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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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situated entirely above the middle of the shank.

The range includes western North America from Alaska
and British Columbia, through Washington and Oregon west
of the Cascade Mountains, to California as well as the coast-
districts of Vancouver Island.

The races are distinguishable as follows :

A. Colour yellower ; tail wholly white below.

a. Ears larger.

a'. Colour deeper 0. c. columbianus.

b'. Colour paler 0. c. scaphiotus.

b. Ears smaller 0. c. sifkenfis.

B. Colour redder; tail dark below at tip 0. c. croolfi.



A, Odocoileus columbianus columbianus.

Odocoileus columbianus columbianus, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm.
p. 387, 1912.

Typical locality near mouth of Columbia Itiver.
General characters those of the species.
45. 7. 4. 3 (681, i). Skull and antlers. Valley of
Columbia Elver. Presented ~by the Hudson Bay Co., 184.").
45. 7. 4. 4 (681, /). Skull, female. Same locality.

Same history.



184 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

68. 2. 13. 2. Young skull. British Columbia (?). Type
of Emervus pusillus. Presented by Dr. E. Brown, 1868.

71. 4. 8. 1 (681, k). Frontlet and antlers. British
Columbia (?). Purchased (Blytli), 1871.

6. 6. 12. 1-2. Head, mounted, and body-skin, female.
British Columbia. Presented ly W. K. Thompson, Esq., 1906.

B. Odocoileus columbianus sitkensis.

Odocoileus columbianus sitkensis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash-
ington, vol. xii, p. 100, 1898 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer.
(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 42, 1901; Stone and Cram,
American Animals, p. 43, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm.
p. 387, 1912.

Mazama columbiana sitkensis, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of
Europe, etc. p. 361, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 109, 1910, ed. 7, p. 107, 1914.

Odontoccelus columbianus sitkensis, Elliot, Chech-List Mamm.
N. Amer. etc. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 48, 1905.

Typical locality Sitka, Alaska.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Distinguished from typical race by its inferior size and
smaller ears ; general colour in summer fulvous ; face
grizzled grey, with a dusky patch extending from eyes
midway to nose ; metatarsal tuft bordered with black.

No specimen in collection.

C. Odocoileus columbianus seaphiotus.

Odocoileus columbianus seaphiotus, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash-
ington, vol. xii, p. 101, 1898 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer.
(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 42, 1901; Stone and Cram,
American Mammals, p. 43, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm.
p. 387, 1912.

Mazama columbiana seaphiotus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game
of Europe, etc. p. 362, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 109, 1910.

Odontoccelus columbianus seaphiotus, Elliot, Check-List Mamm.
N. Amer. etc. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 48, 1905.

Typical locality Gabilan Eange, Riverside County, Cali-
fornia.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.
A large-eared and pale-coloured mountain -race.
No specimen in collection.



cKi;vin.i. 185

D. Odocoileus columbianus crooki.

Dorcelaphus crooki, Mearns, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xx, p. 468,

1897.
Odocoileus crooki, Seton- Thompson, Forest and Stream, vol.' li,

p. 286, 1898 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Field Mus. Zool.

Pub. vol. ii) p. 41, 1901 ; Stone and Cram, American Mammals,

p. 41, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 387, 1912.
Mazama crooki, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 268, 1898.
Mazaina columbiana crooki, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of

Europe, etc. p. 362, 1901.
Odontoccelus crooki, Elliot, Check-List Mamm. N. Amer. etc. (Field

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi) p. 47, 1905.

Typical locality Dog Mountains, Grant County, New
Mexico.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

General colour (female) in summer reddish-fawn, darker
on back, with the neck greyish drab, flanks greyish cinnamon,
and legs creamy ; black of upper side of tail extending on to
lower side of tip ; hairs of metatarsal tuft sooty with white tips.

No specimen in collection.

INCERT^: SEDIS.

1. Cervus affinis, Pucheran, C.E. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xxix, p. 777,

1849 ; nee Hodgson, 1841.

Cervus similis, Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 357, 1852.
Reduncina similis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. 7c. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii,

pt. i, p. 357, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. i, p. 321, vol. Ixxix, pt. i, p. 62,

1879.

Cariacus similis, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 920.
Mazaina similis, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 281, 1898.

