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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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upper or lower ends ; * gall-bladder nearly always wanting ;
placenta with few cotyledons.

In all cases, with the possible exception of Moschus,
there are two pairs of teats, and inguinal glands are invari-
ably wanting. Face-glands are nearly always present
(absent in Capreolm) ; tarsal, metatarsal, and interdigital

* The term plesiometacarpalian is applied to those genera in
which the upper ends of the lateral metacarpals persist, and telemeta-
carpalian to those in which the reverse condition obtains.

IV. B



2 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

glands in the hind-feet may be present, and in the Virginian
deer there are also interdigital glands in the fore-feet.

In the Old World the range extends from the neighbour-
hood of the Arctic Circle southwards to the Mediterranean
islands, the extreme north-west of Africa, the Malay Archi-
pelago, and the Philippines : in the New World it includes
the entire mainland of North and South America. .The precise
eastern limits of the family in the Austro-Malay area cannot




FIG. 1. LOWER FRONT TEETH OF ELK (Alces alces).
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe.

be defined, owing to the transportation by the Malays of
species from one island to another.

The family is divisible into the two following subfamily
groups .:

A. Liver with a gall-bladder ; a caudal gland in male ; no

face-glands, foot-glands, or antlers Moschince.

B. Liver without a gall-bladder ; no caudal gland ; face-

glands,* foot-glands,f at least in hind-limbs, and

antlers J usually present Cervinw.



* Wanting in Capreolus.

f Wanting in Pudu.

^ Wanting in Hydrogotes,



CEKVIDvE



SUBFAMILY i. MOSCHIN^E.

Liver with a gall-bladder; in skull the canal situated
within margin of eye-sockets, and leading into nose-chamber,
with only a single orifice ; no face-glands or lachrymal pits
below eyes ; hemispheres of brain comparatively smooth,
with few convolutions ; antlers wanting ; no foot-glands,
but a large caudal and a preputial gland in males.

The distribution extends from Gilgit over a large area in
Central and North-eastern Asia, including Cochin China,
Amurland, and Korea. Following Fitzinger, Pocock regards
this group as of family rank (Moscliidce), a view which has
much to be said in its favour, as the single genus is in
several respects intermediate between the Bovidce and the
typical Cervidce.

I. Genus MOSCHUS.

Moschus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758, ed. 12, vol. i,
p. 91, 1766; Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 159 ; Garrod, ibid.
1877, p. 287 ; Rutimcyer, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 19,
1881 ; Elan ford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 551, 1891 ;
LydeJcJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 311, 1898; Pocock, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1910, p. 937.

Odontodorcas, Gistel, Naturgcsch. Thierreichs, p. 82, 1848.

Build stout and heavy, with the limbs, especially the
hind-pair, long and thick, and the rump elevated ; hair
coarse, thick, brittle, minutely waved, and in structure
resembling pith ; ears large ; upper canines greatly developed
in males, and projecting far below the level of the lips, in
females much smaller ; no tarsal or metatarsal glands or
tufts ; lateral metacarpals represented by their lower
extremities; main hoofs narrow and pointed, lateral hoofs
large and functional ; tail very short in males, terminating
in a tuft and glandular, in the females evenly haired
throughout ; naked portion of muzzle large and completely
surrounding nostrils.

Distribution co-extensive with that of subfamily.



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



MOSCHUS MOSCHIFERUS.

