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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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Alee americanus, Merriam, Mammals of Adirondack, p. 138, 1884,

N. Amer. Fauna, no. 5, p. 79, 1891 ; Miller, Proc. Boston Soc.

vol. xxviii, p. 40, 1897.
Alces machlis americanus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of

Europe, etc. p. 46, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,

p. 97, 1910, ed. 7, p. 97, 1914.
Paralces americanus, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi,

p. 160, 1902.

MOOSE.

Typical locality eastern North America.

Stated to be larger and darker than the typical European



elk, with somewhat more complex antlers, which are
apparently always of the palinated type.



FIG. 36. SIDE VIEW OF HEAD OP AMERICAN ELK, OB MOOSE

(Alecs alecs americanus).
From a specimen in the possession of Mr. J. K. Paisley, of Ottawa.

703, a. Skin, female, mounted. North America.

Presented by the Earl of Derby, about 1845.
52. 6. 25. 1 and 3. Antlers. St. John's, Newfoundland.

Purchased (Argent), 1852.



236 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

79. 1. 27. 1. Skin, mounted. Labrador.

Purchased (Gerrard), 1879.

89. o. 4. 1. Skeleton, with antlers, mounted. North

America, Purchased (Gerrard, who acquired it from

H. Ward of Rochester, U.S.A.), 1889.




FIG. 87. MUZZLE OF AMERICAN ELK (Alces alces amcricanua),
showing triangular muffle.

6. 10. 2o. 1. Head, mounted. Canada.

Presented 'by Frank Hutt, Esq., 190G.
9. 11. 10. 1. Skull and antlers. North America.

Presented by Eev. E. J. May, 1909.



D, Alces alees columbae.

Alces columbae, Lydekker, Field, vol. cix, p. 182, 1907, Zool. Record,
vol. xliv, Mamm. p. 69, 1907 ; Miller, List. N. Amcr. Mamm.
p, 391, 1912.

Typical locality Ontario (not, as stated in original
description, British Columbia).

Type in the collection of Capt. E. C. Hamilton.



A provisional race, characterised by the muffle being
T-shaped (fig. 38), in place of triangular (fig. 37).
No specimen in collection.




FIG. 3ft. MUZZLE OF ONTARIO ELK (Alces alces colwnbw),

showing T-shaped muffle.
From the type specimen, in the collection of Capt. E. C. Hamilton.



E. Alces alees gigas.

Alces gigas, Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiii, p. 57, 1899,

List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 391, 1912.
Alces machlis gigas, LydekJcer, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc.

p. 49, 1901 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 97, 1910,

ed. 7, p. 97, 1914.
Paralces gigas, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xvi, p. 160, 1902.

Typical locality Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Larger and more richly coloured than A. a. americanus,
with the occipital region of the skull narrower, the palate
wider, and the lower jaw stouter. General colour grizzled
black and wood-brown, darker on spine, clear black on chest,
flanks, and buttocks, and hair-brown on middle line of
under surface ; head more finely grizzled than back ; ears
broccoli-brown externally, yellowish white internally ; limbs
hair-brown or broccoli-brown, with darker shading.



238 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

3. 12. 28. 1. Head, mounted. Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.
Presented by D. Davics, Esq., 1903.
7. ]. 16. 1. Skin, mounted. Alaska.

Presented by the Hon. Walter Rothschild, 1907.




FIG. 39. FRONT VIEW OF HEAD OF ALASKAN ELK, OR MOOSE
(Alces alecs gigcts).



XIV. Genus RANGIFER.

Rangifer, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 8, vol. v,
p. 304, 1827 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 927 ; Riitimeyer,
Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. vii, p. 51, 1881 ; LydeJcker, Deer of
All Lands, p. 33, 1898; Grant, 7th Hep. N. York Zool. Soc.
p. 1, 1902 ; Pococlc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 961 ; Miller, Cat.
Mamm. West. Europe, p. 979, 1912.

Tarandus, Billberg, Synop. Faunae Scandinav. vol. i, p. 22, 1827 ;
Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18B6, p. 134.

