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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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Wied, Naturgesch. Brasil, vol. ii, p. 596, 1827; H. Smith,
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 141, 1827 ; Burmeister,
Descript. Phys. Eepub. Argent, vol. iii, p. 466, 1879; Goeldi,
Mammiferos do Brasil, p. 108, 1893.



M. rufinus in first passage. f See note, p. 199.



CKUVI D.K L'09

Mazama bira, Eajinesqiu', Amcr. Month. Mag. vol. i, p. 368, 1817.
Cervus nemorivagus, F. Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. vii, p. 485, 1817 ;

H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 142, 1827.
Cervus (Subulo) nemorivagus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,

vol. v, 319, 1827.

Cervus (Subulo) simplicicornis, H. Smith, op. cit. vol. v, p. 381, 1827.
Passalit.es nemorivagus, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgeschichte, p. 140,

1841.
Coassus nemorivagus, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 238, 1852,

Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 91, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants

Brit. Mus. p. 160, 1873; Quclch, Zoologist, ser. 3, vol. xvii,

p. 19, 1893 ; Eendall, ibid. ser. 4, vol. i, p. 345, 1897.
Coassus simplicornis, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 238, 1852,

Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 91, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants

Brit. Mus. p. 160, 1873; Quelch, Zoologist, ser. 3, vol. xvii,

p. 19, 1893.
Doryceros nemorivagus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. It. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol.

Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 23, 1879.
Cariacus simplicornis, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 925 ;

Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 348, 1893.
Cariacus nemorivagus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 925 ; Sclater,

List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 174, 1883 ; Lydekker, Horns and

Hoofs, p. 394, 1893.
Cervus (Coassus) simplicicornis, Ihering, Mammiferos de S. Paulo,

p. 15, 1894.
Mazama nemorivaga, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 303, 1898,

Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 372, 1901; Ward,

Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 113, 1910, ed. 7, p. Ill, 1914;

Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 962.*
Mazama americana, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 43, 1912 ;

nee Cervus americanus, Erxleben.
Hippocamelus nemorivagus, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (Field

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 52, 1907.
Mazama americana, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 43, 1912 ;

nee Moschus americanus, Erxleben, 1777.

Mazama simplicicornis, Hagmann, Archiv Rass,en- und Gesell.-Biol.
vol. v, p. 14, 1908; Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8,
vol. xi, p. 585, 1912.

Type of Doryceros.

Typical locality Brazil.

Build light and slender, and size small, the shoulder-
height being about 19 inches ; general colour varying from
pale pepper-and-salt brown to greyish or whitish, usually
with a distinct streak on the forehead before the front of the
eyes ; never any sign of reddish at any season ; hairs of back
ringed with yellowish red below the tip; under-parts huffish ;

* M. nemorivagus.
IV. P



210 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

tarsal gland and tuft small ; * antlers short, fine, and dirty
white in colour.

Eange co-extensive with that of M. americana, but also
including Trinidad.

A. Mazama simplieieornis simplicicornis.

Typical locality Brazil.

General characters those of species.

141, a. Skull and skin, female. Locality unknown.

No history.

41. 593. Skull and skin, female. Brazil ; collected by
Parreys. Purchased.

44.9.11.107. Skin, formerly mounted. British Guiana ;
collected by Sir E. Schomburgk. Purchased, 1844.

46. 2. 13. 3 (46. 4. 10. 6-685, 6). Skull and skin. Brazil.

Purchased (Brandt), 1846.

47. 1.1. 22. 21. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Santa
Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia ; collected by Mr. T. Bridges.

Purchased, 1847.

47. 11. 22. 21*. Skin, immature. Same locality and
collector. Same history.

58. 6. 18. 7. Skin, female. Locality unknown.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858.

59. 9. 6. 106 (1037, &). Skull, young. Surinam, Dutch
Guiana ; Dr. A. Gunther's collection. Purchased, 1859.

80. 5. 6. 40. Skin, female. Sarayacu, Ecuador ; collected

by C. Buckley, Esq. Purchased, 1880.

80. 5. 6. 41. Skin, immature. Same locality and collector.

Same history.

82. 9. 30. 26. Skull, with antlers. Taquara, Rio Grande
do Sul, Brazil ; collected by Dr. H. von Ihering.

Purchased, 1882.

