British Museum (Natural History). Dept. of Zoology.

Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

. (page 15 of 36)
Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 15 of 36)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


immature. Coiba Island ; collected by Mr. J. H. Batty.

Presented by the Hon. Walter Rothschild, 1902.

2. 3. 5. 25. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

2. 3. 5. 26. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality
and collector. Type. Same history.

2. 3. 5. 7. Skull and skin in spotted coat, female. Same
locality and collector. Same history.

2. 3. 5. 8. A similar specimen. Same locality and col-
lector. Same history.

2. 3. 5. 9. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and
collector. Same history.



172 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

T. Odocoileus virginianus ehiriquensis.

Odocoileus rothschildi ehiriquensis, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat.
Hist. vol. xxviii, p. 96, 1910 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm.
p. 389, 1912.

Typical locality Chiriqui, Panama.

The continental representative of the preceding race.

No specimen in collection.

U. Odocoileus virginianus columbicus.

Cervus, sp. Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 335, pi. xxiii,

fig. 1, 1852.
Cervus columbicus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. Jc. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixxix,

pt. 1, p. 66, 1879.
Odocoileus columbicus, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 139,

1914.

Type in Paris Museum.

Typified by a skull and antlers, stated to be from Bogota,
Colombia, but which, according to Osgood, not improbably
came from the savannas of the Orinoco. The antlers appear
to be unlike those of 0. v. gymnotis, with which this form
has been identified. The undermentioned specimen has
well-haired ears, externally blackish, like the face, no
rnetatarsal gland, and short rufous brown coat.

9. 7. 17. 39. Skull and skin, female. La Maria, Dagua
Valley, Western Colombia. Provisionally referred to this
race. Purchased (Eoseriberg), 1909.

V. Odocoileus virginianus lasiotis.

Odocoileus lasiotis, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 136, 1914.

Typical locality Paramo de los Conejos. Sierra de Merida,
Venezuela.

Type in Field Museum, Chicago.

A medium-sized mountain-race, with long, dense coat of
a general buffish grey colour, variegated by blackish brown
markings, the individual hairs having subterminal buffish
rings and dusky tips, thickly haired and comparatively short
ears, broad, heavy tail, and short, wide hoofs ; nietatarsal
gland wanting.



CERVID^ 173

10. 12. 3. 6. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Merida,
Venezuela ; collected by Mr. S. Briceno.

Presented by S. V. Dalton, Esq., 1910.

10. 12. 3. 7. Skull and skin, female. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

W. Odoeoileus virginianus gymnotis.

Cervus gymnotis, Wiegmann, Isis, 1833, p. 965 ; Goeldi, Mem. Mus.

Goeldi, pt. iii, p. 32, 1902.
Cervus goudotii, Gay and Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 3,

vol. v, p. 94, 1846; Fitzinger, Sitzber. Tt. Ak. Wiss. Wien,

vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 67, 1879.
Cariacus gymnotus, Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 267,

1862, partim.
Cariacus gymnotis, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 921 ; Sclater,

List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 173, 1883 ; Lydekker, Horns and

Hoofs, p. 341, 1893; Matschie, Mitt, geogr. Ges. Liibeck, 1894,

p. 130.
Gymnotis wiegmanni, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol.

Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 344, 1879.
Mazama americana gymnotis, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 265,

1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 351, 1901.
Odoeoileus gymnotis, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 24, 1910,

p. 138, 1914.

Typical locality the Savanna area of the lower Orinoco,
Venezuela (teste Osgood, on whose authority the synonomy
of this and the next race is given).

Type in Berlin Museum.

A short-haired lowland-race, with broad, sparsely haired
ears, long narrow hoofs, and no rnetatarsal gland; general
colour, at all seasons, yellowish brown speckled with grey,
the individual hairs being grey at the base, then brown and
ochery, with black tips; a dark streak from the crown of
the head along the neck ; a greyish white ring round eye ;
yellowish white and brown spots on forehead, a darker spot
on nose, and a patch on upper lip, followed by a white
streak reaching angle of mouth; chin white, with a dark
streak extending to lower lip, and thence to angle of mouth ;
tail pale reddish brown above. The antlers of the type
measure just short of 7 inches.

