Typical locality Viernheim, Hessen-Darmstadt. In bajo-
varicus the antlers resemble those of rhenanus, but have the
inner tines directed inwards and backwards. Typical locality
Rohner, Konigssee, Oberbayern.

689, p. Pair of antlers. Germany. No history.

43. 12. 29. 5. Skin, mounted, female. France.

Purchased (Lefebvre), 1843.
43. 12. 29. 14. Skin, mounted, young. Same locality.

Same history.

59. 9. 6. 103. Skull, female. Southern Germany ; col-
lected by Dr. A. Giinther. Purchased, 1859.
83. G. 12. 1. Frontlet, without antlers. Gohrde, Hanover
(H.T.M. Kaiser Wilhelm I.).

Presented by J. E. Harting, Esq., 1888.
89. 11. 20. 1, 2. Two pairs of antlers. Bohemia,

Presented ly Col. J. Evans, 1889.

11. 9. 13. 16-18. Three frontlets and antlers. Bavaria.
These should represent the so-called C. e. lajovaricus.

Presented ly F. N. A. Flcischmann, Esq., 1911.

H. Cervus elaphus, subsp.

Cervus vulgaris campestris, Botezat, Morpliol. Jahrb. vol. xxxii, p. 154,
1903 ; nee C. campestris, F. Cuvier.

" Carpathian Deer," LydeJcker, Field, vol. cv, p, 326, 1905.

" Short-faced Carpathian Eed Stag," Leigh, Field, vol. cv, p, 355,
1905.

Typical locality the Marmoros and Bukowina districts of
the Hungarian and Galician Carpathians.

As represented by a stag living in the Duke of Bedford's
Park at Woburn in 1905, this large red deer may be in some
degree intermediate between C. e. germanicus and C. e. maral,
being apparently redder than the latter, but with less black
on the under-parts, although more than in the former. The
hinds have been stated to show the short face of the western



126 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

races ; but, according to Loder,* while in skulls of Scotch
and German stags the proportion of the interorbital width to
the length (from summit of occipital crest to tips of pre-
maxillgo) is 1 to 3 -3, in Carpathian f and Caucasian stags it is
1 to 3 -6. The same writer adds that he could detect no
difference between Carpathian and Caucasian skulls a view
which coincides with the experience of the present writer,
although not with that of Miller.

96. 10. 10. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Galician Carpathians.

Presented by H.H. Prince Heinrich of Liechtenstein, 1906.

I. Cervus elaphus maral.

Cervus maral, Ogilby, Eep. Council Zool. Soc. 1840, p. 22 ; Sclater,
Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 336, pi. xxix, 1871; Gray, Cat.
Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 69, 1872; Fitzinger, Sitzber. If. Ak.
Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 597, 1874; Blanford, Eastern
Persia, vol. ii, p. 95, 1876 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 812 ;
Radde, Saugeth. Talysch. p. 10, 1886; Satunin, Zool. Jahrb.,
Syst. vol. ix, p. 309, 1896 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2,
p. 30, 1876 ; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 229, 1910.

Cervus caspius, Radde, Saugeth. Talyscli. p. 10, 1886.

Cervus elaphus maral, LydeJcher, Deer of All Lands, p. 75, 1898,
Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 217, 1901 ; Satunin,
Mitt. KauMs. Mus. vol. i, pp. 65 and 129, 1901, vol. ii, pp. 210
and 357, 1906, vol. iii, p. 49, 1907, vol. vii, p. 20, 1912 ; Leigh,
Field, vol. cv, p. 355, 1905 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 28, 1910, ed. 7, p. 28, 1914 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe,
p. 967, 1912 ; Loder, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1914, p. 489.

(?) Cervus vulgaris montanus, Botezat, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. vol. xxxii,
p. 155, 1903.

Cervus (Cervus) maral, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 940.

Cervus caucasicus, Winans, Amer. Mus. Journ. vol. xiv, p. 67, 1914,
nomen nudum.