82. 9. 30. 27. Skull, female. Same locality and collector.

Same history.
92. 11. 2. 3. Skin, young. Trinidad.

Presented by H. Carracciolo, Esq., 1892.
97. 1. 5. 20. Skin. Medellin, Antioquia, Colombia ;

* Fitzinger founded Doratoceros on account of the supposed
absence of the tarsal gland, which is stated by Pocock to be present.



211

collected by Mr. J. K. Salmon ; formerly in collection of Sir
Victor Brooke, Bart.

Presented by Sir Douglas Brooke, Bart., 1897.

3. 4. 6. 8. Skull and skin, young. Eupununi, southern
British Guiana ; collected by Dr. J. J. Quelch.

Presented by F. V. McConnell, Esq., 1903.

4. 7. 4. 85. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Igarape, Assu,
Para, Amazonia ; collected by Mr. A. Eobert.

Presented by 0. Thomas, Esq., 1904.

4. 7. 4. 86. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality

and collector. Same history.

4. 7. 4. 87. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality

and collector. Same history.

8. 3. 7. 55. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Coast-region,
Demerara, British Guiana.

Presented by F. V. McConnell, Esq., 1908.

9. 4. 20. 3-4. Two young skulls and skins, the latter in
the dark, white-spotted coat. Mazaruni Valley, British
Guiana. Same donor, 1909.

12. 12. 19. 11. Skull and skin, female. Bonasica, Esse-
quibo Valley, British Guiana ; collected by Mr. Cozier.

Same donor, 1912.

12. 12. 19. 12. Skull and skin, female. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

13. 5. 23. 12. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same locality
and collector. Same donor, 1913.

13. 12. 18. 4. Skull and skin, female. Gumunda, Lower
Amazonia. Presented by the Goeldi Museum, Para, 1913.

13. 12. 18. 5. Skull and skin, young female. Same
locality. Same history.

13. 12. 18. 6. Skull and skin. Ceara, Amazonia.

Same history.

B. Mazama simplieieornis mexianse.

Coassus simplieieornis, var. mexianse, Hagmann, Archiv Rassen-
und Gesell. Biol. vol. v, p. 14, pi. i, 1908.

Typical (and only) locality Mexiana Island, mouth of the
Amazon.

Smaller than typical race, the skull having a basal length

P 2



212 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

of from 150 to 163 mm., against from 173 to 181 mm. in
the latter ; antlers and their pedicles less inclined backwards
than in typical race, and a marked difference in the shape of
the lachrymal.

No specimen in collection.

C. Mazama simplicicornis citus.

Mazama americana citus, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x,
p. 43, 1912.

Typical locality Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela.
Type in Field Museum, Chicago.

Similar to typical race, but slightly larger, with especially
large cheek-teeth, and the colour greyer and paler.
No specimen in collection.



IX. MAZAMA TSCHUDII.

Cervus (Subulo) tschudii, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, Suppl.

vol. v, p. 386, 1855.

Cervus (Subulo) simplicornis major, Wagner, loc. cit. 1855.
Doryceros tschudii, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii,

pt. 1, p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 30, 1879.
Coassus whitelyi, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xii, p. 163,

1873, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 162, pi. xxxii, 1873.
Cariacus whitelyi, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 926.
Ma/ama tschudii, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 305, 1898, Great

and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 373, 1901.

Typical locality Peru, at elevations of 16,000 feet above
the sea-level on the western slopes of the coast Cordillera, in
the same districts inhabited by Hippocamelus antisensis.

Closely allied to M. simplicicornis, from which it is
distinguished by its somewhat inferior size, nearly smooth
antlers, and certain details of coloration ; back darker than
in M. simplicicornis, and under-parts and inner sides of limbs
white, instead of buffish white ; hairs of back without sub-
terminal yellowish red rings.

73. 6. 27. 2 (1618, a). Skull, immature female. Cosni-
pata, Peru; collected by Mr. H. Whitely. Type of Cariacus
whitelyi. Purchased, 1873.



CERVID^E 213



X. MAZAMA PANDOKA.

Mazama pandora, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiv,
p. 105, 1901 ; Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies (Field
Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 80, 1904; Miller, List N. Amer.
Mamm. p. 390, 1912.

