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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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A. Capreolus eapreolus eapreolus.

Capreolus eapreolus eapreolus, Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe,
p. 274, 1912.

Including :

Capreolus rhenanus, Weidwerk in Wort u. Bild, vol. xix, p. 263, 1900,
warthse (Warthe Valley), Deutsch. Jdger-Zeitung, vol. Iviii,
p. 801, 1912, Matschie.

Cervus (Capreolus) eapreolus balticus (Baltic Provinces), Bericht
achtzen. Deutsche Geweih-Austellung, 1912, p. 861, [c.] cistauni-
cus (North of Taunus Eange), p. 141, c. transvosagicus (Up.
Mosel Valley), p. 142, c. albicus (Silesia), p. 144, Berdff Inst.
JagdJcunde, vol. ii, 1913, Matschie.

Typical locality Sweden; the range is taken to include
all Europe except the areas occupied by the under-mentioned
races.

Light throat-patch indistinct ; general colour in winter
distinctly tinged with yellow.

* * * *. Skin, mounted. France. No history.

59. 9. 6. 107-109. Three skulls, with antlers. South
Germany ; collected by Dr. A. Giinther. Purchased, 1859.

67. 4. 12. 225-231. Seven skulls, with antlers. Localities
unknown. Lidth de Jeude Collection, purchased, 1867.

76.. 5, 4.. 1, Skin, melanistic, mounted. Westphalia.

Purchased (Gerrard), 1876.



222 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

*

76. 5. 4. 2. Skin, female. Westphalia. Same history.
76. 5. 4. 3. Skull and antlers. Westphalia.

Same history.
98. 10. 12. 1. Head, mounted. Austria.*

Presented ~by Lieut. -Col. E. W. Shipway, 1898.

10. 10. 18. 1. Skull and skin, female. Skabersjo,

Sweden. Presented by Dr. Einar Lonnlerg, 1910.

10. 11. 17. 1. Skull and skin. Ferrieres, Seine-et-Marne,
France. Presented ~by the Hon. N. C. Rothschild, 1910.

11. 11. 18. 1. Skull and skin. Same locality.

Same donor, 1911.

12. 1. 17. 1. Skull and skin, female. Same locality.

Same donor, 1912.

11. 12. 5. 1. Skull and skin. Armandvilliers, Seine-et-
Marne. Same donor, 1911.

11. 9. 13. 1-15. Fifteen pairs of antlers, on frontlets.
Bavaria. Presented ~by F. N. A. Fleischmann, Esq., 1911.

B. Capreolus eapreolus transsylvanieus.

Capreolus transsylvanieus, Matschie, Weidwerk in Wort u. Bild,
vol. xvi, p. 224, 1907.

Capreolus eapreolus transsylvanieus, Miller, Cat. Mamm. West.
Europe, p. 975, 1912.

Typical locality, Bana, Eumania.

Light throat -patch distinct ; general colour in winter
clear grizzled grey.

The distributional area extends from eastern Europe, and
perhaps Asia Minor, to the Italian Alps.

9. 1. 18. 3-4. Two skulls and skins, female. Padola,
Cadore, Venetian Alps.

By exchange with the Turin Museum, 1909.

10. 12. 4. 1. Two skulls and skins, female. Csehtelek,
Bihar Comitat, Hungary.

Presented ly the Hon. Mrs. N. C. Rothschild,

* May belong to C. c. transsylvanieus.



223



C. Capreolus capreolus canus.



Capreolus capreolus canus, Miller ; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. vi,
p. 460, 1910, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 975, 1912 ; Cabrera,
Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 130, 1912.

Typical locality Quintanar de la Sierra, Burgos, Spain, to
which country and Portugal this race is restricted.

Light throat-patch as in typical race, but general colour
coarsely grizzled grey, without a yellowish tinge.

8. 7. 7. 27-29. Three skulls, with antlers, and skins.
Pinares de Quintanar de la Sierra ; collected by Senores S.
and N. Gonzalez. No. 8. 7. 7. 28 is the type of the sub-
species. Purchased, 1908.

8. 7. 7. 30-31. Two skulls and skin, females. Same
locality and collectors. Same history.

D. Capreolus eapreolus thotti.

Capreolus capreolus thotti, Lonnberg, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8,
vol. vi, p. 297, 1910 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 957,
1912.

Differs from typical race by darker general colour,
especially on the face, which is darker than the body.

Typical locality Morayshire, Scotland ; the subspecies is
restricted to the British Isles.

60, k. Skin, mounted. Scotland.