Maral (Persian), Ollen (Russian).

" Polish Stag," LydeJcJcer, Field, vol. cv, p. 326, 1905.

Typical locality the Caspian provinces of Persia.

Size larger and build heavier than in any other of the
properly named local races, the shoulder-height reaching
4^ feet ; the neck relatively thick, and the face, especially
in females, longer and more pointed than in the western
races, and the tail thicker. General colour in summer red,

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1914, p. 488.

t As represented by stags from the Galician estate of the late
Prince Heinrich from Liechtenstein.



CERVID/E 127

frequently marked with yellow spots ; iu winter dark slaty
grey, with the black-bordered pimp-patch a deeper yellow
than in the more typical races, and the shoulders, thighs, and
onder-parts nearly black. Antlers large and less complex
than those of the latter, the number of tines seldom exceeding
8, and often only 6, although occasionally 10 or 12 ; ^ie
bez-tine, which may be wanting, frequently much shorter




FIG. 23. ANTLERS OP EASTERN BED DEER, OR MARAL
(Cervus elaphus maral).

than the brow-tine, which is long and much curved upwards,
and the fourth tine generally more distinct from the crown ;
maximum antler-length 48J inches.

Exclusive of the eastern Carpathians, to which this deer
may be a recent immigrant, the range extends from the
Caucasus through Galicia, the Caspian area, and the Crimea
to northern Persia and Asia Minor, and may also include
parts of Turkey and Greece. The so-called Polish stag of
the Maruioros district of the Hungarian Carpathians is
generally believed to be a dwarfed form of the maral which
reached that area from Galicia ; possibly the small dark stag
from the Galician Carpathians, which has been named



128 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

C. vulgaris montanus, may be the same. It is noteworthy
that a smaller form of red deer occurs with the maral in the
Ak-Dagh, Asia Minor.* Caucasian maral hinds have rather
shorter faces than those from farther east.

54. 4. 26. 6. Single antler. Lake Van, Armenia.

Presented ly Lord Arthur Hay, 1854.

* * * *. Single antler. Crimea. Described and figured
by the present writer, Proc. Zool Soc. 1890, p. 363, pi. xxx,
fig. 2. No history.

55.12.26.159. Skull, female. Persia; collected by
Sir J. McNeill. Co-type ; figured in Knowshy Menagerie.

Transferred from Zoological Society's Museum, 1855.

58.5.14.11. Antlers. Ciicassia; collected by the
Lord Ducie.. Figured by Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii,
pi. xxix. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858.

85. 8. 4. 2. Frontlet and antlers. Trebizond, Asia
Minor. Presented by Consul A. Biliotti, 1885.

87. 12. 22. 4. Frontlet and antlers. Psebai Valley,
N.W. Caucasus, 7,000 feet.

Presented ly St. George Littlcdalc, Esq., 1887.

89. 10. 6. 1. Single (right) antler. Jarpuz, Beinbighas
Mountains, near Albistan, Asia Minor. Described and figured
by the present writer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1890, p. 363, pi. xxx,
fig. 1. Presented ly C. G. Danford, Esq., 1889.

92. 3. 16. 3. Skeleton, with antlers. Western Caucasus.
Presented ly St. George Littledale, Esq., 1892.

92. 3. 16. 4. Skeleton, female. Same locality.

Same history.

2. 6. 2. 6. Skin. Western Caucasus.

Presented ly St. George Littledale, Esq., 1902.

10. 11. 11. 1. Skin, mounted, in early summer coat,
with antlers, freshly clean from velvet, of another individual.
Caucasus. Length of antlers along outer curve 44^ inches ;
basal girth 7 inches.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1910.

10. 11. 11. 2. Skull and antlers of the preceding
specimen. Same history.

* Lydekker, Field, vol. cxx., p. 1122, 1912.



129



XVI. CEEVUS CANADENSIS.






Cervus elaphus canadensis, Erxleben, Syst. Regn. Anim. vol. i, p. 305,
1777 ; Kerr, Linn: a Anim. Kingdom, p. 299, 1792.