Procerus, M. de Serres, Cavernes a Ossements, ed. 3, p. 143, 1838.

Procervus, Blainville, C. R. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xi, p. 392, 1840.

Achlis, Reichenbach, Saugethierc, vol. iii, p. 12, 1845.

The range includes the northern forests and tundra of
both eastern and western hemispheres, extending in the
former as far north as Spitsbergen and perhaps Novaya
Zemlya, and southwards to central Eussia. In America as



239

far south as northern Columbia, north side of Lake Superior,
and New Brunswick.

Lateral nietacarpals and vomer as in Odocoileus ; a
pocket-like gland on front of hind-pasterns only ; antlers
large, complex, and situated high up on skull, usually
present in both sexes, generally with some of the tines
palmated, often unsymmetrically, and an " elbow " near the
middle of the beam, behind which is a back- tine, those of
females simpler and generally smaller ; coat unspotted at all
ages ; ears and tail short ; throat fringed ; main hoofs short
and rounded, lateral hoofs large ; large face-glands and tarsal
glands, but no metatarsal glands. In the skull (in addition
to the high vomer) the gland-pits shallow and ill-defined, the
lachrymal vacuities relatively large, the nasals well developed
and expanded superiorly; upper canines present in both
sexes ; lower incisors (fig. 40) small and forming a nearly
even and equal-sized series; cheek-teeth small and low-
crowned, with the hind (third) lobe of the last lower molars
aborted. Size medium or large.

BANGIFER TARANDUS.

Cervus tarandus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 67, 1758, ed. 12,

vol. i, p. 93, 1766 ; F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. ii, pis. 223,

224, 1821 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 83,

1827 ; Lesson, Nouv. Tdbl. Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 169, 1829 ;

Caton, Antelope and Deer of America, p. 86, 1877; Nehring,

Tundren and Steppen, p. 108, 1890.
Cervus tarandus, a rangifer, Gmelin, Linn. 1 8 Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 177,

1789.

Cervus guettardi, Desmarest, Mammalogic, vol. ii, p. 447, 1822.
Tarandus lapponum, Billberg, Synop. Fauna Scandinav. vol. i,

p. 20, 1827.
Cervus (Bangifer) tarandus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,

vol. v, p. 304, 1827.

Cervus tarandus schottingi, Sternberg, Isis, 1828, p. 482.
Tarandus rangifer, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 134 ; Gray, ibid.

1850, p. 225, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mm. p. 189, 1852, Cat.

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit.

Mus. p. 137, 1873; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.

p. 255, 1862; Fitzingcr, Sitzbcr. fr. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixix,

pt. 1, p. 534, 1874.
Tarandus borealis, Riippell, Verzeichniss Mus. Senc/cenberg. vol. iii,

p. 183, 1842.
Eangifer tarandus, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 133,

pi. vi, 1835 ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 181, 1843 ; Brooke,



240 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 928 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol.
Mus. E. Coll. Surg. pi. ii, p. 312, 1884 ; Flower and Lydekker,
Study of Mammals, p. 325, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs,
p. 326, 1893, British Mammals, p. 253, 1935, Deer of All
Lands, p. 33, pi. i, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc.
p. 24, 1901 ; Scharff, Proc. R. Irish Ac. ser. 3, vol. iv, 473,
1897, European Animals, p. 110, 1907 ; Grant, 1th Rep. New
York Zool. Soc. p. 4, 1902 ; Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.
vol. xix, p. 125, 1903; Winge, Danmarks Fauna, Pattedyr,
p. 179, 1908 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 960 ; Trouessart,
Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 231, 1910; Ward, Records of Big
Game, eel. 6, p. 83, 1910, ed. 7, p. 83, 1914; Miller, Cat. Mamm.
West. Europe, p. 980, 1912.

Tarandus furcifer, Baird, Rep. Comm. Patents, 1851, vol. ii, Agric.
p. 109, 1852.

REINDEER; CARIBOU.