Founded on a male specimen in the Paris Museum, of
which the exact locality is unknown, but which probably
came from the Southern United States. In general colora-
tion this is very similar to the typical race of the white-
tailed deer in summer, but the upper half of the tarsal tuft is
rusty red, and only the lower half white.

2. Cariacus leptocephalus, Gray, Cat. Euminants Brit. Mus. p. 85,

1872, Hand-List Euminants Brit. Mus. p. 157, pi. xxxvii, 1873.
Mazaina leptocephala, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 281, 1898.

52. 12. 26. 160. Skull and antlers. Locality unknown.
Type.

Transferred from the Zoological Society's Museum, 1852.



186 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



Vlir. Genus BLASTOCERUS.

Blastocerus, Sundevall, K. Svensha Vet.-AJc. Handl. 1844, p. 182,

1846; Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 223, 1852, Cat.

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 87, 1872; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc.

1878, p. 922 ; Riitimeyer, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 49,

1881 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 966.
Blastoceros, Fitzinger, Sitzber. ~k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1,

p. 358, 1873 ; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 282, 1898.
Paraceros, Ameghino, Mamm. Foss. Eepub. Argent, p. 605, 1889;

Lydekker, An. Mus. La Plata, Pal. Argent, vol. ii, p. 80, 1893.
Antifer, Ameghino, op. cit. p. 610, 1889 ; Lydekker, op. cit. p. 81, 1893.
Epieuryceros, Ameghino, op. cit. p. 613, 1889 ; LydeMer, op. cit.

p. 81, 1893.
Ozotoceros, Ameghino, Rev. Argent. Hist. Nat. vol. i, p. 243, 1891, to

replace Blastocerus, Sundevall, supposed to be preoccupied by

Blastocera, Gerstein, 1856.
Ozelaphus, Knottner us -Meyer, Arch. Naturgesch. vol. Ixxiii, p. 98,

1907.

Antlers large and complex, without sub-basal snag,
forking in a regularly dichotomous manner, with the upper,
or posterior prong more or less exceeding the lower, or
anterior, one in size ; metatarsal gland and tuft absent ; tail
short; face moderately long; face-glands well developed,
and gland-pits in skull rather large and deep ; foot-glands
not definitely known ; upper canines generally present in
adult males ; size large or rather small ; young uniformly
coloured or spotted. The absence of the metatarsal gland
and of a sub-basal snag to the regularly dichotomous antlers
are the most easily recognised features of this genus, which
in most other respects resembles Odocoileus, although the
nature of the foot-glands and their presence or absence in
the fore-limbs does not appear to be definitely known.

The two species are distinguishable as follows :

A. Size large, antlers complex, hair on withers directed

backwards, colour deep rufous B. dichotomus.

B. Size smaller, antlers simpler, hair on withers

directed forwards, colour yellowish-brown B. bezoarticus.

I. BLASTOCEBUS DICHOTOMUS.

Cervus dichotomus, Illiger, Abh. Ak. Sci. Berlin, 1811, pp. 108 and
117, 1815 ; separate copies said to have been issued in 1811 ; based
on Azara's guazupuco.

Cervus paludosus, Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 443, 1822 ;
H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 134, 1827;



cERVm.i: 187

Burmeitter, Descript. PJiys. Rcpub. Argent, vol. iii, p. 480, 1879 ;

Goeldi, Mnmmiferos do Brasil, p. 106, 1893, Mem. Mas. Gocliii,

pt. iii, p. 5, 1902.
Cervus palustris, Deswoidins, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. vol. iii. p. 379,

1823.
Cervus (Mazama) paludosus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,

vol. v, p. 316, 1827.
Ma/ama paludosa, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 173,

1835.
Dorcelaphus paludosus, Glogcr, Handbuch Naturgeschichte, p. 140,

1841.
Cariacus paludosus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm.p. 173,

1842; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 922; Flower and

Li/dekkcr, Study of Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns

and Hoofs, p. 343, 1893, An. Mus. La Plata, Pal. Argent, vol. ii,

p. 80, 1893 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 57, 1896.
(?) Mazama furcata, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 176, 1843.

Cervus (Elaphus Blastocerus) paludosus, Wagner, Schreber's Sdug-

thiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 367, 1844.
Cervus (Blastocerus) paludosus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak.