Cervus canadensis, Schreber, Sdugthiere, vol. v, pi. ccxlvi, A, 1783 ;
F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pis. 95 and 96, 1820;
Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 433, 1822 ; Cuvier, Ossemens
Fossiles, ed. 2, p. 27, 1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. iv, p. 96, 1827 ; Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii,
p. 156, pi. ix, 1835 ; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm.
p. 171, 1842; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 177, 1843, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 226, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 65, 1847, Cat.
Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 193, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus.
p. 68, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 257, 1873;
F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iv, pis. 345 and 346, 1848 ;
Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 386, 1852 ; Baird, N.
Amer. Mamm. p. 638, 1857 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit.
Mus. p. 257, 1862; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 342,
1872 ; Caton, Antelope and Deer of N. America, p. 77, 1877, ed. 2,
p. 77, 1884 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 913 ; Merriam,
Mammals of Adirondack, p. 143, 1884; True, Proc. U.S. Nat.
Mus. vol. vii, p. 592, 1855 ; Floiver and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus.
R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 208, 1884 ; Flower and Lydekker, Study
of Mammals, p. 322, 1891 ; Merrick, Mamm. Minnesota, p. 278,
1892; Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Philadelphia, 1897, p. 207; Nitsche,
Studien uber Hirsche, pi. vi, 1898 ; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands,
p. 94, pi. vi, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 51,
1901 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. America (Field Mus. Zool.
Pub. vol. ii), p. 34, 1901, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (ibid. vol. viii)
p. 43, 1907 ; Stone and Cram, American Mammals, p. 31, 1903 ;
Holding, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. i, p. 131 ; Ward, Records of
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 39, 1910, ed. 7, 39, 1914 ; Miller, List N.
Amer. Mamm. p. 384, 1912 ; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus.
Madrid, p. 130, 1912.

Cervus wapiti, Barton, Journ. Med. and Phys. Philadelphia, vol. iii,
p. 36, 1808 ; Leach, Journ. Phys. vol. Ixxxv, p. 67, 1818.

Cervus major, Ord, Guihrie's Geography, p. 292, 1815.

Cervus (Elaphus) canadensis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. v, p. 308, 1827.

Cervus strongyloceros, Richardson, Fauna Bor. -Amer., Mamm. vol. i,
p. 251, 1828 ; Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, pi. xxxvi, 1850.

Elaphus canadensis, De Kay, Zool. New York, vol. i, p. 118, 1842.

Cervus (Strongyloceros) canadensis, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus.
p. 193, 1852.

Strongyloceros canadensis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien,
vol. Ixvii, pt. 1, p. 350, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. i, p. 556, 1874.

Cervus maral canadensis, Severtzow, Turkestan. Jevotnie, 1873, p. 103,
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xviii, p. 386, 1876.

WAPITI : miscalled Elk in America.

Typical locality Eastern Canada.

Size very large, shoulder-height reaching 5 feet 4 inches.
iv. K



130 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Antlers very large, with more than five tines, curving back-
wards, and much flattened in the upper half; 'bez-tine
present, fourth tine longer than all the others, and with the
fifth, which is'also long, forming a nearly symmetrical fork,
the fourth, fifth, and sixth tines being situated nearly in the




FIG. 24. HEAD OP WAPITI (Cervus canadensis).

same plane as the portion of the beam immediately below
them, so as more or less nearly to occlude one another when
viewed from the front; brow-tine rising close to the burr,
and approximately equal in length to the bez ; crown
normally not cupped ; rump-patch very large ; throat-fringe
greatly developed ; tail very short ; ears about half the length



CEHVIDjE 131

of head ; face rather short ; general colour in summer
yellowish brown, sometimes with a reddish tinge ; neck and
under-parts varying from dark brown to blackish; and in
winter contrasting sharply with the straw-colour of the
bleached coat of the back ; limbs generally chestnut-brown.