Typical locality mountains of Swedish Lapland.
A variable and widely-spread species, of which most of
the characters are the same as those of the genus. Coat




FIG. 40. LOWER FRONT TESTH OF REINDEER

(Rangifer tarandus).
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe.

dense and compact ; general colour varying from clove-
brown, with more or less white or whitish grey on under-
parts, inner surfaces of limbs, above the hoofs, and on the
muzzle, and in some cases whitish rings round the eyes, to
nearly white on the one hand and to blackish brown on the
other ; typically a white area in the region of the tail, which
includes the sides but not the upper surface of the latter,
and the tarsal tuft generally white. The antlers are smooth,
and brownish white in colour, but the hoofs are jet black.
A height of 4 feet 10 inches at the shoulder has been
recorded in the Newfoundland race.

The range is co-extensive with that of the genus.



CERVID^l 241

It is not at present possible to give a trustworthy " key "

to the various races. The European and West Asiatic

(exclusive of Novaya Zemlyan) races are distinguishable
as follows :

A. Size smaller, upper length of skull less than

Scinches (225 mm.) R. t. platyrlnjnclius.

B. Size larger, upper length of skull ranging

from about lOf (270 mm.) to 11 inches

(300 mm.).
a. Upper length of skull from about lOf to

llf inches E. t. tarandus.

I. Upper length of skull about 11 inches B. t. fennicus.

East Asiatic (including Novaya Zemlyan) and American
races fall into two groups, in the first of which (A) the
antlers are short with no tineless interval on the beam, and
most of the tines much palmated, while in the second (B) the
antlers are of great length, with a long tineless interval on
the beam, and the tines themselves not greatly palmated
Intermediate forms tend to connect the extreme types.

A. Woodland Group.

R. t. sibiricnft. R. t. trrrwnovv.

P. t. pearsoni. R. t. montaniis.

R. t. phyllarcJtux. R. t. dawsoni.

R. t. caribou. R. t. stonei*

R. t. sylvestris. (?) R. t. fortidens*

B. Barren-Group Group.

R. t. osborni. R. t. arcticus.

R. t. granti. R. t. grcenlandiciifi.

R. t. excelsifrons. R. t.pearri.



A. Rangifer tarandus tarandus.

andus typicus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 33, 1898 ;
Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 84, 1910, ed. 7, p. 84,



1914.

Rangifer tarandus var. cylindricornis, Camerano, Mem. R. Ace. Sci.
Torino, ser. 2, vol. li, p. 167, 1902.

REINDEER.

Typical locality the mountains of Swedish Lapland.
Size relatively small, with subcylindrical antlers of an

* Intermediate types.
IV. K



242 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

elongated type, with both basal-tines frequently palniated
and nearly symmetrical, and a small back-tine; those of
females small ; general colour greyish or drab brown, passing
into buffish white on muzzle and under-parts ; a longitudinal
darker area on sides of body ; tail buffish white with a dark
median line.

The distribution formerly included the whole of the
mountainous tract of the Scandinavian Peninsula, but is
now restricted in the wild state to two widely separated
districts in Norway, namely, west Finmark in the north,
and the main high mountain region in the south. The race
is domesticated throughout Scandinavian Lapland and parts
of Eussia.

44. 9, 26. 1. Skin, young, mounted. From an animal
bred in England ; provisionally referred to this race.

Presented ly Sir J. M. Wilson, 1844.

46. 6. 10. 1 (702, a). Skeleton, with antlers. Locality
unknown ; reference provisional. Same donor, 1846.

68. 12. 29. 11 (702, c 2 ). Skeleton, with antlers, mounted.
Northern Europe. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1868.

75. 10. 30. 1 (702, d l ). Skull and skin, female. Fillefjeld,
Norway. Presented ly J. C. Ingram, Esq., 1875.

79. 10. 9. 1 (702, g l ). Skin, mounted, and skeleton.
Same locality. Same donor, 1879.

81. 9. 28. 1 (702, t 2 ). Skeleton and antlers. Same
locality. Presented ly Sir W. J. Ingram, Bart., 1881.

81. 9. 28. 2 (702, /). Skin, mounted, and skeleton.
Same locality. Same history.