Hippocamelus pandora, Elliot, Chech-List Mamm. N. Amer. and
W. Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. vi), p. 51, 1905 ; Allen,
Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. 2, p. 108, 1906.

Typical locality Yucatan.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Size and ears much the same as in M. americana ; general
colour greyish or drab brown ; ears with a white line or
margin near basal aperture ; tail dull fulvous above.

No specimen in collection.



XI. MAZAMA NANA.

Cariacus iianus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Eegne Anim.,Mamm. p. 173, 1842.
Cervus (Subulo) nanus, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, Suppl.

vol. v, p. 386, 1855.
Nanelaphus namby, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii,

pt. 1, p. 361, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 32, 1879.
Nanelaphus nambi, Goeldi, Mammiferos do Brasil, p. 108, 1893.
Cervus (Coassus) nanus, Ihering, Mammiferos de Sao Paulo, p. 16,

1894.
Mazama nana, Lydehker, Deer of All Lands, p. 305, 1898, Great and

Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 373, 1901.

Type of Nanelaphus.

Typical locality Matto Grosso district, Brazil.

Imperfectly known ; size very small, inferior to that of
M. simplicicornis, from which this species is stated to be dis-
tinguished by the larger face-glands ; tail terminating in a
tuft of longish hairs ; coat rough and thick ; ears thickly
haired externally, short-haired internally ; general colour
uniformly dark brown with a tinge of reddish ; under-parts
lighter ; tail coloured like back above, white below and at
tip ; a small white spot beneath each eye ; lips white, the
upper one dirty white near muzzle ; ears externally dark
brown, internally bluish white ; tarsal tuft white.

No specimen in collection.



214 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



SEDIS.

1. Coassus auritus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 242, Ann. Mag. Nat.

Hist. ser. 2, vol. ix, p. 432, 1852, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus.

p. 239, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 92, 1872 ; nee

Cervus auritus, Desmarest.
Cervus (Subulo) auritus, Wagner, Schreber's SaugtJiiere, Suppl.

vol. v, p. 336, 1855.
Subulo auritus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. ~k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii,

pt. 1, p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 19, 1879.
Mazarna aurita, LydekJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 306, 1898.

Named from a Brazilian (?) skin, now lost ; possibly the
female of M. americana.



2. Mazama rondoni, Ribeiro, Comm. Linhas Telegr. de Matto Grosso
ao Amazonias, Annex 5, Hist. Nat., Mammiferos (Rio de Janeiro),
p. 33, 1914.

Typified by a male skin and female skeleton from
Poaya, Amazonia, in the Museum at Bio de Janeiro.
.Dimensions are given, and the colour is said to be dark, but
the description is otherwise insufficient.



XL Genus PUDU.

Pudu, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 242, Cat. Ruminants Brit.

Mus. p. 92, 1872 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 967.
Nanelaphus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. h. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1,

p. 360, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 31, 1879, partim.

Pudua, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18 ; Broolce, ibid. 1878,
p. 296 ; de Winton, ibid. 1896, p. 508 ; LydekJcer, Deer of All
Lands, p. 307, 1898.

Skull and metacarpals generally as in Mazama ; size
very small ; coat coarse and brittle ; antlers in the form of
short, simple spikes ; cannon-bones very short ; tail short or
wanting; hair of forehead either reversed or directed uni-
formly backwards from muzzle to crown ; ears large and
rounded; face-glands present or absent; naked portion of
muzzle variable ; tarsal, metatarsal and interdigital glands
absent ; upper canines wanting ; external cuneiform of tarsus
united with naviculo-cuboid.

The genus includes two species one from the highlands
of Chile and the other from those of Ecuador severally



CERVID;E 215

representing subgeneric groups, distinguished from one
another as follows :

A. Well developed face -glands and lachrymal pits ; first

lower incisor not markedly larger than second Pudu.

B. Face-glands and lachrymal pits wanting ; first lower

incisor much larger than second Pudella.



1. SUBGENUS PUDU.

Face-glands and lachrymal pits (fig. 32) well developed ;
first lower incisor not markedly larger than second ; pre-
maxilloB not reaching nasals ; muffle small ; hoofs normal.

I. PUDU PUDU.

Capra pudu, Molina, Saggia Storia Nat. Chili, p. 310, 1782.

Cervus humilis, Bennett, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 27.