Moschus moschiferus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758,
ed. 12, vol. i, p. 91, 1766 ; Pallas, Spicil. Zool. fasc. xiii, p. 29,
pi. iv, 1780, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. p. 108, 1811 ; H. Smith,
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 61, vol. v, p. 307, 1827 ;
Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 63, List Mamm. Brit. Mus.
p. 172. 1843, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 244, 1852, Cat. Rumi-
nants Brit. Mus. p. 96, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus.
p. 166, 1873 ; Hutton, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. vi, p. 935,
1837 ; Hodgson, ibid. vol. xvi, p. 693, 1847, vol. xvii, pt. 2, p. 486,
1848 ; Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 328 ; Schrenk, Reis. u.
Forsch. Amurland, Sdugeth. p. 161, 1859 ; Radde, Reis. Slid-
Ost. Siber., Sdugeth. p. 274, 1862; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm.
Brit. Mus. p. 269, 1862 ; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc.
Bengal, p. 157, 1863 ; Milne-Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool.
ser. 4, vol. ii. p. 119, 1874, Rech. Mamm. p. 176, 1874 ; Jerdon,
Mamm. India, p. 266, 1867 ; Kinloch, Large Game Shooting,
p. 41, 1869 ; David, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vii, Bull. p. 75, 1871 ;
Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1872, p. 522 ; Flower, ibid. 1875, p. 159 ;
Przeivalski, Reise Mongolia, pp. 174 and 240, 1875; Garrod,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 287 ; Lydekker, Journ. Asiat. Soc.
Bengal, vol. xlvi, pt. 2, p. 286, 1877, Horns and Hoofs, p. 330,
1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 311, 1898, Great and Small Game of
India, etc. p. 247, 1900, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc.
p. 268, 1901, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 266, 1907, Cat.
Hume Bequest Brit. Mus. p. 40, 1913 ; Scully, Proc. Zool. Soc.
1881, p. 209; Forbes, ibid. 1882, p. 636; Flower and Garson,
Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 283, 1884 ; Sterndale,
Mamm. India, p. 494, 1884 ; Biiehner, Melanges Biol. vol. xiii,
p. 163, 1890 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 172,
1891 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 552, 1891 ;
Flower and- Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 314, 1891 ; Pousar-
gues, Mem. Soc. Zool. France, vol. xi, p. 189, 1898 ; Allen, Bull.
Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xix, p. 129, 1903 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm.
Field Mus. (Zool. Pub. Field Mus. vol. viii) p. 38, 1907 ; Ward,
Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 114, 1910, ed. 7, p. 112. 1914 ;
Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 937; Sulima, Nasa ochota,
St. Petersb. vol. xlviii, p. 40, 1910 ; Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc.
1911, p. 150; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 129,
1912 ; Aoki, Annot. Zool. Japon. vol. viii, p. 344, 1913 ; Dods-
worth, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxii, p. 748, 1914.

MUSK-DEER; KASTURA.

Typical locality " Tatary, approaching China."
Typically height at shoulder about 20 inches, at ruinp
2 inches more. General colour some shade of rich dark
brown, more or less mottled and speckled with light grey,
the individual hairs being white for about three-quarters of
their length, then with a white band, followed by a blackish
tip ; under-parts and inner side of limbs paler ; chin, inner



CERVIDJS 5

border of ears, and inside of thighs whitish; in some
instances a white spot on each side of the throat.

The following three forms have been recognised as
distinct :

A. Size larger ; feet and hoofs large.

a. Ears coloured like back M. m. moschiferus .

b. Ears largely or wholly black externally M. m. sifanicus.

B. Size smaller ; feet and hoofs small M. m. parvipes.

A. Moschus mosehiferus mosehiferus.

Moschus sibiricus, Pallas, Spicil. Zool. fasc. xiii, p. 29, 1780 ; Gray,

Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 243, 1852 ; Gerrard. Cat. Bones

Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 269, 1862.
Moschus altaicus, Eschscholtz, Isis, 1830, p. 606.
Moschus moschiferus altaicus, Brandt, Medicin. Zool. vol. ii, p. 347,

1833.
Moschus chrysogaster, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. viii,

p. 203, 1839 ; Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 245, 1852, Cat.

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 97, 1872 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm.

Brit. Mus. p. 269, 1862.
Moschus leucogaster, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. viii,

p. 203, 1839; Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 245, 1852,

Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 96, 1872.
Moschus saturatus, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. viii,

p. 203, 1839.
Odontodorcas moschiferus, Gistel, Naturgesch. Thierreichs, p. 82,

1848.
Moschus moschiferus fasciatus, Milne -Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool.

ser. 5, vol. ii, p. 119, 1864; Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 96, 1872.
Moschus moschiferus maculatus, Milne-Edivards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool.

ser. 5, vol. ii, p. 120, 1864 ; Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 96, 1872.
Moschus moschiferus concolor, Milne-Edivards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Zool.

ser. 5, vol. ii, p. 121, 1864 ; Gray, Cat. Ruminant* Brit. Mus.

p. 96, 1872.

Typical locality " Tatary, approaching China."
General characters those of the species ; ears relatively
short, coloured externally like back. 'Even in the Himalayan
area considerable individual or local variations in colour are
noticeable ; some examples being paler than ordinary, while
others tend to the development of a yellowish tinge, especially
on the under-parts, and yet others to blackish.

