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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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Tao-chou, Kan-su, at a height of about 11,000 feet ; shot by
Dr. J. A. C. Smith, March 23, 1911. Type.

Purchased (Rosenberg), 1912.

XX. CERVUS CASHMIEIENSIS.

Cervus hanglu, Wagner, ScJireber's Sdugthiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 352,

1844 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 566.
Cervus cashmerensis, Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 65, 1847,

nomen nudum.
Cervus casperianus, Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 147, 1847, Cat.

Ungulata Brit. Mus. pi. xxvii, figs. 1-3, 1852, to replace

cashmerensis.
Cervus wallichi, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 197, 1852 ;

Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 258, 1862 ; Jerdon,

Mamm. India, p. 250, 1867; Kinloch, Large Game of Tibet,

p. 44, 1869 ; nee Cuvier.
Cervus cashmeriensis, Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 529; Lydekker,

Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 286, 1877.
Cervus cashmeerianus, Falconer, M.S., in Falconer's Palceontological

Memoirs, vol. i, p. 576, 1868 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii,

p. 339, pi. xxx, 1871 ; Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 68,

1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 140, 1873; Brooke,

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 912 ; Pousargues, Mem. Soc. Zool.

France, vol. xi, p. 199, 1898 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind.

Mus. pt. ii, p. 184, 1891 ; Bentham, Cat. Asiat. Horns and Antlers

Ind. Mus. p. 60, 1908.
Cervus cashmirianus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix,

pt. 1, p. 586, 1874; Sterndale, Mamm. India, p. 512, 1884;



* Of the figures of the Kan-su deer in this work the only ones of
any value are those in the plate facing p. 206, which are from
photographs ; the others appear to have been drawn from true wapiti.



CERVIIU-; 147

Scully, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. xx, p. 388, 1887 ;
Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 355, 1891 ; Lydekker,
Deer of All Lands, p. 83, pi. iv, 1898, Game Animals of India,
etc. p. 208, 1907, Cat. Hume Bequest, Brit. Mus. p. 33, 1913;
Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 32, 1910, ed. 7, p. 32, 1914.

HANGUL or HANGLU.

Typical locality Valley of Kashmir.

Size approximately that of a red deer. Antlers, which,
although normally 5-tined, may carry six or seven points on
each side, approximating to those of C. wallicki affinis, but with
the angle at origin of third tine and the forward inclination
of upper part of beam less strongly marked ; white area on
hind-quarter^ which is bordered in front with black, restricted
to hind part of hams, and upper side of tail mainly dark ;
chin and lower lip white or whitish, and muzzle pale fawn,
lighter than rest of face ; ears bluntly pointed, with straight
upper border ; general colour speckled ashy brown, much as
in C. walliclii affinis. Fine antlers measure from 44 to
48 inches along the outer curve, with a girth of from 5f
to 7|, and a tip-to-tip interval ranging from 13 to 35 inches.

The range includes the Valley of Kashmir, part of the
adjacent Kishen-Ganga Valley, and, to the eastward, the
Kishtwar district.

46. 8. 24. 1. Skull and antlers. Kashmir. Co-type of
C. cashmeerianus, Falconer.

Presented ty Dr. H. Falconer, 1846.

46. 8. 24. 2. Skull, female. Pampur Valley, Kashmir.

Same history.

56. 9. 22. 1. Skin. Kashmir ; collected by Gen. Abbott.

Purchased, 1856.

63. 5. 8. 3. Pair of antlers. Kashmir.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1863.

63. 5. 13. 1. Pair of antlers. Shed by a stag in the
Zoological Society's Gardens. Same history.

63. 5. 13. 2. Pair of antlers. Same history.

63. 5. 13. 3. Pair of antlers. Same history.

65. 7. 8. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Kashmir.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1865.

* * * *. Frontlet and antlers. From an old skin.
Kashmir, No history.

L 2



148 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

66. 8. 6. 12. Skeleton and antlers. Kashmir.

Purchased (Zoological Society], 1866.
79. 11. 21. 47. Frontlet and horns. Kashmir; collected
by Dr. Hugh Falconer.

Transferred from India Museum, 1879.