According to Goeldi, this race has of late years immigrated
into Brazil.



174 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

8. 3. 7. 53. Skull and skin, female Coast district,
Demerara, British Guiana.

Presented by F. V. McConnell, Esq., 1908.

8. 3. 7. 54. Skull and skin of a rather larger and older
female. Same locality. Same history.

X. Odocoileus virginianus margaritae.

Odocoileus margaritae, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 24,
1910, pis. ii and iii.

Typical (and only) locality Margarita Island, Venezuela.

Type in Field Museum, Chicago.

An insular representative of 0. v. gymnotis distinguished
by its smaller size, and the proportionately small skull and
teeth, the former of which is characterised by the abruptly
elevated brain-case.

No specimen in collection.

Y. Odocoileus virginianus spinosus.

Cervus spinosus, Gay and Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 3,

vol. v, p. 93, 1846.
Cervus savannarum, Cabanis and Schomburgk, Eeisen Brit. Guiana,,

vol. iii, p. 785, 1848.

Cariacus (?) spinosus, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 236, 1852.
Eeduncina savannarum, Fitzinger, Sitzber. ~k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol.

Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 358, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, p. 242, 1879.
Cariacus savannarum, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 920 ; Matschie,

Mitt. Geogr. Ges. Lubeck, 1894, p. 130.
Mazama americana savannarum, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands,

p. 266, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 352, 1901.
Mazama spinosa, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 280, 1898.
(?) Dorcelaphus americanus savannarum, PococJc, Proc. Zool. Soc.

1910, p. 962.
Odocoileus spinosus, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 138,

1914 ; cited as Cervus spinosus, but included under the heading

Odocoileus.

Typical locality Cayenne, French Guiana.

Type (a single antler) in Paris Museum.

According to Osgood, the Guianan representative of 0. v.
gymnotis, but generally stated to have well-haired ears and
a metatarsal gland,* the general colour being clear greyish

* Vide Pocock, op. cit. ; whether his specimen be rightly identified
or no, his recognition that it is merely a race of the whitetail agrees
with the views of the present writer.



CERVID.V. 17")

brown speckled with white, and the lower lip having a single
dark spot on each side.

The range probably includes most of Guiana and part of
Venezuela.

92. 12. 2. 1-2. Two frontlets, with antlers. North-
western British Guiana.

By exchange with Dr. P. Rendall, 1892.
10. 5. 4. 60. Skull and skin, immature female. Supinaam
Valley, British Guiana.

Presented ly F. V. McConnell, Esq., 1910.
10. 5. 4. 61. A similar specimen. Same locality.

Same history.

14. 9. 2. 1. Skullvand skin, female, provisionally referred
to this race. Northern Venezuela ; collected by A. Pain, Esq.
Noticed by Pocock, op. tit.

Presented by the Zoological Society, 1914.

Z. Odoeoileus virginianus peruvianus.

Cervus (Coassus) peruvianus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4,

vol. xii, p. 332, 1874.
Cariacus peruvianus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 920 ; LydekJcer,

Horns and Hoofs, p. 340, 1893 ; Matschie, Mitt. Geogr. Ges.

LiibecJf, 1894, p. 129.
(?) Cervus brachyceros, Philippi, An. Mus. Chile, 1894, p. 10, pi. ii ;

nee Gervais and AmegJiino, 1880.

(?) Cariacus, sp. Nehring, Sitzber. Ges. Nat. Freunde, 1895, p. 12.
Mazama americana peruviana, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 267,

1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 352, 1901.
(?) Mazama (Dorcelaphus), sp. LydeJcJcer, Deer of All Lands,

p. 281, 1898.
Odoeoileus peruvianus , Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl. p. 706, 1904;

Auerbach, Zool. Ana. vol. xxxix, p. 310, 1912 ; Goeldi, Mitt.

Nat. Ges. Bern, 1912, p. 12; Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub.

vol. x, p. 152, 1914.
(?) Odoeoileus philippii, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm., Suppl. p. 706, 1904 ;

Goeldi, Mitt. Nat. Ges. Bern. 1912, p. 14.