Presented by the Earl of Derby, about 1844.
688, a and b. Two frontlets, with antlers. Scotland.

No history.
688, d. Frontlet and antlers. Scotland.

Bequeathed by Gen. T. Hardwicke, 1835.
85. 10. 6. 1. Skeleton. Nairn, Scotland.

Presented by Earl Cawdor, 1885.
85. 10. 6. 2. Skull, female. Same locality.

Same history.
93. 1. 8. 1. Head, mounted. Same locality.

Same donor, 1893.

97. 8. 21. 1. Skin, mounted. Whatcombe, Blandford,
Dorsetshire. Presented ly J. C. Hansel- Pley dell, Esq., 1897.
97. 12. 11. 2. Skin, mounted. England.

Purchased ( Ward), 1897.



224 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

7. 6. 6. 1. Head, mounted. Poltalloch, Argyllshire.

Presented ly Col. E. D. Malcolm, 1907.

7. 6. 6. 2. Head, female, mounted. Same locality.

Same history.

8. 8. 18. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Nairn.

Presented ly Earl Candor, 1908.
8. 8. 18. 2. Skull and skin, female. Nairn.

Same history.

8. 11. 22. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Arndilly,
Craig Ellachie, Moray shire. Type.

Presented ly W. S. Mcnzies, Esq., 1908.
8. 11. 22. 2. Skull and skin, female. Same locality.

Same history.

11. 2. 22. 1. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Thornhill,
Dumfriesshire. Presented ly H. S. Gladstone, Esq., 1911.

11. 2. 22. 2. Skull and skin, female. Same locality.

Same history.

13. 1. 8. 1. Skull, with antlers, and head-skin. Fortrose,
Ross-shire, Scotland.

Presented ly W. E. Ogilvie-Grant, Esq., 1913.

II. CAPKEOLUS BEDFOEDI.

Cervus pygargus mantschuricus, Noack, Humboldt, vol. viii, p. 9,
fig. 12, 1889, nee Cervus mantchuricus, Swinhoe, 1864; Allen
and Andrews, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xxxii, p. 488,
1913.

Capreolus manchuricus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 231, 1898,
Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 255, 1901.

Capreolus bedfordi, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 645, pi. xxxii,
Abstr. P.Z.S. 1908, p. 32 ; Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
vol. xxiv, p. 231, 1911.

Typical locality Manchuria.

Size slightly larger than in typical species ; antlers
relatively small ; cheek-teeth comparatively high-crowned,
and skull rather larger than in C. capreolus ; summer and
winter coats not so markedly different in colour as in the
latter, the general tint in winter being huffish clay -colour ;
no moustache-marks on upper lips ; ears blackish grey or
black externally.

The range includes Shan-si, Kan-su, and Korea.



CKKVID.I-: 225

The two races are distinguishable as follows :

A. General colour in summer not markedly reddish ;

backs of ears blackish C. b. bedfordi.

B. General colour in summer more distinctly red ;

backs of ear black .. ,. C. b. melanotis.



A. Capreolus bedfordi bedfordi.

General colour in summer not markedly reddish, and
backs of ears blackish, not contrasting strongly with general
colour.

Typical locality Manchuria ; the range includes Shan-si.

97. 10. 3. 57. Skin, female. Korea ; collected by Mr.
J. Kalinowski. Purchased, 1897.

99. 1. 7. 1. Head, immature, mounted. Manchuria.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1899.

8. 8. 7. 97-98. Two skulls, with antlers. One hundred
miles north-west of Tai-Yuen-Fu, Shan-si, N.E. China ;
collected by M. P. Anderson, Esq., November, 1907. Noticed
by Thomas, Proc. Zool Soc., 1908, p. 645. Same donor, 1908.

8. 8. 7. 99. Skull and skin, female in winter coat. Same
'locality and collector. Type of species ; figured by Thomas,
op. cit., pi. xxxii. Same history.

10. 5. 1. 92. Skin, female. Khinghan Mountains,
Manchuria. Purchased, 1910.

10. 5. 1. 93. Skull and skin, young female. Same
locality. Same history.

10. 5. 1. 94. Skull, with antlers, and skin, immature.
Same locality. Same history.

B. Capreolus bedfordi melanotis.

Capreolus melanotis, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxiv,
p. 231, 1911.

Typical locality Kan-su, western China.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washingion.