FIG. 27. HEAD OF HANGUL (Cervus cashmiriensis).

88. 3. 20. 21. Skull and antlers. Lidar Valley, Kashmir
Presented by E. Lydekker, Esq., 1888.
91. 5. 7. 1. Skull and antlers. Sind Valley, Kashmir.

Presented ly A. 0. Hume, Esq., G.B., 1891.

91. 5. 7. 2. Skull and antlers. Maharaja's preserve,

Kashmir. Same history.



CERVID^ 149

91. 5. 7. 3. Skull and antlers. Sind Valley.

Same history.

94. 5. 31. 1. Skin, mounted. Warapash, Sind Valley;
collected by Major P. H. G. Powell-Cotton.

Purchased (Gerrard), 1894.

12. 10. 31. 1. Skull and antlers. Sind Valley; collected
by Mr. A. Dalgleish. This specimen is No. 24 in Ward's
1910 list. The measurements of the antlers are as follows :
length on outer curve 43, girth 6, tip-to-tip interval 20,
widest inside span 35 inches.

Bequeathed by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912.

12. 10. 31. 2. Skull and antlers. Same locality and

"collector. Same history.



XXI. CERVUS ALBIROSTRIS.

Cervus albirostris, Przewalski, Eeise Tibet, pp. 73 and 76, 1884, Cat.
Zool. Collect, p. 16, 1887 ; Pousargues, Bull. Mus. Paris, 1897,
p. 284, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. xi, p. 215, 1898 ; LydeJcker,
Deer of All Lands, p. 91, pi. v, 1898, Game Animals of India,
etc. p. 221, 1907 ; Ward, Eecords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 38, 1910,
ed. 7, p. 38, 1914; PococJc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 574.

Cervus sellatus, Przewalski, loc. cit. 1884.

Cervus dybowskii, W. L. Sclater, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. Iviii,
pt. 2, p. 186, pi. xi, 1889 ; Bentham, Cat. Asiat. Horns Ind. Mus.
p. 64, 1908 ; nee Taczanowski, 1876.

Cervus thoroldi, Stanford, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1893, p. 444, pi. xxxiv ;
Lydekker, ibid. 1896, p. 930.

Typical locality Nak-chan (Nan-chan), Tibet ; also found
in forest to the north of Lhasa.

Type in the Museum of the St. Petersburg (Petrograd)
Academy of Sciences.

Of the approximate size of C. cashmiriensis. Distinguished
from all the other members of the subgenus by the reversal
of the coarse hair of the withers, to form a kind of hump,
and the white muzzle, chin, under surface of lower jaw, and
inside of ears, as well by the low position and large size of
the gland-tuft on the hind-shanks. Antlers much flattened,
nearly white in colour, without a bez-tine, and bending
suddenly backwards at origin of third tine, which is the
longest.



150 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

92. 16. 11. 1. Skin, mounted (fig. 28), and skull. Tibet ;
collected by Dr. W. G. Thorold. Type of G. thoroldi.

Purchased (Gerrard), 1892.




FIG. 28. HEAD AND NECK OP THOROLD'S DEER
(Cervus albirostris).



INCERT^E SEDIS.

1. Cervus lepidus, Sundevall, K. SvensJca Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 180,

1846 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 902.
Eusa lepida, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 63, 1850, Cat. Ungulata

Brit. Mus. p. 212, 1852 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. Jc. Ah. Wiss. Wien,

vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 302, 1874.



CKUVID.K 151

Brooke stated that he saw the type in the Museum at
Frankfort, and that it appeared closely to resemble (V/v//.s
On a second visit it could not be found.



2. Cervus caspicus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 47, 1878, p. 909 ;
LydekTter, ibid. 1897, p. 38, Deer of All Lands, p. 186. 1898.

This species was named on the evidence of a frontlet and
antlers from the district south-west of the Caspian, which
was figured in 1874 when in the collection of Sir Victor
Brooke, where it could not be discovered at his death. The
antlers measured 26 inches in length along the curve, and
were three-tined. In his original description Brooke referred
the species to the rusine group, comparing it to 0. unicolor
and C. timoriensis, but in 1878 he placed it provisionally in
the sika group ; the ground of this redetermination apparently
resting on another antler from the Karun Valley, in the
Luristan district of Persia, which may or may not have
belonged to the same species as the type.