Cervus (Pudu) humilis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 242.

Pudu humilis, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 240, 1852, Proc.

Zool. Soc. 1864, p. 105, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 93, 1872,

Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 163, 1873.
Pudu chilensis, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. pi. xxxvi, 1852.
Cervus pudu, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1871, p. 238.
Nanelaphus pudu, Fitzinger, Sitzber. 7c. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii,

pt. 1, p. 361, 1873, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 34, 1879.
Pudua humilis, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18 ; Brooke, ibid.

1878, p. 927 ; de Winton, ibid. 1896, p. 510 ; Sclater, List Anim.

Zool. Gardens, p. 174, 1883 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Ostcol.

Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 325, 1884 ; Flower and Lydekker,

Study of Mammals, p. 330, 1891.
Coassus humilis, Riitimeyer, Abh. scliwciz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 31,

1881.
Pudua pudu, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 307, 1898, Great and

Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 373, 1901.
Pudu pudu, PococJc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 967 ; Thomas, Ann.

Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi, p. 588, 1913.

PUDU.

Typical locality Chilian Andes.

Size very small shoulder-height ahout 13 J inches ; hair
reversed from a line running transversely across forehead in
front of ears ; tail short and bushy ; general colour speckled
grey-fawn, passing into bright chestnut on hinder two-thirds
of back; ears, lips, a patch above each eye, two areas of
variable size on forehead, fronts of fore-legs from knees



216 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

downwards, and greater part of hind-legs bright chestnut;
under-parts rufous yellow.

The range includes the Chilian Andes and thence south-
wards to the Chiloe Archipelago.

50. 11. 29. 5-6 (972, I). Skull and skin, female. Chile.
Purchased (Zoological Society), 1856.

54. 12. 6. 6. Skin, mounted, female. Chile.

Same history, 1854.

55. 12. 24. 284. Skin, female. Chile. Type.

Same history, 1855.




FIG. 32. SKULL OF PUDU (Pudupudii).

75. 4. 10. 3-4 (972, I). Skin and mounted skeleton.
Chile. Same history, 1875.

1. 9. 25. 2. Skull and skin, female. Belind, Constitucion,
Chile. Presented ly J. A. Wolffsolm, Esq., 1901.

1. 11. 30. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Concepcion.
Presented ly S. H. H. Henn, Esq., 1901.

3. 11. 16. 1. Skin, immature, mounted. Chilian Andes.
Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, KG., 1903.

5. 2. 4. 20. Skull and skin, female. Temuco, southern
Chile; collected by Mr. D. S. Bullock. Purchased, 1905.

10. 8. 11. 12. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Same
locality and collector. Purchased, 1910.



217



2. SUBGENUS PUDELLA.
Pudella, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi, p. 588, 1913.

Face-glauds and lachrymal pits wanting; first lower
incisors much larger than second ; premaxillae reaching nasals ;
muffle large, extending backwards in middle line a con-
siderable distance behind nostrils.

IT. PUDU (PUDELLA) MEPHISTOPHILES.

Pudua rnephistophiles, de Winton, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1896, p. 508,
pi. xix, partim; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 308, pi. xxiv,
fig. 1, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 374, 1901 ;
Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. i, p. 350, 1908;
Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. viii, no. 16, p. 33, 1913.

Pudella mephistophiles, Thomas, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xi,
p. 588, 1913.

Typical locality Paramo of Papallacta, Ecuador.

Size probably rather larger than in P. pudu shoulder-
height about 14 or 15 inches ; coat long and coarse, with
basal portion of hairs brittle and pith-like, the terminal
halves black with ferruginous tips, producing a rich brown
colour ; back darker than flanks, owing to the hairs having
broader black bands with correspondingly reduced coloured
tips, on neck the tips paler and longer, the black being
reduced, producing a tawny appearance, but towards the
head the black increasing, till the shorter hairs of ears, face,
and chin are almost black ; ears very short, partially con-
cealed by rough hairs, thickly haired inside and out, the
hairs on the inside broadly tipped with white; feet black,
with most of the hairs minutely tipped with buff; inner
sides of legs and abdomen clothed with long yellowish hairs
of a finer type.

For skull, vide Thomas, op. cit., 1908.

96. 1. 28. 5. Skin, immature female. Paramo of Papal-
lacta, Ecuador. Type.