Handl. 1844, p. 182, 1846 ; Ihering, Mammiferos de Sao Paulo,

p. 14, 1894.
Blastoceros paludosus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 237, Cat.

Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 224, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 87, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 157, 1873;

Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 266, 1862 ; Fitzinger,

Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 359, 1873,

vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 350, 1879.

Cariacus palustris, Lydekker, Royal Nat. Hist. vol. ii, p. 387, 1894.
Mazama dichotoma, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 283, 1898.
Mazama (Blastoceros) dichotoma, Lydekker, Great and Small Game

of Europe, etc. p. 363, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,

p. 110, 1910, ed. 7, p. 108, 1914.

Blastocerus dichotomus, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 966.
MARSH-DEER ; VEADO GALHEIRO GRANDE ; GUAZUPUCO.

Type of genus.

Typical locality Brazil.

Largest of South American deer, the size being approxi-
mately that of a red deer, but the build more slender ; antlers
large and rugose, with both prongs of main fork dividing
more than once, and* upper prong usually larger than lower
one ; muzzle bluntly pointed ; ears large, and filled internally
with woolly white hair; tail bushy; coat long and coarse,
without radiating whorls on back and neck ; general colour
in summer bright rufous chestnut, in winter brownish red,
becoming lighter on flanks, neck, and chest ; legs black from



188 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

knees and hocks downwards, and tarsal tuft also black ;
abdomen, inside of thighs, throat, chin, and insides and bases
of backs of ears white or yellowish white; a whitish line
above, or a ring round, eyes, most marked in females; a
black band on muzzle and upper lip, joining a median dark
streak on nose, and black markings on under lip ; tail
yellowish rusty red above and black beneath ; in immature
females limbs less black, showing fawn on sides below hocks
and knees, in advance of which the extremities are white,
and black streak on nose wanting ; young not spotted. Fine
antlers attain a length of from 21 to 24 J inches.

The range includes suitable localities throughout Brazil,
and perhaps part of Guiana, through Paraguay, Entre Kios,
and Uruguay to the Chaco, or wooded internal districts of
Argentina.

687, a. Frontlet and antlers. South America. No history.

65. 7. 8. 2 (687, I). Frontlet and antlers. South
America. Purchased (Bartlett), 1865.

71. 6. 20. 2 (687, c.) Antlers. South America.

Purchased (Cutter), 1871.

72. 11. 4. 1. Frontlet and antlers. South America.

Purchased (Gerrard), 1872.

94. 6. 25. 1. Skull, with antlers. Paraguay ; collected

by Dr. J. Bohls. Purchased, 1894.

98. 10. 11. 1. Skin, mounted. Brazil. Purchased, 1898.

6. 10. 18. 1. Head, mounted, with abnormal antlers.

Northern Argentina.

Presented ly A. F. Vans Agnew, Esq., 1906.
11. 10. 27. 4. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Alto
Paraguay, Bolivia ; collected by Mr. C. H. B. Grant.

Presented ly G. W. Tudor, Esq., 1911.



II. BLASTOCEEUS BEZOARTICUS.

Cervus bezoarticus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 175, ed. 12,
vol. i, p. 67, 1766.

Cervus campestrds, F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. vii, p. 484, 1817 ;
H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 136, 1827;
Burmeister, Descript. Phys. Repub. Argent, vol. iii, p. 463, "1879 ;
Goeldi, Mammiferos do Brasil, p. 107, 1893.

Cervus leucogaster, Schreber, Sdugthiere, vol. v, p. 1127, 1817.



< KKYID.K 189

Cervus (Mazama) campestris, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,

vol. v, p. 317, 1827 ; Gocldi, Mem. MILS. Gocldi, pt. iii, p. 23

1902.

Cervus azarae, Wiegmann, Isis, 1833, p. 954.
Mazama campestris, Jar dine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii,

p. 174, 1835 ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 176, 1843.
Dorcelaphus campestris, Gloger, HandbucJi Naturgeschichte, p. 140,

1841.
Cariacus campestris, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 173,

1842 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 923 ; Sclater, List Anim.

Zool. Gardens, p. 174, 1883 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol.

Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 324, 1884 ; Flower and Lydekker,

Study of Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs,

p. 345, 1893; Aplin, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894, p. 313; Ward,

Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 59, 1896.
Cervus (Elaphus Blastocerus) campestris, Wagner, Schreber's Sdug-

ihiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 369, 1844.

Cervus (Elaphus Blastocerus) comosus, Wagner, op. cit. p. 368, 1844.
Furcifer campestris, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 68, 1850.
Blastocerus campestris, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 237, Cat.

Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 224, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 87, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 158, 1873;

Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 265, 1862 ; Fitzinger,

Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 359, 1873, vol.

Ixxviii, p. 1, p. 364, 1879.
(?) Cariacus sylvestris, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xii,

p. 427, 1873.
Blastoceros comosus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien. vol.

Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 359, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 356, 1879.
Blastoceros azarse, Fitzinger, op. cit. vol. Ixxviii, p. 359, 1879.
Cervus comosus, Burmeister, Descript. Phys. Repub. Argent, vol. iii,

p. 465, 1879.
Ozctoceros campestris, Ameghino, Rev. Arg. Hist. Nat. vol. i, p. 243,

1891.
Cervus (Blastoceros) campestris, Ihering, Mammiferos de Sao Paulo,

p. 15, 1894.
Mazama bezoartica, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 287, pi. xxii,

1898.
Mazama (Blastoceros) bezoartica, Lydekker, Great and Small Game

of Europe, etc. p. 365, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,

p. 112, 1910, ed. 7, p. 110, 1914.
Odontoccelus bezoarticus, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (Field Mus.

Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 50, 1907.
Ozelaphus bezoarticus, Knottnerus-Meyer, Arch. Naturgesch. vol.

Ixxiii, p. 98, 1907.
Blastoceros bezoarticus, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 966.

PAMPAS DEER ; VEADO BRANCO ; GUAZUTI.

Type of Ozotoceros and Ozelaphus.

Typical locality Brazil.

Much smaller than the last, and of the approximate size



190 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

of a roebuck, but more delicately and slenderly built ; antlers
of moderate size, with the lower, or front, prong of the main
fork simple, and the upper, or posterior, prong divided and
more complex, usual number of tines three; muzzle rather
pointed; ears moderately large and filled with white hair;
tail somewhat bushy ; coat short and smooth, with a whorl




FIG. 30. PAMPAS DEEB (Blastocerus bezoarticus).

on middle of back, and a second at base of the neck, so that
the hairs on withers are directed forwards; general colour
light reddish brown, with the hairs of the back light grey at
base, then darker grey followed by a ring of reddish brown,
and black at tips; face darker, and occasionally a black
patch on crown of head, extending backwards as a line to
level of ears ; tarsal tuft, a patch at base of backs of ears, a



CERViiu: I'M

ring round pedicles of antlers, another round each eye, lips,
throat, chest, under-parts, fronts and inner sides of thighs,
and inner sides of buttocks and upper part of fore-legs
whitish ; flanks, outer sides of limbs, and middle of throat
lighter than back ; tail dark blackish brown above and white
below ; upper canines generally present in males ; young
lighter coloured, with a row of white spots on each side of
back, and a second from shoulder to thigh.

The range includes the campos of Brazil, Paraguay and
Uruguay and the pampas of Argentina and northern Pata-
gonia, also extending into the wooded Chaco country of
Argentina in the neighbourhood of Santa Fe. If, as has been
suggested, the Pampas form is distinct from the typical
Brazilian campestris, it should bear the name azarce.

686, k. Skeleton, female. South America. No history.

686. k l . Antlers. South America. No history.

37. 3. 15. 43 (142, a). Skull, with antlers, and skin.
Northern Patagonia.

Presented ly Messrs. Burnett and Fitzroy, 1837.

37. 3. 15. 44 (142, 6). Skin, young. Same locality.

Same history.

37. 3. 15. 44* (142, c). Skin, young. Same locality.

Same history.

42. 12. 9. 25 (686, a). Frontlet and antlers. Northern
Patagonia ; collected by Admiral Fitzroy during the voyage
of H.M.S. " Beagle."

Presented by the Governors of Haslar Hospital, 1842.

45. 9. 19. 5. Skin, mounted. Bahia Blanca, Argentina ;
collected by C. E. Darwin, Esq., during the voyage of H.M.S
"Beagle." Purchased (Zoological Society), 1845.