The name M. m. clirysogaster is available for the Himalayan
form, if, as is probable, this proves to be a distinct race.
Allen suggested that the Siberian form might be known as







CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



M. sibiricus, presumably on the supposition that the
Himalaya is the typical locality.

42. 4. 29. 75 (677, a). Skin, mounted, and skull
(42. 4. 29. 77). Siberia.

Presented by the St. Petersburg Academy, 1842.

42. 4. 29. 75 (67*7,6). Skin, mounted, and skull
(42. 4. 27. 78). Siberia. Same history.

43. 1. 12. 93. Skull and skin. Nepal. Type of
M. ehrysogaster. Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1843.

43.' 1. 12. 94 (678, 6). Skull. Nepal. Same history.

G78, a. Skull. Nepal. Same history.




FIG. 2. SKULL OF MUSK-DEER (Moschus moschiferus) .

43. 1. 12. 95. Skull and skin. Nepal. Type of
M. leucogaster. Same history.

43. 1. 12. 97 (676, i). Skull. Kachar. Type of
" M. ca'charcnsis." Same history.

43. 1. 12. 98 (676, j). Skull. Nepal. Type of
M. saturatus. Same history.

45. 1. 8. 327. Skin, immature, mounted. Nepal.

Same donor, 1845.

45. 1. 8. 356 (676, a). Skull. Nepal. Same history.

45. 1. 8. 357 (676,6). Skull. Nepal. Same history.

45. 1. 12. 458 (676, d). Skeleton. Nepal. Same history.

45. 1. 12. 449 (676, c). Skeleton. Nepal. Same history.

45. 1. 12. 555 (676, e). Skeleton. Nepal. Same history.



48. 6. 11. 26 (676, /). Skull. Sikhim.

Presented ly B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1848.

55. 1. 20. 9. Skin, mounted. Nepal.

Presented by H.H. Maharaja Dhuleep Singh, 1855.

56. 5. 6. 68 (676, h). Skull, immature. Kashmir ; col-
lected by W. Theobald, Esq.

Presented ly Dr. T. Oldham, 1856.
HO. 10. 1. 3 (676,0). Skull. Himalaya.

Purchased (Baker), 1856.

676, k. Skull, female. Himalaya (?). No history.

79. 11. 21. 254-5. Two skins. Locality unknown.

Transferred from the India Museum, 1879.
81. 3. 1. 4. Skin, young. Basal Gak, Gilgit ; collected
by Lieut.-Col. J. Biddulph, July, 1879.

Presented ly Dr. J. Scully, 1881.'
91. 8. 7. 221-2. Two skulls. Kashmir.

Presented ly A. 0. ffume, Esq., C.B., 1891.

91. 8. 7. 223. Skull. Garhwal. Same history.

91. 10. 7. 124. Skull. Sikhim; collected by L. Man-

delli, Esq. Presented ly Dr. W. T. Blanford, 1891.

91. 10. 7. 125. Skull, female. Same locality and

collector. Same history.

96. 9. 9. 1. Skin, mounted. Amurland ; collected by
Herr Dories. Purchased ( Ward), 1896.

97. 4. 3. 4. Skin, female, mounted. From an animal
formerly living in the park at Woburn Abbey.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1907.
8. 2. 29. 4. Skull and skin. Kishi JSTala, Garhwal.

Presented ly Dr. F. G. Longstaff, 1908.

12. 10. 31. 97. Skull. Garhwal. In this specimen,

which stands 7th in Ward's 1910 list, the length of the

exposed portion of the upper canine is 3 inches; the

maximum recorded length being 4 inches.

Bequeathed ly A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912.
12. 10. 31. 98. Skull. Himalaya. Same history.

B. Moschus moschiferus sifanicus.

Moschus sifanicus, Biichner, Melanges Biol. vol. xii, p. 162, 1890 ;
Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 315, 1898, Great and Small
Game of Europe, etc., p. 269, 1901 ; Pousargues, Mem. Soc. Zool.



8 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

France, vol. viii, p. 192, 1898 ; Allen, Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll.
vol. xl, p. 205, 1912 ; Wallace, Big Game of Central and Western
China, p. 146, 1913.

Typical locality Southern Kan-su, Western China.

Ears longer than in typical race, and, instead of being
similar to the back in colour, more or less completely black,
or black at the bases, with broad yellowish tips, and the
margins of the upper half with a blackish or brownish
band ; internally the margins covered with yellowish hair
showing a more or less decided rufous tinge. Skull more
massive, and longer in its anterior half; the nasals being
narrower, longer, and articulating with only a small portion
of the frontals.