Presented ly L. Soderstrom, Esq., 1896.

99. 2. 18. 20-21. Two skulls and skins. Ecuador.

Same donor, 1899.



218 CATALOGUE 01? UNGULATES



XII. Genus CAPREOLUS.

Capreolus, Gray, Med. Eepos. vol. xv, p. 307, 1821; H. Smith,

Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 313, 1827 ; Brooke, Proc.

ZooL Soc. 1878, p. 917 ; Biitimeyer, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges.

vol. viii, p. 41, 1881 ; LydeJcJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 223, 1898;

PococJf, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 957; Miller, Cat. Mamm.

West. Europe, p. 972, 1912.
Caprea, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 135.

Lateral metacarpals as in Odocoileus ; vonier not dividing
aperture of posterior nares ; a pouch-like gland opening by a
narrow orifice on front of hind-pasterns ; antlers comparatively
small, rising close together and almost vertically from the
crown of the head, with the beam dichotornously forking at a
point about two-thirds of the total length, and the posterior,
or upper prong of this fork, which is the larger, again
dividing, the normal number of tines being three ; muzzle
with a large naked portion, extending between the nostrils,
the upper border of which is straight, while the part below
the nostrils is narrow ; ears large ; tail rudimentary ; face
short, with the muzzle blunt; coat uniformly coloured,
typically with a white patch in the region of the tail in
winter ; a metatarsal gland on the upper half of the meta-
tarsus ; lachrymal pits small and shallow and the face-glands
obsolete ; lateral hoofs well developed ; upper canines usually
wanting ; upper molars tall-crowned, without a distinct
additional column on inner side. Young spotted. Size
medium or rather small ; build tall. On the under surface
of the skull the auditory bullse are not markedly inflated,
and the unossified vacuities near the lachrymal-pits form
narrow slits.

The range includes Central and Southern Europe from
Great Britain and Scandinavia eastwards, and thence across
Asia north of the Himalaya to the Pacific coast.

The species are distinguishable by the following
characters :

A. Size smaller ; ears narrow, pointed, and thinly

haired ; antlers moderately thick and rugose.
a. Size smaller ; summer and winter coats markedly
different in colour; dark moustache-marks on
lips; ears red or grey externally; teeth short-
crowned C. capreolus.



219

6. Size rather larger ; summer and winter coats less
different in colour ; no dark marks on lips ; ears
blackish or black externally ; teeth tall-crowned. C. bedfordi.

B. Size larger ; ears broad, blunt, and thickly haired ;

antlers very thick and rugose C. pygargus.



I. CAPREOLUS CAPREOLUS.

Cervus capreolus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 68, 1758, ed. 12,
vol. i, p. 94, 1766 ; Schreber, Sdugthiere, pis. 212, A and B, 1781 ;
Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 302, 1792 ; Cuvier, Ossemens
Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 47, 1823 ; F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm.
vol. ii, pis. 226-228, 1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. iv, p. 124, 1827 ; J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 450, 1829 ;
Jenyns, Brit. Vert. Anim. p. 35, 1835 ; Bell, Brit. Quadrupeds,
p. 407, 1837 ; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 172,
1842; Owen, Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1843, p. 238, 1844, Brit. Foss.
Mamm. and Birds, p. 487, 1846 ; Kolliker, Wiirzburg. Naturwiss.
Zeitschr. vol. vi, p. 82 ; 1866 ; Radde, Sdugeth. Talysch. p. 10,
1866 ; Winge, Danmarks Fauna, Pattedyr, p. 169, 1908.

Cervus capreolus albus, Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 302, 1792.

Cervus (Capreolus) capreolus, H. Smith, Griffiths Animal Kingdom,
vol. v, p. 314, 1827 ; Matschie, Bcroff. Inst. Jagdkundc, vol. ii,
p. 141, 1913.

Capreolus dorcas, Burnett, Quart. Journ. Sci. Lit. and Art, 1829,
p. 353, nom. nudum ; Jardine, Naturalist' sLibr., Mamm. vol. iii,
p. 171, pi. xv, 1835.

Capreolus fossilis, Meyer, Palceologica, p. 95, 1832.