46. 7. 28. 40. Skin, young, mounted. Bolivia ; collected
by Mr. T. Bridges. Purchased, 1846.

52. 2. 26. 1. Skull and antlers, imperfect. South
America ; collected by Mr. Parzudaki. Purchased, 1852.

54. 8. 16. 1 (686, c). Skeleton. La Plata; collected by
Dr. Bravard. Purchased, 1854.

54. 8. 16. 2-3-6 (686, d, c, h). Three skulls, with antlers
Same locality and collector. Same history

54. 8. 19. 4. Frontlet and antlers, Same locality and
collector. Same history.



192 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

54 8. 16. 5 and 7 (686, g and i). Two skulls. Same
locality and collector. Same history.

60. 8. 31. 4. Skin. South America.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1860.

61. 11. 15. 2 (686,;). Skeleton. South America.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1861.

84. 2. 8. 33. Skull, with antlers. Taquara, Kio Grande

do Sul; collected by Dr. H. von Ihering. Purchased, 1884.

72. 2. 11. 1. Imperfect skull, with antlers, provisionally

referred to this species. Brazil (?) ; collected by Sir J.

Hudson. Type of Cariacus sylvestris.

Presented ly Rev. G. J. Hudson, 1872.
98. 2. 25. 1. Skin. Santa Fe, Argentina.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1898.
9. 12. 1. 58. Skin, mounted (fig. 30). Ajo, Tuyu, Buenos
Aires ; collected by Mr. C. H. B. Grant.

Presented ly E. Gibson, Esq., 1909.

9. 12. 1. 59. Skull and skin, young. Same locality and
collector. Same history.

9. 12. 1. 60. Skull. Same locality and collector.

Same history.

9. 12. 1. 61. Skull, with antlers, and scalp-skin. Los

Yngleses, Buenos Aires ; same collector. Same history.

9. 12. 1. 62. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and

collector. Same history.

9. 12. 1. 63. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and

collector. Same history.

14. 11. 9. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Conceifao,

Eio Araguaya, Northern Brazil.

Presented ly the Para Museum, 1914.

IX. Genus HIPPOC AME LUS.

Hippocamelus, LeucJcart, Dissert. Inaug. de Equo blsulco Molince,
p. 24, 1816 ; -Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (Field Mus. Zool.
Pub. vol. viii) p. 50, 1907, partim ; PococJf, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910,
p. 966.

Cervequus, Lesson, Nouv. Tall. Eegn. Anim., Mamm. p. 173, 1842.

Furcifer, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 384,
1844 ; Sundevall, K. SvensJca Vet.- Ah. Handl. 1844, p. 183, 1846 ;
Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 226, 1852, Cat. lluminants
Brit. Mus. p. 88, 1872 ; BrooJce, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 923 ;



CERVID^I 193

Ililtimeyer, AWi. schweiz. pal. Gcs. vol. viii, p. 49, 1881 ; nee
Fitzinger, 1843.

Xenelaphus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 498, Cat. Ruminants
Brit. Mus. p. 89, 1872 ; Lydckker, Deer of All Lands, p. 293,
1898.

Anomalocera, Gray, Scientific Opinion, 1869, p. 384 ; Philippi, Wieg-

mann's Archiv 1870, p. 46 ; nee Templer, 1837.
Huamela, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4. vol. xi, p. 217, 1873,

Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 159, 1873.
Creagroceros, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt 1,

p. 358, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 369, 1879.

Antlers (fig. 31) small and simple, forming a single
dichotomous fork, of which the front prong is the smaller,
and curves upwards and backwards towards the hind one ;
metatarsal gland and tuft absent ; tail short and rather
bushy ; face moderately long ; face-glands large and exposed,
and gland-pits in skull deep and triangular, although not
very large; upper canines present in both sexes, but not
projecting beyond lips ; coat coarse and brittle ; size medium ;
young uniformly coloured. Other characters much as in
two preceding genera. The genus is distinguished by the
simply forked antlers, coarse, brittle coat, and absence of
metatarsal glands.

The range includes the western and southern parts of
South America.