Typical locality Peru.

Another nearly related small race without the meta-
tarsal gland ; general colour dark greyish brown, with
whitish speckling, the individual hairs dark isabelline grey
at base and ringed with white below the black tips ; chin and
lower lip white, with a brown patch on former ; tarsal tuft
small, short, and deep rusty red in colour.



176 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

The range includes Bolivia, and, if 0. philippii be a
synonym, the Andes of the Cajamarca district of Chile.
58. 5. 4. 21 (1375, a). Skull and antlers. Peru (?).

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858.

73. 6. 27. 3 (1375, b). Skull, female. Peru.

Purchased ( Whitely), 1873

74. 3. 27. 2 (1375, c). Skin, immature female, mounted,
and skull. Ceachupati, Peru. Co- type.

Purchased ( Whitdy), 1874.

85. 4. 22. 2. Skin, immature female. Same locality;
from collection of Sir Victor Brooke, Bart. Co-type.

Purchased ( Whitely), 1885.

94. 11. 20. 2. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Maraynioc,

Peru ; collected by Mr. J. Kalinowski. Purchased, 1894.

94. 11. 20. 3. A similar specimen. Same locality and

collector. Same history.

0. 3. 1. 100. Skull and skin ; immature female.

Yataujual, Cajamarca, Peru ; collected by Mr. P. 0. Simons.

Presented ly 0. Thomas, Esq., 1900.



II. ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS.

Cervus hemionus, Rafinesque, Amer. Month. Mag. vol. i, p. 436, 1817.
Cervus auritus, Ward, Descrip. Etatsunis, vol. v, p. 540, 1820 ;

Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 443, 1822.
Cervus macrotis, Say, Long's Exped. Roc~ky Mountains, vol. ii, p. 83,

1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 133, 1827 ;

Caton, Antelope and Deer of America, p. 93, 1877.
Cervus (Mazama) macrotis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,

vol. v, p. 316, 1827.
Mazama macrotis, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 175,

1835.

Dorcelaphus macrotis, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgeschichte,ip. 140,1841.
Cariacus macrotis, Lesson, Nouv. Tdbl. Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 173,

1842 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 239, Cat. Ungulata Brit.

Mus. p. 234, 1852 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 921 ; Alston,

Biol. Centr. Amer., Mamm. p. 114, 1879 ; Sclater, Lint Anim.

Zool. Gardens, p. 173, 1883; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol.

Mus. Ii. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 324, 1884; True, Proc. U.S. Nat.

Mus. vol. vii, p. 502, 1885; Flower and LydeJcker, Study of

Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; LydekTter, Horns and Hoofs, p. 342, 1893 ;

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 60, 1896.
Eucervus macrotis, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xviii,

p. 339, 1866, Cat. Euminants Brit. Mus. p. 86, 1872, Hand-List

Euminants Brit. Mus. p. 157, 1873.



CKKVID.I; 177

Otclaphus uiacrotis, Fitzingcr, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wins. Wim, vol. Ixviii,
pt. 1, p. 356, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 303, 1879.

Dorcelaphus hemionus, Allen, Rail. Amer. Mus. vol. vii, p. 257, 1895.

Odocoileus hemionus, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xii,
p. 100, 1897 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Field Mas. Zool.
I'/ib. vol. ii) p. 40, 1901; Stone and Cram, American Animals,
p. 39, 1903; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 783; Scharff,
Origin of Life in America, p. 107, 1911 ; Gary, N. Amer. Fauna,
no. 33, p. 56, 1911 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 388, 1912.

Mazama hemionus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 269, pi. xxi, 1898.

Mazama (Dorcelaphus) hemionus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game
of Europe, etc. p. 354, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 106, 1910, ed. 7, p. 104, 1914.

Odontoccelus hemionus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies
(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 76, 1904, Check-List Mamm.
N. Amer. etc. (ibid. vol. vi) p. 48, 1905, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus.
(ibid. vol. viii) p. 49, 1907.