Capreolus vulgaris, Fitzinger, Beitr. Landeslc. Osterreichs, vol. i,
p. 317, 1832, Wissench.-pop. Naturgesch. Sdugeth. vol. iv, p. 192,
1860, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 353, 1873,
vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 239, 1874 ; Menetries, Cat. raison. Zool. Caucas.
p. 1, 1887 ; Lydekkcr, Deer of All Lands, p. 224, pi. xviii, 1898,
Great and Small Game of Europe, p. 247, 1901.

Capreolus caprsea, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 176, 1843, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 235, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 222, 1852,
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 81, 1872, Hand-List Euminants
Brit. Mus. p. 153, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.
p. 265, 1862 ; Blanford, Eastern Persia, vol. ii, p. 96, 1876 ;
Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 917; Danford and Alston,
ibid. 1880, p. 55 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind, Mus. pt. ii,
p. 187, 1891 ; Satunin, Mitt. Kaukas, Mus. vol. i, p. 62, 1901.

Cervus capreolus plumbeus, Reichenbach, Sdugethiere, vol. iii, pi. iii
bis, 1845.

Capreolus europseus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844,
p. 184, 1846.

Capreolus capreolus, Blasius, Sdugeth. Deutschlands, p. 457, 1857 ;
Nitsche, Studien iiber Hirsche, pi. iv, 1898 ; Satunin, Mitt.
Kaukas. Mus. vol. ii, pp. 211 and 359, 1906; Millais, Mamm.
Gt, Britain, vol. iii, p. 137, 1906 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool, Soc. 1910,
p. 957 ; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 233, 1910 ; Miller,
Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 974, 1912.



220



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



Capreolus vulgaris niger et C. v. varius, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. A~k.
Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 247, 1874.

Capreolus caprea, Bell, Brit. Quadrupeds, ed. 2, p. 262, 1874 ; Flower
and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 318,
1884 ; Flower and Lydeklcer, Study of Mammals, p. 327, 1891 ;
LydeJclcer, Horns and Hoofs, p. 325, 1893, Brit. Mamm. p. 249,
1895 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 53, 1896, ed. 6,
p. 92, 1910, ed. 7, p. 92, 1914; Satunin, Zool. Jahrb., Syst.
vol. ix, p. 310, 1896 ; Henniclce, Zool. Garten, vol. xli, p. 379,
1900 ; Keibel, Verli. Anat. Ges. vol. xvii, p. 184, 1901 ; Zimmer-
mann, Zool. Jahrb., Syst. vol. xxii, p. 1, 1905.

Cervulus capreolus, Satunin, Mitt. Kaunas. Mus. vol. vii, pp. 20 and
41, 1912, errorim.

EOE, or EOEBUCK.

Typical locality Sweden.

Size small (shoulder-height 26 to 27 inches, "basal length
of skull from about 6 to 6J inches) ; ears narrow, uniformly





FIG. 33. PALATAL ASPECT OF
SKULL OF EOE (Capreolus capreolus).

\ nat. size.
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe.



FIG. 34. LOWER FRONT TEETH
OF EOE (Capreolus capreolus).

nat. size.
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe.



greyish externally ; antlers moderately thick and rugose ;
cheek-teeth short-crowned ; summer and winter coats differing
markedly in colour, the former foxy red, the latter olive-grey
or grey with a conspicuous white rump-patch ; lips and sides
of muzzle with a black moustache-mark, but front of muzzle,
on each side of muffle, and chin white.

The distributional area extends from the British Islands
to the Caucasus and some part of Western Asia, and from
Scotland and Sweden southwards to Spain and other countries



CKKVID.V: 1*21

on the north side of the Mediterranean. Fine antlers
measure from about 11 to 13 inches, with a basal girth of
from 3 to 7 inches, and a tip- to- tip interval of from 4J to
14J inches.

The races may be distinguished as follows :

A. General colour of face darker than that of

body C. c. thotti.

B. General colour of face not darker than that

of body.

a. Light throat-patch and neck-patch whitish

and sharply denned in winter C.c. transsylvanicua.

b. Light throat-patch and neck-patch yel-

lowish or greyish and ill-defined in
winter.
a'. General colour in winter with a distinct

yellowish tinge C. c. capreolus.

b'. General colour in winter coarsely griz-
zled grey, without a yellowish tinge ... C. c. canus.



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 18 of 36)