I. 3. 2. 6. Skull and skin, female. Ichang, Central
China. May represent a distinct race.

Presented ly F. W. Styan, Esq., 1901.

3. 5. 15. 6. Skull and skin, immature. Sze-chuan,

Western China. Same donor, 1903.

II. 2. 1. 265. Skull and skin, female. N.W. of Tan-
chou, Kan-su ; collected by M..P. Anderson, Esq. Practically
a topo-type. Presented ~by the Duke of Bedford, JT.6r., 1911.

11. 9. 8. 144. Skull and skin. Wen-chwan-hsien, Si-ho
valley, western Sze-chuan ; same collector. Same history.

C. Moschus mosehiferus parvipes.

Moschus parvipes, Hollister, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxiv,
p. 1, 1911.

Typical locality Korea.

Smaller than preceding races, with more slender limbs
and smaller hoofs ; general colour rich and dark, and winter
coat relatively short.

97. 10. 3. 58. Body-skin. Korea; collected by Mr.
J. Kalinowski. Purchased, 1897.



SUBFAMILY ii. CERVINE.

Liver without gall-bladder; in skull the canal situated
within margin of eye-sockets, and leading into nose-chamber,
with two orifices; face-glands and lachrymal pits usually



CERVID.E 9

present ; * hemispheres of brain with numerous convo-
lutions ; antlers present, except in Hydropotcs ; foot-glands
usually present ; f no caudal or preputial glands.

The following is a "key," mainly based on external
characters, to genera here recognised :

A. Antlers absent in females ; muzzle with at least
a small bare muffle.

a. Upper canines tusk-like in males.

a 1 . Antlers wanting ; naviculo-cuboid and cunei-
form bones of tarsus separate Hydropotes.

6 1 . Antlers present, surmounting long pedicles
and relatively small ; naviculo-cuboid and
cuneiform bones of tarsus united.
a 2 . Antler-pedicles continued downwards as

prominent converging frontal ridges Muntiacus.

V. Antler-pedicles divergent, not continued

downwards as prominent frontal ridges Elaphodus.

b. Upper canines, when present, not tusk-like.

b l . Lateral metacarpals represented by their upper

extremities. J

6 2 . Antlers with a simple basal or sub-basal
brow-tine, and at least two other tines ;
tail short or medium.

6 3 . Antlers markedly palmate ; upper canines
wanting ; hoofs of hind-feet united only

at " heels " by a close fold of skin Dama.

c 3 . Antlers not markedly palmate ; upper
canines generally present || ; hind-hoofs
united nearly throughout their basal

depth by a deep interungual web Cervus.

e 2 . Antlers not forking till some distance above
base, and the front tine again forked ; tail

long Elaphurus.

c 1 . Lateral metacarpals represented by their lower

extremities.
c 2 . Vomer not dividing posterior aperture of

nostrils into two chambers.
c 3 . Antlers diverging at an angle of about 40
to mid frontal suture, 3-tined ; face-glands
wanting ; muzzle normal ; tail rudi-
mentary Capreolus.

d 3 . Antlers diverging nearly at right angles
to mid frontal suture ; many tined and
often palmate ; face-glands present ;
muzzle pendulous, with very small bare
muffle ; tail short Alces.



* Wanting in Capreolus and one species of P-ndn.

f Wanting in Pudu.

j Occasionally wanting.

See vol. i, p. 172.

|| Wanting in subgenus Hyelaplius, and occasionally Axis.



10 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

d* Vomer dividing posterior aperture of nostrils

into two distinct chambers.
d s . Naviculo- cuboid of tarsus free from cunei-
form.
d 4 . Metatarsal glands normally present,

tarsal glands always developed.
</'. Antlers normally complex, with sub-
basal snag, and front-prong of main
fork developed at expense of hind

one Odocoileus.

e 4 . Metatarsal glands wanting.

e r> . Antlers dichotomously forking, with-
out subbasal snag and with more

than two tines Blastocerns.

c r> . Antlers simply forked Hippocamelus.

e 7 . Antlers simple spikes Mazam a.

c ? \ Naviculo - cuboid of tarsus fused with
cuneiform. Antlers minute ; no meta-

tarsal, tarsal, or pedal glands Pudu.