Eucervus hemionus, Pocock, Proc. Zool. .Soc. 1910, p. 966.

MULE-DEER.

Typical locality Sioux Valley, South Dakota.

Type of Eucervus.

Build heavier and coarser than in typical race of 0. vir-
ymianus; size somewhat greater than in latter, the shoulder-
height being from about 3 feet to 3 feet 6 inches; antlers
with very short sub-basal snag, above which the beam is
directed outwards for a short distance and then curves
upwards to form a dichotomous fork, of which both prongs
are normally nearly equal, and again divide, the normal
number of points being five on each side; ears very large
and thickly haired; tail moderately long, terminating in a
brush-like tuft of hair, naked on under surface at base;
muzzle relatively short ; face-glands rather large ; rneta-
tarsal gland and tuft long and straight, occupying whole of
one side of upper half of shank, its hair nearly of the same
cinnamon tint as that of legs, as is that of tarsal gland ;
general colour typically reddish or yellowish tawny in summer,
dark brownish or rufous grey, speckled with whitish, darkest
on withers in winter ; forehead usually with a dark brown
patch, extending nearly to eyes, and a brown patch on each
side of nose, rest of face and throat white ; front border of
ears black ; inner sides of buttocks and legs, abdomen, and
most of inner surface of ears white or whitish, rest of under-
parts blackish brown ; tail short, black at tip, typically
IV. N



178 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

elsewhere white both above and below. On first assumption
of winter coat the colour becomes for a short time almost
black.

The large hairy ears, elongated metatarsal glands, short,
black-tipped tail, with its lower surface naked at base, and
the shape of the antlers, form the leading characteristics of
this species, the range of which includes the greater part of
North America westward of the Missouri Eiver, from Fort
George to Texas.

The named races are distinguishable as follows :



o



A. Antlers of the fully developed type, normally

with 5 points on each size ; size large.

a. Colour * tawny or grey, tail white with black

tip.

a'. Colour tawny, tail tapering, antlers larger 0. h. liemionus.
b' . Colour grey, tail not tapering, antlers

smaller 0. h. virgultus.

b. Colour pale tawny ; tail with dark dorsal line

connecting black tip with dark area of back 0. li. californicus.

c. Colour fulvous, tail whitish with black tip.... 0. h. eremicus.

d. Colour drab-grey, tail dark at base and white

in middle, with black tip 0. h. canus.

B. Antlers simpler, with only a single branch from

main tine; size rather smaller. 0. h. cerrosensis.

c. Antlers simple spikes ; size smaller 0. h. peninsula.



A. Odoeoileus hemionus hemionus.

Cervus macrotis montanus, Caton, Antelope and Deer of America,

ed. 2, p. 94, 1881.

Mazama hemionus typica, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 275, 1898.
Odoeoileus hemionus hemionus, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm.

p. 388, 1912.

Typical locality Sioux Valley, South Dakota.
General coloration that of species, of a full dark type ;
tail without a dark dorsal line.

1619, a. Skull and antlers. North America. No history.

1619, b. Skeleton, mounted. Yellowstone Park, Montana.

Purchased ( Ward, Rochester, U.S.A.).

58. 6. 18. 4 (1619, c). Skull and antlers. North America.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858,

* In summer, both in this afjd following races,



CKKVI I>.K 179

63. 2. 24. 41. Skin, female, mounted. Fort Colville,
British Columbia. Presented ly J. K. Lord, Esq., 1863.

72. 12. 12. 3. Skin, mounted. Yellowstone Park.

Purchased (Ward, Rochester, U.S.A.), 1872.
72. 12. 12. 4. Skin, mounted, female. Same locality.

Same history.

12. 5. 15. 1. Skin, in winter coat, mounted. La
Bochelle Creek, British Columbia.

Presented by the Government of British Columbia, 1912.

B. Odocoileus hemionus virgnltus.

Cariacus virgultus, Hallock, Forest and Stream, vol. Hi, p. 404, 1899.
Odocoileus virgultus,* Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. Soc.

vol. xxxi, p. 69, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 390, 1912.
Odontocoelus hemionus virgultus, Elliot, Check- List Mamm. N. Amer.

etc. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 49, 1905.