The two species appear distinguishable as follows :

A. Size larger, a dark Y-shaped face-stripe, antlers

usually forking some distance above burr H. bisulcus.

B. Size smaller, face without distinct dark stripe,

antlers forking close to burr H* antisensis.



I. HIPPOCAMELUS BISULCUS.

Equus bisulcus, Molina, Saggio Storia Nat. Chili, p. 320, 1782.
Hippocamelus dubius, Leuckart, Dissert. Inaug. de Equo bisulco

Molinx, p. 24, 1816.
Auchenia huamel, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v,

p. 764, 1827.
Cervequus andicus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regn. Anim., Mamm. p. 173,

1842.
Cervus chilensis, Gay and Gervais, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool. ser. 3,

vol. viii, p. 91, 1846; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 45;

Burmeister, Descript. Phys. Repub. Argent, vol. iii, p. 462, 1879 ;

Philippi, An. Mus. Chile, ZooL 1892, p. 7, 1894, p. 8.
IV. O



194 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Capreolus leucotis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1849, p. 64.

Furcifer huamel, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 236, Cat. Ungulata

Brit. Mus. p. 227, 1852 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.

p. 266, 1862.
Furcifer antisiensis, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 226, 1852,

Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 88, 1872 ; nee d'Orbigny.
Huamela leucotis, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. x, p. 445,

1872, vol. xi, p, 219, 1873, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 160, 1873.
Creagroceros chilensis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien,

vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 358, 1873, vol. Ixxviii, pt. 1, p. 372, 1879.
Cariacus chilensis, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 923 ; Flower and

Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 329, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns

and Hoofs, p. 346, 1893.
Furcifer chilensis, Sclater, List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 178, 1883 ;

Nehring, Sitzber. Ges. nat. Freunde, 1895, p. 12.
Cervus antisiensis, Schaff, Zool. Garten, vol. xxxi, p. 228, 1890 ; nee

d'Orbigny.
Mazama bisulca, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 296, 1898, Proc.

Zool. Soc. 1899, p. 917, pi. Ixi ; Berg, Commun. Mus. B. Aires,

vol. i, p. 261, 1900.

Hippocamelus bisulcus, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1898, p. 212 ;
Pocock, ibid. 1910, p. 966; Wolffsohn, Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat.
vol. xiv, p. 227. 1910.

Mazama (Xenelaphus) bisulca, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of
Europe, etc. p. 368, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 113, 1910, ed. 7, p. Ill, 1914.

Xenelaphus bisulcus, Pricliard, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. i, p. 272,
Through the Heart of Patagonia, p. 248, 1902.

(?) Odocoileus dickii, Goeldi, Mitt. nat. Ges. Bern, 1912, p. 12.

GUEMAL Or HUEMUL.

Size large, shoulder-height about 39 J inches ; general
colour bright greyish yellow, speckled with black, this
including buttocks, greater portion of under-parts, and limbs,
in winter apparently greyer ; a broad black band up middle
line of . face terminating in a fork between eyes ; sides of
muzzle brown and tip of chin white ; tail coloured like back
above, white below; tarsal tuft like back; antlers (fig. 31)
forking at a considerable distance above burr.

The range includes the Andes of southern Chile and the
whole of Patagonia. Odocoileus dickii was founded on a
skull and antlers from Santa Fe, probably referable to the
present species, the antlers being evidently abnormal.

50, 8. 2. 1. Skin. Valparaiso, Chile.

Presented ly the Earl of Derby, 1850.



CKUVIDjK



195



72. 11. 1. 1 (1584, a). Skull, with antlers, and skin.
West Coast of Patagonia ; collected by Dr. E. Simpson.

Purchased, 1872.




FIG. 31. HEAD OP CHILIAN GUEMAL (Hippocamelus bisulcus).
From Lydckker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1899.

72. 11. 1. 2 (1584, I). Skull and skin. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

o 2



196 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

98. 2. 4. 14-15. Two frontlets, with antlers. Chubut,
Patagonia; collected by H. Durnford, Esq. Purchased, 1898.

99. 2. 22. 14. Skin, mounted. Patagonia.

Presented by the Director of the La Plata Museum, 1899.

99. 8. 31. 1. Head, in summer coat, mounted. Ultima
Esperanza, Patagonia. Presented by Senor Masentli, 1899.



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