General colour (of female) in summer more distinctly
reddish than in typical race, and backs of ears deep black,
contrasting strongly with general colour. Males in winter
are grizzled grey, with more or less pronounced black tips to
the ears.

iv. y



226 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

11. 2. 1. 259-261. Three skulls, with antlers, and skins
(in winter coat). S.E. of Min-chou, Kan-su ; collected by
M. P. Anderson, Esq.

Presented by the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1911.

11. 2. 1. 262-264 Three skulls and skins (in winter
coat), female. Same locality and collector. Same history.

11. 6. 1. 61. Skin, female (winter). Feng-hasang-fu,
Shen-si ; same collector. Same history.

11 6. 1. 65. Skin (winter). Same locality and collector.

Same history.

11. 6. 1. 66. Skull and skin (winter), female. Same
locality and collector. Same history.

III. CAPEEOLUS PYGAEGUS.

Cervus pygargus, Pallas, Eeise Bussl. vol. i, p. 97, 1777 ; Schreber,
Sdugthiere, vol. iv, p. 1118, pi. 253, 1784 ; H. Smith, Griffith's
Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 122, 1827 ; Noack, Humboldf,
vol. viii, p. 7, 1889.

Cervus ahu, Gmelin, Reise Russl. vol. ill, p. 496, 1780.

Cervus (Capreolus) pygargus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. v, p. 314, 1827.

Capreolus pygargus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, vol. v, p. 224,
1837, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 176, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850,
p. 236, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 223, 1852, Cat. Ruminants
Brit. Mus. p. 82, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 154,
1873 ; Gloger, Handbuch Naturgesch. p. 141, 1841 ; Fitzinger,
Sitzber. 7c. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 353, 1873, vol. Ixx,
pt. 1, p. 248, 1874 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 917 ; Lydekker,
Horns and Hoofs, p. 325, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 227, 1898,
Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 256, 1901 ; Satunin,
Zool. Jahrb., Syst. vol. ix, p. 310, 1896, Mitt. Kaukas. Mus.
vol. iii, p. 49, 1907 ; Rasewig, Semja ochotn. 1908, p. 509 ; Ben-
tham, Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 96, 1908 ; Thomas,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 645 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 94, 1910, ed. 7, p. 92, 1914 ; Allen and Andrews, Bull. Amer.
MILS. Nat. Hist. vol. xxxii, p. 488, 1913 ; Hollister, Proc. U.S.
Nat. Mus. vol. xlv, p. 525, 1913.

AHU (PERSIAN) ; SIBERIAN KOE.

Typical locality the Semiretshinsk Altai.

Siz& considerably larger than in the typical species, the
shoulder-height ranging from about 28 to 34 inches; ears
relatively shorter, wider, less pointed, and more thickly
haired, both externally and internally ; antlers larger, more
divergent, and more rugose on the inner border, where they



227

form a series of small irregular, nodular snags ; winter coat
thicker and rougher, being shaggy on the sides and lower
portion of the head, chest, and under-parts ; back, which is
coloured a mixture of yellowish and greyish brown, more
distinctly speckled with blackish, and the white rump-patch
extending in a short V on to the flanks ; in summer the coat
a brighter and lighter rufous, with the hairs lying more
smoothly, when first donned showing little or no signs of
a light rump-patch, but a yellowish white disk gradually
developing in this region as the season advances, apparently
by fading ; face-markings generally similar to those of the
European species.

The range extends, in suitable localities, from the
mountains of Russian Turkestan and the Altai to Siberia;
and probably includes the mountains of the Caspian provinces
of Persia ; in Siberia not extending so far north as the range
of some species of Cervus, the northern limit being about the
53rd or 54th parallel of latitude, and not ranging so far as
the mouth of the Amur river. During winter the species
migrate south into Manchuria, and apparently Korea.

A complete " key " to the races cannot yet be given.

A. Capreolus pygargus firghanieus.

Capreolus pygargus firghanicus, Raaewig, Semja ochotn. 1909, p. 160.

Typical locality Ferghana district of Eussian Turkestan.
The original description not accessible to writer.
No specimen in collection.

B. Capreolus pygargus pygargus.

Typical locality the Semiretshinsk Altai.
General characters those of the species; antlers com-
paratively simple, with a maximum recorded length of
15 J inches.

42. 3. 13. 1. Skin, formerly mounted. Siberia.

Purchased (Brandt), 1842.

42. 3. 13. 2. Skin, female, originally mounted. Siberia,

Same history.
Q 2



228 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

78. 12. 21. 28 (1701, a). Pair of antlers. Salair, Altai;

collected by Dr. 0. Finsch. By exchange with the

Geographical Society of Bremen, 1878.