Typical locality north-western Minnesota, whence the
range extends into the adjoining British territory.

Distinguished from typical race by smaller antlers, and
uniform calibre of short tail ; general colour dark grey, with
long black and white hairs.

No specimen in collection.

C. Odoeoileus hemionus californicus.

Cervus macrotis, var. californicus, Caton, Amer. Nat. vol. x, p. 464,

1876, vol. xix, p. 811, 1885.
Mazama hemionus calif ornica, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 276,

1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 350, 1901.
Odocoileus hemionus californicus, Seton-Thompson, Forest and

Stream, vol. li, p. 286, 1898 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer.

(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 43, 1901 ; Stone and Cram,

American Animals, p. 41, 1912; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm.

p. 388, 1912.
Odontocoelus hemionus californicus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and

W. Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 77, 1904, Check-List

Mamm. N. Amer. etc. (ibid. vol. vi) p. 49, 1905.

Typical locality Gaviota Pass, Coast Eange, forty miles
from Santa Barbara, California.

Ears smaller than in typical race ; tail with a dark dorsal

* Misprinted virgultis in first quotation.

N 2



180 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

line connecting the black tip with the dark of the back;
general colour often brighter.

The range extends south of San Francisco into Lower
California.

No specimen in collection.

D. Odocoileus hemionus cerrosensis.

Odocoileus cerrosensis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xii,

p. 101, 1898; Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 41, 1903;

Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 387, 1912.
Mazama hemionus cerrosensis, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of

Europe, etc. p. 359, 1901.
Odontocoelus cerrosensis, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies

(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p: 76, 1904, Check-List Mamm.

N. Amer. etc. (ibid. vol. vi) p. 47, 1905.'

Typical locality Cerros, or Cedros, Island, Lower California.

Considerably smaller than last, with smaller and simpler
antlers, which are bowed outwards at first and incurved at
tips, with only a single branch projecting upwards and
inwards from upper third of main tine of each side ; general
colour grizzled grey, with a blackish dorsal stripe, and a spot
on top of nose and one on each side of nostrils dusky ; tail
with dark band above, basal two-thirds whitish, and
remainder black ; row of cheek-teeth short.

No specimen in collection.

E. Odocoileus hemionus eremicus.

Dorcelaphus hemionus eremicus, Mearns, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus.
vol. xx, p. 470, 1897.

Mazama hemionus eremica, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 277,
1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 360, 1901.

Odocoileus hemionus eremicus, Seton- Thompson, Forest and Stream,
vol. li, p. 286, 1898 ; Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 41,
1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 388, 1912.

Odontocoelus hemionus eremicus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and
W. Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 77, 1904, Check-
List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. (ibid. vol. vi) p. 49, 1905.

Typical locality Sierra Seri, near the Gulf of California,
Sonora, Mexico; the range including a portion of Lower
California, and at least much of Sonora.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.



CERVID.E 181

A pale desert-race of the species, the gencraV colour
being pale drab-grey, with a darker dorsal stripe, which
forms a blackish spot at the base of the tail, with a slight
extension along the upper surface of the same.

No specimen in collection.

F. Odoeoileus hemionus peninsulae.

Mazama hemionus peninsula?, Lydckker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897, p. 900,
Deer of All Lands, p. 276, 1898, Great and Small Game of
Europe, etc. p. 359, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 107, 1910, ed. 7, p. 104, 1914.

Odoeoileus hemionus peninsulae, Miller and Rehn, Proc. Boston Nat.
Hist. Soc. vol. xxx, p. 16, 1901 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm.
p. 358, 1912.

Odontoccelus hemionus peninsulae, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and
W. Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 78, 1904, Check-
List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. (ibid. vol. vi) p. 50, 1905.

Typical locality Sierra Laguna, La Paz, Lower California.