VI. Genus ELAPHURUS.

Elaphurus, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, vol. x, p. 880,
1866; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 906; Cameron, Field,
1892, April 30, p. 265, May 14, p. 703, May 21, p. 741, June 11,
p. 860; LijdeMer, Deer of All Lands, p. 233, 1898; PococJt,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 945, 1912, p. 777.

Lateral metacarpals represented by their upper ends as
in Cervus ; no glands on front of pasterns ; antlers lar^e,
cylindrical, and dichotomously forking at a comparatively
short distance above the burr, with the front prong of the
main fork curving forwards and again dividing once or more,
and the hind prong long, straight, simple, and projecting
backwards ; muzzle with a large naked portion, deeper and
broader below the nostrils than in the elaphine group, but
extending only a little on to the front of the face, where its
upper border is deeply concave ; ears small and narrow ;
tail long, cylindrical, and bushy at the extremity ; neck
maned ; face long ; coat uniformly coloured, in young
spotted ; no tarsal tuft ; metatarsal tuft continuous and
situated in the upper third of the metatarsus ; gland-pits
and face-glands large ; hoofs large and spreading ; lateral
hoofs very large ; upper canines small ; upper molars



152 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

moderately tall, with a small additional column on the
inner side ; vorner not dividing aperture of posterior nostrils
into two chambers. Size large ; build heavy, with the limbs
stout. No foot-glands.

Much difference of opinion has existed as to the systematic
position of this genus, which was regarded by Milne-Edwards
as a very distinct type ; the same view being maintained by
Gray, who placed Elapliurus between the roes and the
American deer. On the other hand, Sclater and Brooke
included Elapliurus in Cervus ; but Gordon Cameron, from
the form of the antlers, reverted to the older view ; while
Pocock, who regards the front prong of the antlers as
representing the brow-tine of Cervus, sides with Sclater and
Brooke, although maintaining Elaphurus as a distinct genus.
Garrod confessed his inability to identify the tines of the
antlers with those of other deer.

The range is not definitely known, but seems to have
included some part of Northern China and, it is said, Japan.
The evidence in favour of the later country forming a part
of the distributional area rests on a fragment of an alleged
fossil antler described by Watase.

ELAPHURUS DAVIDIANUS.

Elaphurus davidianus, Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 5, vol. v,
p. 380, 1866, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. ii, p. 27, 1866 ; Gray, Cat.
Buminants Brit. Mus. p. 82, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit.
Mus. p. 154, 1873 ; Fitting er, Sitzber. 7c. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx,
pt. 1, p. 329, 1874; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 16;
LydeJcker, Deer of All Lands, p. 236, pi. xix, 1898, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1901, vol. ii, p. 472, 1904, vol. ii, p. 178; Ward, Records of
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 101, 1910, ed. 7, p. 78, 1914; Pocock, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 945, 1912, p. 777 ; Watase, Zool Mag. Tokyo,
vol. xxv, p. 487, 1913.

Cervus davidianus, Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 331, 1871 ;
BrooJce, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878 r p. 906 ; Ward, Records of Big
Game, ed. 2, p. 17, 1898; Flower and LydeJcker, Study of
Mammals, p. 320, 1891; LydekTcer, Horns and Hoofs, p. 309,
1913.

MI-LU; PERE DAVID'S DEER.

The distribution is the same as that of the species, which
is known only by the herd formerly kept in the gardens of
the Summer Palace, Pekin, and their descendants.