B. Antlers present in females; muzzle completely

hairy.
Lateral metacarpals and vomer as in Odocoileus. ... Jlangifer.

II. Genus MUNTIACUS.

Muntiacus, Bafinesquc, Analyse de la Nature, p. 56, 1815.

Cervulus, Blainvitte, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1816, p. 77 ; Brooke, Proc.

Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 898 ; Riltimeyer, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges.

vol. viii, p. 23, 1881 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm.

p. 531. 1891; LydeMer. Deer of all Lands, p. 203, 1898;

PococJc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 952.

Muntjaccus, Gray, Thomson's Ann. Philos. vol. xxvi, p. 342, 1825.
Stylocerus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 319,

1827.

Prox, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 135.
Muntjacus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 173, 1843.

Small, high-rumped deer, with the lateral metacarpals
represented by their upper extremities (plesiometacarpalian
type), tusk-like upper canines, and small simple antlers,
consisting of a basal brow-tine and a beam, and surmounting
long bony pedicles, continued downwards as prominent
convergent ridges on the frontal region of the skull; in
females the pedicles represented by tufts of bristly hair and
small bony prominences. Suborbital face -glands large, a pair
of frontal glands of variable size on the inner sides of the
frontal ridges, and glands forming deep clefts on front of
hind-pasterns, but no tarsal or metatarsal glands or tufts ;
face long, with a large bare muffle extending up between the



CERVIDJE 11

nostrils, where its upper border is slightly convex; ears
rather small ; tail, long, thin, and pointed ; lateral hoofs
small, rudimentary, or wanting, and no bones of the lateral
digits retained ; coat uniformly coloured in adult, spotted
with white in young, at least in the more typical forms. In
the skull the lachrymal pits very large and deep, and the
unossified vacuities of moderate extent ; naviculo-cuboid of
tarsus fused with cuneiform.

The group is distributed all over the Indo-Malay
countries, as far east as Sumatra and Borneo, and the greater
part of China proper; occurring also in Formosa, but not
in Japan.

The species are distinguishable as follows :

A. Upper surface of tail chestnut or fulvous ; frontal

glands present.

a. Generally no nuchal stripe ; frontal glands larger ;
lachrymal pits smaller; backs of ears dusky or
yellow.

a'. Size larger; colour redder, backs of ears dusky M. muntjak.
b'. Size smaller ; colour more fulvous ; backs of

ears yellow, like forehead M. lacrymans.

1). Generally a nuchal stripe ; frontal glands smaller ;

lachrymal pits larger ; backs of ears blackish.
a". Size smaller ; colour redder ; lachrymal pits

slightly smaller than orbits M. rcevesi.

I". Size larger; colour browner and darker;
lachrymal pits as large as or rather larger
than orbits M. sincnsis.

B. Upper surface of tail black or blackish ; no frontal

glands.

a. Head not tufted ; tail shorter; size smaller M. fex.

b. Head tufted ; tail longer ; size larger M. crinifrons.

I. MUNTIACUS MUNTJAK.

Cervus muntjak, Zimmermann, Geogr. Geschichte, vol. ii, p. 131,
1780 ; Boddaert, Elenclius Anim. vol. i, p. 136, 1785 ; H. Smith,
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 144, 1827 ; F. Cuvier,
Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iv, pis. 418, 419, 1839.

Cervus muntjac, Gmelin, Linn.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 180, 1788 ; Kerr,
Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 307, 1793 ; Horsfield, Zool. Research.
Java, pt. vi, pi. xxxiii, 1823; /. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm.
p. 454, 1829; SyJces, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 104 ; Ogilby, Boyle's
Illustr. Bot. Himalaya, p. 72, 1839 ; Elliot, Madras Journ. vol. x,
p. 221, 1839 ; Miiller and Schlegel, Verh. Nederland. Ges. vol. i,
p. 225, 1840 ; Wagner, Schreber's Sdngthiere, Suppl. vol. v,
p. 388, 1855.



12 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Muntiacus muntjak, Rafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, p. 56, 1815.
(?) Cervulus subcornutus, Blainville, Bull. Soc. PJiilom. 1816, p. 77.

Cervus (Stylocerus) muntjak, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,

vol. v, p. 319, 1827.
(?) Cervus (Stylocerus) subcornutus, H. Smith, op. cit. p. 320,

1827.
Stylocerus muntjak, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii,

p. 185, 1835.