Smaller than and more brightly coloured than 0. h.
calif ornicus, with the antlers in the form of simple spikes and
a basal snag ; general colour in winter dark speckled iron-
grey, with an irregular black band along middle of back,
expanding towards hind-quarters, and continued on to
upper surface of the tail, where it may be connected by a
narrow line with the black tip, or separated by a broad ring
of pale straw-coloured hair; legs bright chestnut, and a
patch of same colour on flanks, separating the dark speckled
grey of the back from the uniform blackish brown of the
under-parts.

98. 3. 1. 171. Skin, immature. Sierra Laguna, La Paz;
collected by Mr. D. Coolidge. Type. Purchased, 1898.

98. 3. 1. 172. A similar specimen. Same locality and
collector. Same history.

G. Odoeoileus hemionus canus.

Odoeoileus hemionus canus, Merriam, Proc. Washington Acad.
vol. iii, p. 560, 1901 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 388, 1912.

Odontocoelus hemionus canus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and
W. Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 78, 1904, Check-
List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. (op. cit. vol. vi) p. 50, 1905.

Typical locality Sierra en Media, State of Chihuahua,

Mexico.



182 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Smaller and paler than typical race, with lighter and
more slender antlers ; general colour pale grey ; top of head
and face pale brown ; chin white ; breast black ; basal half
of upper side of tail partially or wholly dark.

No specimen in collection.

III. ODOCOILEUS COLUMBIANUS.

Cervus macrotis, var. columbianus, Richardson, Fauna B or. -Amer.

p. 257, 1829.

Cervus lewisii, Peale, Mamm. U.S. Explor. Exped. p. 39, 1848.
Cervus richardsonii, Audubon and Bachman, Quadrupeds N. America,

vol. ii, p. 211, 1853.

Cariacus punctulatus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 239.
Cervus columbianus, Baird, N. Amer. Mamm. p. 659, 1857 ; Caton,

Antelope and Deer of America, p. 96, 1877.
Eucervus columbianus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. xviii,

p. 388, 1866, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 86, 1872, Hand-List

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 157, 1873.
Eucervus pusillus, Gray, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 157,

1873.
Otelaphus richardsonii, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien,

vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 308, 1879.
Reduncina punctulata, Fitzinger, op. cit. vol. Ixviii, pt. 1. p. 357,

1873.
Cariacus columbianus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 921 ; True,

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. vii, p. 592, 1885.
Otelaphus punctulatus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien,

vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 307, 1879.
Cariacus macrotis columbianus, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2,

p. 60, 1896.
Dorcelaphus columbianus, Mearns, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xx,

p. 468, 1897.
Odocoileus columbianus, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,

vol. xii, p. 100, 1898; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Field

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 71, 1901 ; Stone and Cram, American

Animals, p. 42, 1903 ; Scharff, Origin of Life in America, p. 108,

1911 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 387, 1912.
Mazama columbiana, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 278, 1898.
Mazama pusilla, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 281, 1898.
Mazama (Dorcelaphus) columbianus, Lydekker, Great and Small

Game of Europe, etc. p. 360, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game,

ed. 6, p. 109, 1910.
Odontoccelus columbianus, Elliot, Check-List Mamm, N. Amer. etc.

(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 48, 1905.

BLACK-TAILED DEER.

Typical locality near mouth of Columbia Biver, Oregon.
Smaller than the mule-deer, with relatively shorter ears



CERVIiu; 183

and finer hair, shorter metatarsal gland, which occupies a
considerable portion of upper half of shank, and also by
relatively large tail being black above and white below;
general colour in winter speckled tawny brownish grey, the
individual hairs being dark brown for the greater part of
their length, but near the extremities ringed with yellowish
brown, and terminating in black tips; hind portion of
under-parts and region of base of tail, as well as upper part
of throat and chin, white ; face grey, darker on forehead ;
legs dark cinnamon, without admixture of white hairs ;
tarsal and metatarsal tufts a shade lighter than adjacent
portions of legs, no bare portion of gland visible in
metatarsal tuft ; in summer general colour reddish yellow ;
face-glands rather small ; antlers of the general type of
those of mule-deer, but smaller. The distinctive features of
this species are the black upper side of the tail and the
medium length of the metatarsal gland and tuffc, which are



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 15 of 36)