CERVlDifi 153

Height at shoulder about 3 feet 9 inches, or about the
size of a large red deer. Head large, with small eyes and
ears, and a long, narrow muzzle ; limbs stout ; coat short and
smooth, but longer on the middle line of chest and under-
parts, and forming a mane on neck and throat ; general
colour reddish tawny with a tinge of grey, passing through
an ill-defined darker band on the sides to a more decided
whitish grey on the under-parts ; neck, chest, and lower
portion of throat dark brown ; a blackish brown longitudinal
stripe on neck and fore part of back, and another on chest ;
rump and inner sides of thighs yellowish white, passing
gradually into the general colour of the body ; inner sides of
legs and entire shanks whitish yellow-grey ; tail like back,
except the terminal tuft, which is blackish brown ; face
brownish, with a blackish brown ring round each eye.
Female somewhat lighter coloured. Young reddish brown
with a tinge of yellow, at first profusely spotted with white.
Fine antlers measure from 28 to 35| inches along the outer
curve, with a basal girth of from 4f to 7J inches, and a
tip-to-tip interval ranging from 13f to 27 inches. In some
cases, at any rate, the stags shed their antlers twice a year ;
but this may be a result of semi-domestication.

70. 6. 22. 14. Skin and skeleton (1538, 1), female. From
the herd in the gardens of the Summer Palace, Pekin.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1870.

72. 12. 31. 3. Skin and skeleton, the latter (1538, a)
mounted. Same locality. Same history.

98. 2. 25. 2. Head, mounted, and body-skin. From the
descendants of the same herd at Woburn Abbey.

Presented ly the, Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1848.

99. 7. 20. 1. Skin, mounted. From the Woburn herd.

Same donor, 1899.



VII. Genus ODOCOILEUS.

Odocoileus, Eafinesque, Atlantic Journ. vol. i, p. 109, 1832 ; Elliot,
Synop. Mamm. N. America (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii), p. 38,
1901 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 780 ; Miller, List N. Amer.
Mamm. p. 385, 1912.

Mazama, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 314, 1827
nee Rafinesque, 1817.



154 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Dorcelaphus, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgesch. p. 140, 1841 ; Lydekker,

Deer of All Lands, p. 248, 1898 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910,

p. 962.
Cariacus, Lesson, Nouv. Tdbl. Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 1842;

Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 175, 1843, Cat. Ruminants

Brit. Mus. p. 82, 1872 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 918 ;

Riitimeyer, Abli. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 47, 1881.
Keduncina, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 373,

1844; Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1,

p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 312, 1879.
Macrotis, Wagner, loc. cit. 1844 ; nee Dejaine, 1833.
Eucervus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xviii, p. 338, 1866,

Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 85, 1872 ; Pocock, Prcc. Zool. Soc.

1910, p. 966.
Otelaphus, Fitzinger, Sitxber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1,

p. 356, 1873, to replace Macrotis.

Gymnotis, Fitzinger, op. cit. vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 343, 1879.
Odocoelus, Allen, Amer. Nat. vol. xxxv, p. 449, 1901.
Dama, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 19, 1902; nee

H. Smith, 1827.
Odontoccelus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Ind. (Field Mus.

Zool. Pub. vol. iv) p. 70, 1904, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (ibid.

vol. viii) p. 45, 1907, emendation of Odocoileus, as is also

Odoccelus.

Lateral metacarpals with only lower ends persisting ;
vomer high and dividing aperture of posterior nostrils into
two chambers ; antlers large, with the beam rising at a
marked angle to plane of face, and (when fully developed)
dichotornously forked, with a sub-basal snag, and the lower,
or front, prong of main fork projected from anterior edge
of beam and more or less developed at the expense of the
upper, or hind one, and more or less secondary forking of one
or both prongs ; face long and narrow ; muzzle with a large
naked area ; ears variable ; tail long or moderate, hairy below ;
coat uniformly coloured ; young spotted ; tarsal and usually
metatarsal glands present, the latter variable in form and
position ; gland-pits and face-glands very small ; main hoofs
well developed; hind-pasterns with a pocket-like gland,
which may also be developed in fore-feet ; upper canines
wanting; naviculo- cuboid of tarsus free from cuneiform.
Size medium or small.

The deer included in the present genus are members of
a large exclusively American group, the classification of
which has given rise to much diversity of opinion; some
writers, like Brooke, inclining to include the whole group,



CEiiviD.i; 155

with the exception of the pudus, in a single genus, while
others, like Gray, adopt several generic divisions. The
former course has hitherto been followed by the present
writer, but now that Hippocamelus is generally adopted for
the guemals, this involves the use of that highly objection-
able term, as being the earliest, for the whole group, a course
he is not prepared to follow. Under these circumstances,
the group is split up into six genera.