(?) Stylocerus subcornutus, Jar dine, loc. cit. 1835.
Prox moschatus, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 136.

Prox muntjac, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 85 ;
Fitzinger, Sitzber. Jc. Ale. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviid, pt. 1, p. 362,
1872, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 41, 1879.

Cervulus muntjac, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 38, 1878, p. 899 ;
Anderson, Zool. Results Yunnan Exped. p. 337, 1878 ; Sterndale,
Mamm. India, p. 500, 1884; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol.
Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 286, 1884; W. L. Sclater, Cat.
Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 173, 1891 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit.
India, Mamm. p. 552, 1891 ; Flower and Lydekker, Study of
Mammals, p. 317, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 314,
1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 203, 1898, Great and Small Game of
India, etc. p. 238, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 257, 1907,
Cat. Hume Bequest, Brit. Mus. p. 40, 1913 ; Percy, Big Game
Shooting (Badminton Libr.), vol. ii, p. 268, 1894; Jentink and
Biittikofer, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. xix, p. 63, 1897 ; Holding,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1899, p. 295; Finn, ibid. 1903, vol. ii, p. 2;
Manners- Smith, Journ. Bombay Asiat. Soc. vol. xvii, p. 237,
1906 ; Comber, ibid. vol. xviii, p. 490, 1908 ; Ward, Records of
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 80, 1910, ed. 7, p. 80, 1914 ; Pocock, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 952.

Muntiacus muntjac, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (Field Mus. Zool.
Pub. vol. viii) p. 38, 1907 ; Thomas and Wroughton, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1909, p. 392; Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nation. Mus. vol. xl, p. 73,
1911.

Typical locality Java.

The type species.

Size relatively large, the shoulder-height ranging from
about 20 to 22 inches ; ears narrow and pointed ; crown not
tufted; frontal glands large; tail relatively short (about
7 inches) ; colour ranging from chestnut-red (deep rufous)
to orange-tawny, with a brown or black streak down the
front of each antler-pedicle, and in a corresponding position
in females, a pale crown-patch, and a grizzled nuchal area ;
insides of ears, chin, upper part of throat, buttocks, inner
sides of thighs, inner surfaces of fore-legs to knees, and
under side of tail white ; lateral hoofs very small ; lachrymal
pits occupying only lower half of lachrymal bone.



CKKVID/K



13



The ran-v, includes India, Burma, I he, Malay reniusula,
Sium, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, etc.




FIG. 3. HEAD OF INDIAN MUNTJAC (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis).
From a photograph lent by the Bombay Natural History Society.

Our knowledge of several of the races is too imperfect to
admit of the drawing up of a satisfactory and trust worthy "key."



14



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



A. Muntiacus muntjak muntjak.

Muntjacus vaginalis, Horsfield, Zool. Research. Java, figs, a and 6,

1824 ; nee Cervus vaginalis, Boddaert.
Cervulus vaginalis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 234, Ann. Mag.

Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. v, p. 425, 1850, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus.

p. 217, 1852; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 263,

1862 ; nee Cervus vaginalis, Boddaert.
Cervulus muntjac typicus, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 80,

1910, ed. 7, p. 80, 1914.

MUNTJAC ; KAKAR ; BARKING DEER ; KIB-FACED DEER.




FIG. 4. SKULL AND ANTLERS OP MUNTJAC (Muntiacus muntjak).

Typical locality Java.

Size large (length of hind-foot 11-fg inches); general
colour very dark rufous, without light rings to the hairs,
so that there is no speckling; antlers larger than in any
other race, the maximum recorded length being lOf inches.
Basal length of skull 8 inches, of female 7| inches.



CERVID/E 15

9. 1. 5. 854. Skin. Pangandaran, Dirk de Vries Bay,
Java ; collected by G. C. Shortridge, Esq.

Presented ly W. E. Balston, Esq., 1909.

9. 1. 5. 855. Skull and skin, female. Same locality and
collector. Same history.

9. 1. 5. 1124. Frontlet and antlers, the latter very large.
Same locality and collector. Same history.

9. 1. 5. 1125. A similar specimen, but with smaller
antlers. Same locality and collector. Same history.

10. 4. 6. 71. Frontlet and antlers. Kaugean Island, east
of Java ; same collector. Presented by 0. Thomas, Esq., 1910.



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 2 of 36)