78. 12. 21. 29 (1701, 5). Pair of antlers, in velvet.

Same locality and collector. Same history.

87. 6. 3. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Southern Manchuria.

Presented ly H. E. M. James, Esq., 1887.

95. 3. 12. 1. Skull, immature female. Amurland.

Presented by J. Rowland Ward, Esq., 1895.

98. 12. 15. 2-3. Two frontlets, with antlers. Semiret-

shinsk, Altai. Presented ly H. J. Elwes, Esq., 1898.

0. 3. 26. 4-5. Two skulls, with antlers, and skins. Altai.

Presented ly the Hon. Walter Rothschild, 1900.

0. 6. 9. 1. Skin (in winter coat), mounted. Altai.

Purchased, 1910.

C. Capreolus pyg-arg-us tianschanicus.

Capreolus tianschanicus, Satunin, Zool. Ana. vol. xxx, p. 527, 1906.
Capreolus pygargus tianshanicus, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 94, 1910, ed. 7, p. 94, 1914.

Typical locality Tien-shan.

Antlers more massive and more branched than those of
the typical race, from which they also differ somewhat in
shape ; in one phase they diverge widely, and carry four
or five tines on each side, but in a second the degree of
divergence and the number of tines are less. The maximum
recorded length of antler is 17 j inches.

5. 3. 21. 2. Skull, with antlers, and scalp-skin. Khan
Tengri, Tien-shan.

Presented by Lord Edward Beauclerk, 1905.

13. 2. 6. 3. Body-skin. Kulja, Tien-shan.

Presented ly Col. J. H. Allot Anderson, 1913.



XIII. Genus ALCES.

Alces, Gray, Med. Eepos. vol. xv, p. 307, 1821, List Mamm. Brit.
Mus. p. 182, 1843 ; BrooJce, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 915 ; Euti-
meyer, AWi* zchweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 54, 1381 ; Lydekker,
Deer of All Lands, p. 49, 1898 ; Miller. Cat. Mamm. West.
Europe, p. 977, 1912.



CEKVlDjE 229

Alee, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 72, vol. v,
p. 303, 1827; Pocock, Proc. Zool Soc. 1910, p. 958; Miller,
Proc. Boston Soc. vol. xxviii, p. 40, 1897 ; nee Blumcnbach,*
1799.

Alcelaphus, Glogcr, Handbuch Naturgcschichtc', p. 143, 1841 ; nee
Blainville, 1816.

Paralces, Allen, Bull. Amcr. Nus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 160, 1902.

The geographical range includes the afforested northern
portions of both eastern and western hemispheres, extending
in the Old World westwards to Norway, southwards to
Eastern Germany, and eastwards to Central Kussia and Eastern
Siberia,

Lateral nietacarpals as in Mazama ; vomer not dividing
aperture of posterior nostrils ; hind-pasterns with a relatively
small glandular imagination, situated as in Capreolus ; antlers
(fig. 36) present only in males (as in all the preceding genera),
situated low down on the skull, from which they arise at
right-angles to the median longitudinal line, extending at
first directly outwards in the plane of the forehead, and, in
their fullest development, expanding into a broad palinatiou
margined with snags, in structure essentially dichotomous,
with the upper main branch much superior in size to the
lower ; muzzle broad, long, and overhanging, with a very
small triangular naked area between the lower angles of the
nostrils ; head and limbs long ; neck and body short ; tail
very short ; main hoofs narrow, long, and pointed, lateral
hoofs large; usually small metatarsal glands situated high
up on the shanks ; tarsal glands and face-glands present ;
coat uniformly coloured at all ages and all seasons, long
and coarse ; males provided with a pear-shaped pendulous
expansion of skin covered with long hairs on the throat.
In the skull (fig. 35) the nasals very short, and the nasal
aperture consequently of great extent ; gland-pits and
vacuities between the bones of the face moderate. Upper
molar teeth broad, low-crowned and approximating to those
of giraffes ; upper canines wanting or rudimentary. -Size
very large, and build heavy.

The lower. front teeth are shown in fig. 1, p. 2.

* Handbuch Naturgesch. ed. 6, p. 697; typified by the extinct
Cervus megaceros or Megaceros hibernictis.



230 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



ALCES ALOES.