The range of the present genus,* which is typified by an
upper preniolar tooth from a cavern-deposit described as
0. spelaeits, extends from Alaska to Peru, Bolivia, and northern
Brazil.

The species here recognised are distinguishable as
follows :

A. Metatarsal gland (when present) small and circu-

lar ; tail long ; ears moderate 0. virginianus.

B. Metatarsal gland elongated ; tail shorter ; ears

very large.

a. Metatarsal gland very long; tail small,

black at tip all round 0. hemiomts.

b. Metatarsal gland shorter ; tail larger, black

above, white below 0. columbianus.



I. ODOCOILEUS ViRGINIANUS.

" Cervus darna americanus," Erxleben, Syst. Eegn. Anim. p. 312,
1777 ; not a technical name, teste Allen, Amer. Nat. vol. xxxiv,
p. 318, 1900, Osgood, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xv, p. 87,
1902, and Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 43, 1912, and Thomas,
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi, p. 585, 1913.

Cervus virginianus, Boddaert, Elenchus Anim. vol. i, p. 136, 1785 ;
Baird, Mamm. N. America, p. 649, 1857 ; H. Smith, Griffith's
t Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 127, 1827 ; Caton, Antelope and
Deer of America, p. 100, 1877.

Cervus clavatus, H. 'Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 132,
1827 ; Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 183, 1846.

Cervus (Mazama) virginianus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. v, p. 315, 1827.

Cervus (Mazama) clavatus, H. Smith, loc. cit. 1827.

Odocoileus spelaeus, Rafinesque, Atlantic Journ. vol. 1, p. 109, 1832.

Dorcelaphus virginianus, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgesch. p. 140, 1841.

Mazama virginiana, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 176,
1835.

* As the name Odocoileus is etymologically bad, emendations
have been proposed, and objections raised to its use in every form.



156 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Cariacus virginianus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. RegneAnim., Mamm. p. 173,

1842 ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 175, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc.

1850, p. 238, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 228, 1852, Cat. Rumi-

nants Brit. Mus. p. 83, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 83, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 266, 1862 ;

Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc.

1878, p. 919 ; Alston, Biol. Centr. Amer., Mamm. p. 115, 1879 ;

Sclater, List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 172, 1883 ; Merriam,

Mammals of Adirondacks, p. 107, 1884 ; Flower and Garson,

Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p, 322, 1884 ; True, Proc.

U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. vii, p. 592, 1885; Flower and Lydekker,

Study of Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs,

p. 346, 1893 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 55, 1896.
Reduncina virginiana, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii,

pt. 1, p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 313, 1879.
Cervus (Cariacus) virginianus, Herrick, Mamm. Minnesota, p. 281,

1892.
Cariacus americanus, Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. x,

p. 25, 1896.
Dorcelaphus americanus, Rhoads, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1897, p. 208 ;

Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 962.

Mazama americana, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 249, pi. xx, 1898.
Odocoileus americanus, Miller, Bull. N. York State Mus. vol. vi,

p. 299, 1899, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 386, 1912 ; Elliot, Synop.

Mamm. N. Amer. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 39, 1901 ;

Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1913, p. 783.
Mazama (Dorcelaphus) americana, Lydekker, Great and Small Game

of Europe, etc. p. 339, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,

p. 103, 1910.
Odocoileus virginianus, Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 34,

1903 ; Scharff, Origin of Life in America, p. 108, 1911 ; Gary,

N. Amer. Fauna, no. 33, p. 55, 1911.
Odontocoelus americanus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies

(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 70, 1904, Cat. Mamm. Field

Mus. (ibid. vol. viii) p. 46, 1907.
Mazama (Odocoileus) virginianus, Lydekker, Ward's Records of Big

Game, ed. 7, p. 101, 1914.

WHITE-TAILED, or VIRGINIAN, DEER.



Typical locality Virginia.