The distributional area includes North America and
Central and North-eastern Asia.

The following is a " key " to the American races :

A. Size larger.

a. Smaller and lighter-coloured, with lighter

antlers C. c. canadensis.

I. Larger and darker, with heavier antlers C. c. occidentals.

c. Nose darker, and head and legs redder than in
a, but not so dark as in b; skull more
massive than in either a or b C. c. merriami.

B. Size smaller C. c. nannodes.

The Asiatic races are not sufficiently well known, as a
whole, to admit of their being tabulated in this manner.

A. Cervus canadensis canadensis.

Cervus canadensis typicus, LydeTcker, Deer of All Lands, p. 96, 1898;

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed, 6, p. 40, 1910, ed. 7, p. 40, 1914.
Cervus canadensis canadensis, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 385,

1912.

WAPITI.

Typical locality Eastern Canada.
General characters those of the species.
The range extends southwards and westwards to include
the Eocky Mountains.

690, I, c, c 1 , d. Four frontlets, with antlers. North
America. No history.

690, /. Single' antler of an immature stag. Shed in
Zoological Society's Gardens, May, 1863.

Purchased (Zoological Society), about 1863.
53. 8. 29. 43. Skin, young, mounted, from a stag born
in London. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1853.

58. 6. 9. 19. Skull, with antlers. North America.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858.
76. 3. 15. 1. Skeleton, with antlers. Yellowstone Park.

Purchased (H. Ward), 1876.
K 2



132 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

84. 5. 28. 1. Skin, mounted. Yellowstone.

Purchased (H. Ward), 1876.

11. 3. 28. 1. Body-skin. Gros Ventre Basin, N.W.
Wyoming.

Presented ly the Hon. L. V. Kay-Sliuttleworth, 1911.

B. Cervus canadensis occiden tails.

Cervus occidentalis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv,
p. 101, vol. v, p. 308, 1827 ; Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm.
vol. iii, p. 139, 1835 ; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm.
p. 171, 1842 ; Stone and Cram, American Mammals, p. 34, 1903.

Elaphus occidentalis, Swainson, Classif. Quadrupeds, p. 292, 1835.

Cervus canadensis occidentalis, Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 618 ;
LydekJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 101, 1898, Great and Small
Game of Europe, etc. p. 56, 1901 ; Elliot, Zool. Pub. Field Mus.
vol. i, p. 269, 1899, Sijnop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Zool. Pub. Field
Mus. vol. ii) p. 34, 1901, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (op. cit. vol. viii)
p. 44, 1907 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 44, 1910,
ed. 7, p. 44, 1914 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 385, 1912.

Strongyloceros occidentalis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. Jc. Ak. Wiss. Wien,
vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 563, 1874.

Cervus roosevelti, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xi,
p. 271, 1897.

Typical locality the Pacific coast of North America.

Larger and darker-coloured than typical race, with
heavier antlers.

The distributional area includes the Coast Kange of
Washington, Oregon, and Northern California.

G90, a. Frontlet and antlers. San Diego, California.

Presented by C. Pentland, Esq.

98. 2. 26. 1. Skull, with antlers. Vancouver Island,
British Columbia. Presented by H. J. Elwes, Esq., 1898.

C. Cervus canadensis merriami.

'Cervus merriami, Nelson, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 7,
1902 ; Stone and Cram, American Mammals, p. 34, 1903 ;
Elliot, Chech-List Mamm. N. Amer. (Zool. Pub. Field Mus.
vol. vi) p. 42, 1905 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 385, 1912.

Typical locality Black Eiver Valley, White Mountains,
Arizona.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Nose darker and head and limbs redder than in typical



CERVIIM-; 133

nice, although not so dark as in occult ntalis ; tines of antlers
less curved than in typical race ; nasals broader and flatter ;
upper series of cheek-teeth stouter and more curved.

D. Cervus canadensis nannodes.



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 11 of 36)