Cervus alces, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758, ed. 12,
vol. i, p. 92, 1766 ; Schreber, Sdugthiere, pi. 246, 1783 ; F. Cuvier,
Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. ii, pi. 222, 1823; H. Smith, Griffith's
Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 72, 1827 ; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl.
Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 169, 1829 ; Caton, Antelope and Deer of
America, p. 69, 1877 ; Nehring, Tundren und Steppen, p. 107,
1890; Nitsche, Zool. Anz. vol. xiv, p. 181, 1891; Wolley, Big
Game Shooting (Badminton Libr.}, vol. i, p. 396, 1894.

Cervus alee, Boddaert, Elenchus Anim. vol. i, p. 135, 1785.

Cervus coronatus, Lesson, Man. Mamm. p. 356, 1827 ; H. Smith,
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 95, 1827.

Cervus (Alee) alces, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v,
p. 303, 1827.

Cervus (Alee) coronatus, H. Smith, op. cit. p. 304, 1827.

(?) Alces europaeus, Burnett, Quart. Journ. Sci. Lit. and Art, 1829,
p. 393.

Alces machlis, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p, 135; Gray, ibid.
1850, p. 224; Brooke, ibid. 1818, p. 916; Flower and Garson,
Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 316, 1884 ; Lydekker,
Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 78, 1885, Horns and Hoofs,
p. 319, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 52, pi. ii, 1898, Great and
Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 42, 1901 ; True, Proc. U.S. Nat.
Mus. vol. vii, p. 592, 1885; Floiver and Lydekker, Study of
Mammals, p. 326, 1891 ; Greve, Zool. Garten, vol. xxxv, p. 267,
1895 ; Leverkus-Leverkusen, Verli. Ver. Rheinland, vol. Iviii,
p. 11, 1902; Newton, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. lix, p. 80,
1903 ; Grant, Seventh Rep. Forest, Fish, and Game Commission,
p. 226, 1903; Millais, British Mammals, vol. iii, p. 8, 1906;
Winge, Danmark's Fauna, Pattedyr, p. 177, 1908 ; Ward, Records
of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 96, 1910, ed. 7, p. 96, 1914.

Alcelaphus alee, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgeschichte, p. 143, 1841.

Alces antiquorum, Rilppell, Verzeichniss Mus. Senckenberg, vol. iii,
p. 183, 1842.

Alces palmatus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mas. p. 182, 1843 ; Blasius,
Sdugeth. Deutschl. p. 434, 1857.

Alces alces, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 176,
1846 ; Lonnberg, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii, p. 352, Zool. Anz.
vol. xxviii, p. 448, 1905, Zool. Studier, vol. i, p 237, 1907;
Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 270, 1910 ; Kaponen,
Luonnon Ystciva, vol. xv, p. 206, 1911 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm.
West. Europe, p. 978, 1912.

Alces malchis, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 56, 1850, Cat. Ungulata
Brit. Mus. p. 386, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1872,
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 136, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat.
Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 255, 1862.

Alces jubata, Fitzinger, Naturgesch. Sciugetliiere, vol. iv, p. 86, 1860,
Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 521, 1875.

Alee alces, Gilpin, Mamm. Nova Scotia, p. 119, 1871 ; Pocock, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 958.



CEKYlKt: 231

Aloes lobata coronata, Fitzi tiger, Sitzbcr. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien

vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 528, 1874.
Paralces alces, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mas. Nat. vol. xvi, p. 160, 1902.




FIG. 35. PALATAL ASPECT OF SKULL OF ELK (Alces alces). % nat. size.

From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe.



232 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

ELK; MOOSE.

The distribution of this, the only species here recognised,
is co-extensive with that of the genus.

Largest of living deer, the height at the withers ranging
from about 5f to 6J feet. Antlers (fig. 36) with a short beam
and the palmation frequently so developed as to obliterate
almost all traces of the primitive form, with the exception
of a remnant of the cleft of the first fork, in other cases the
palmation comparatively slight or wanting ; coat long, coarse,
and rather brittle, longest about the neck; general colour
varying from yellowish grey to deep blackish brown, with
the shanks whitish, the forehead dark chestnut, and the face
below the eyes nearly black, but reddish grey near the
muzzle.

In winter the coat is darker than in summer, especially
when first assumed, the colour gradually fading till the
spring-change ; it is only in animals of the second or third
year that the winter coat attains its deepest sable, as it-
becomes gradually lighter each succeeding year, till in old
males it is more or less grizzly.

The races may be provisionally distinguished as follows :

A. Antlers either palmated or forked.

a. Shanks light A. a. alces.

b. Shanks apparently dark ; palmation of antlers

somewhat different A. a. bedfordice.