Build light and graceful, with long body and limbs;
height variable, ranging from about 3 feet 1 inch to 26 inches
at the shoulder ; antlers with a long sub-basal snag, above
which the beam abruptly curves forwards, and soon after
forks dichotomously, posterior prong of main fork upright
and generally undivided, anterior, or lower, prong again
forking, with its lower division also forked, the whole antler
in advance of the sub-basal tine having the appearance of
a horizontal beam with three nearly vertical tines arising



CKKVULK 157



from the upper surface; ears relatively small and sparsely
haired externally; tail long and pointed; muzzle long and
slender ; face-glands very small, and almost hidden by folds
of skin ; metatarsal gland, when present, small, sub-circular,




FIG. 29. HEAD OF WHITE-TAILED DEER (Odocoikus virginianus).
From a photograph lent by Mr. E. S. Cameron.

and usually situated in lower third of shank, its centre
bare and black, surrounded by a marginal fringe of white
hairs, followed by an outer ring of fawn ; tarsal gland
variable ; both fore- and hind-pasterns with a pouch-like
gland ; general colour in summer varying from bright rufous
chestnut to yellowish fawn or grey, in winter some shade



158 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

of yellowish leaden grey, faintly speckled, and often with
a tinge of rufous ; under-parts, inner sides of limbs and
buttocks, lower surface of tail, chin, throat, lips, a ring
round each -ye, and a band round muzzle white; young
fully spotted. The case of the numerous forms allied to the
true white-tailed deer is very similar to that of the sambar
group, so that there is an equal difficulty in deciding whether
they should be regarded as species or subspecies ; Brooke
was inclined to take the latter view, which is adopted by
Pocock. In this extended sense the range of the species
will reach from Ontario to Central and South America, with
a gradual diminution in the size of the local races from
north to south.

The following is a provisional " key " to the best-known
of these races :

A. Size large ; antlers large and complex.

a. Skull of moderate length and slenderness.
a'. Black on jaw and tail.

a". Size smaller, colour bright rufous 0. v. virginianus.

b". Size larger, colour grey 0. v. borealis.

b'. No black on face and tail.

b". General colour (including tail) reddish

brown 0. v. macrourus.

c". Closely allied to last 0. v. leucurus.

b. Skull larger and more slender, with longer

row of cheek-teeth , 0. v. louisiance.

B. Size small, antlers miniatures of those of

typical race.

a. Colour (at all seasons) mingled dark and

pale brown, tail dark reddish brown tipped

with cinnamon O. v. osceola.

b. Colour pale reddish brown, tail black O. v. texanus.

c. Colour dull fawn, tail reddish brown ., O. v. couesi.

d. Colour greyish brown, tail grizzled white and

brown 0. v. baileyi.

e. Colour speckled foxy red, tail foxy red 0. v. mexicanus.

f. Colour brown, with fawn tips to hairs, tail O. v. rothschildi

fawn with black tip and O. v. chiri-

c. Size small, antlers slightly lyrate with straight ^ uensis -

beam.
a. Metatarsal gland present.

a'. Colour bright chestnut, tail tawny O. v. truei.

b'. Colour mixed black and buff, tail cinnamon 0. v. costaricensis.
c'. Colour yellowish brown and grey, tail

dusky 0. v. nemoralis.



CERVIH.K 159

b. Metatarsal gland generally wanting.

b'. Colour chestnut-brown, tail brown 0. v. toltecus and

O. v. acapulcensis.

c'. Colour buffish grey, coat coarse, ears hairy 0. v. lasiotis.
d'. Colour yellowish brown, coat fine, ears

sparsely haired, size larger 0. v. gymnotis and

0. v. columbicus.
c'. Generally similar to last, but colour

speckled grey and size smaller 0. v. margaritae.

f. Also nearly allied, but colour dark greyish
brown, and tarsal tuft rufous instead of
like the leg 0. v. peruvianus.

D. Antlers inclined backwards in plane of face,

with the tips curving inwards and forwards
and a similarly directed spur from inner side
of each burr ; colour bright fulvous O.v. tlwmasi.

E. Antlers small subcylindrical spikes.

a. Size smaller, colour brownish grey, darker

on head and dorsal line, tail fulvous 0. v. nelsoni.

b. Size larger, colour yellowish grey-brown, tail



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 13 of 36)