B. Antlers apparently always palmated.

a. Size smaller ; colour duller.

a'. Muffle triangular A. a. americanus.

b'. Muffle T-shaped A. a. columbce.

b. Size larger; colour richer A. a. gigas.

A. Alces alces alees.

Alces machlis typicus, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 99,
1910, ed. 7, p. 99, 1914.

Including :

Alces machlis uralensis, Matschie, Beroff. Instituts Jagdkunde,
vol. ii, p. 155, 1913 (South Urals).

Alces machlis meridionalis, Matschie, op. cit. p. 156, 1918 (Govern-
ment of Samara, Eussia).

ELK.

Typical locality Sweden.
Unless one or both of the two forms named by Matschie



CKI;\ i D.I: 233

are entitled to distinction, the range will include all northern
Europe and extend some way into northern Asia.

The antlers may be either broadly pahnated, or simply
forked.

703, c. Head, mounted. Eussia.

Presented by E. Caley, Esq.
703, d. Single antler. Udoholm, Sweden.

Presented ~by the Earl of Selkirk.

703, c. Antlers. Sweden. From a specimen formerly
in the Leverian Museum (Mus. Lev. pi. viii, 1792) ; mentioned
in Gray's 1843 list.

Presented by the Council of the Royal College of Surgeons.
58. 5. 4. 17. Skull, immature, female. Eussia.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858.
S2. r>. 25. 1. Skin, mounted. Swenigorod, near Moscow.

Purchased (Hoist), 1882.
82. 5. 25. 2. Skin, female, mounted. Same locality.

Same history.

3. 11. 21. 1-5. Five frontlets, showing the pahnated
type of antlers at different ages. Sweden.

Purchased, 1903.

3. 11. '21. 6-7. Two frontlets with antlers of the forked
type. Sweden. Purchased, 1903.

Of the following specimens the localities are unknown,
and their racial determination has consequently been found
impracticable:

703, a. Five antlers. No history.

703, b. Single antler. No history.

703, o. Antlers, young and deformed.

Presented by the Earl of Enniskillen.

50. 11. 22. 72 (703, h). Skeleton.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1850.

51. 1L 10. 3 (703, i). Skeleton, female.

Same history, 1851.

51. 1 1. 10. 4 (703, q). Skull and antlers. Same history.
51. 11. 10. 5 (703, r). Skull and antlers. Same history.



234 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



B. Alces alees bedfordise.

Alces bedfordiae, Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. i, p. .109;

Rothschild, ibid. vol. ii, p. 317 ; Lonnbcrg, ibid. p. 353 ; Elives,

ibid. 1903, vol. i, p. 147 ; Millais, Field, vol. cxviii, p. 113, 1911.
Alces machlis bedfordiae, Lydekker, A Trip to Pilawin, p. 85, 1908 ;

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 100, 1910, ed. 7, p. 100, 1914 ;

Millais, Field, vol. cxviii, p. 113, 1911.
(?) Alces machlis yakutskensis, Millais, Field, vol. cxviii, p. 113, 1911.

Typical locality Eastern (?) Siberia.

Typified by a specimen in which the antlers are of the
forked, non-palmate type. In other specimens they are
fully palmated, but apparently differ semewhat in form from
those of European elk. The Yakutsk elk has the head and
neck rich dark brown, and, in some instances at any rate,
dark brown shanks.

2. 3. 11. 1. Frontlet and antlers. East(?) Siberia.
Type. Presented ly J. Rowland Ward, Esq., 1902.

* * * *. Frontlet and antlers. East Siberia. No history.

C. Alces alces americanus.

Cervus americanus, Clinton, Letters on Nat. Hist. etc. p. 193, 1822 ;

nee Erxleben, 1777, vide supra, p. 155.
Alces americanus, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 125,

pi. v, 1835; Merrick, Mamm. Minnesota, p. 270, 1892; Elliot,

Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 38, 1901 ;

Osgood, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xv, p. 87, 1902 ;

Grant, 7th Rep. Forest, Fish, and Game Commission, p. 226,

1903 ; Stone and Cram, American Mammals, p. 43, 1903 ;

Brooks, Rep. New York Zool. Soc. vol. x, p. 201, 1906; Miller,

List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 391, 1912.

Cervus lobatus, Agassiz, Proc. Boston Soc. vol. ii, p. 188, 1846.
Alces muswa, Richardson, Zool. Herald, Mamm. p. 66, 1852.
Alces lobata, Fitzinger, Sitzber. Jc. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1,

p. 348, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 528, 1874.



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