83. 7. 28. 1 (702, k l ). Skull, with antlers, and skin,
female. Norway. Presented ly J. C. Ingram, Esq., 1883.

83*. 7. 28. 2 (702, P). Skull and skin, young female.
Norway. Same history.

87. 9. 20. 1. Skin, mounted. Loerdal Mountains, Sogne
Fjord, Norway. Presented ly Sir W.'J. Ingram, Bart., 1887.

87. 9. 20. 2. Antlers, female. Same locality.

Same history.

87. 9. 20. 3. Antlers. Same locality. Same history.



CERVID.K 243



B. Rangifer tarandus fennicus.

Rangifer tarandus fennicus, Lonnberg, ArJciv Zool. vol. vi, no. 4,
p. 10, 1909; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 84, 1910,
ed. 7, p. 84, 1914.

Rangifer fennicus, Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 981, 1912.

Typical locality Tornea, Lappmark, Finland.

The range is probably now restricted to the wooded
portions of Finland, eastward to the Kola Peninsula, but
seems to have formerly extended westwards into the wooded
portion of northern Sweden where this race may be repre-
sented by the large woodland breed of tame reindeer found
in certain districts.

Type in the Eoyal Swedish Museum of Natural History.

Size larger than in ft. t. tarandus ; skull with the nasal
bones narrow and highly arched, and the teeth relatively
small, the length of the upper series of cheek-teeth being
about 3| inches (85 mm.), and that of the lower series
about 3-^g- inches (90 mm.).

No specimen in collection.

C. Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus.

Cervus (Tarandus) platyrhynchus, VroliJc, Nieuwe Verhandl. Kron.

Nederl. Inst., Eerste Klasse, pt. 2, p. 160, 1829.
Cervus tarandus, forma spetsbergensis, Andersen, Ofvers. Vet.-Ak.

Forhandl. vol. xix, p. 457, 1862; Nitsche, Jahresb. Ver. nat.

Wiirtt. 1893, p. 111.
[Rangifer arcticus] , var. spitzbergensis, Murray, Geogr. Distrib.

Mamm. p. 154, 1866.
Rangifer tarandus spetzbergensis, LydcJcJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 41,

1898.
Rangifer spitzbergensis, Camerano, Mem. Ace. Sci. Torino, ser. 2,

vol. li, p. 159, 1902; Grant, 1th Rep. New York Zool. Soc.

p. 1902 ; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 232, 1910.
Rangifer platyrhynchus, Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 985,

1912.

Typical locality Spitsbergen, to which island this race is
confined.

Size considerably less than in the typical race ; nasal
bones of skull with the profile little arched, and the two
extremities expanded and the middle portion constricted;
cheek-teeth relatively as large as in the typical race.

n 2



244 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

90. 12. 4. 3. Antlers, female. Spitsbergen.

Presented by Dr. E. McCormick, 1890.
90. 12. 4. 8. Antlers. Spitsbergen. Same history.

96. 9. 23. 1. Skull and antlers. Spitsbergen. Noticed
in Deer of All Lands, p. 41.

Presented by Dr. J. W. Gregory, 1896.

D. Rangifer tarandus sibirieus.

Cervus sibirieus, Schreber, Saugthiere, pi. 248, C, 1784.

[Eangifer arcticus] , var. sibirieus, Murray, Geogr. Distrib. Mamm.

p. 153, 1866.
Rangifer tarandus sibirieus, LydekJcer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii,

p. 361 ; Lonnberg, Arlciv Zool. vol. vi, no. 4, p. 17, 1909 ; Ward,

Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 84, 1910, ed. 7, p. 84, 1914;

Hollister, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. Ivi, no. 35.

Typical locality Siberia.

Antlers approximating to those of E. t. caribou {infra),
but with less palmation of the basal tines; much smaller
than R. t. phyllarchus.

702, h. Frontlet and antlers. Probably Siberian.

No history.
52. 12. 9. 4. Skull and antlers. Probably Siberian.

Purchased (Brandt), 1852.

78. 12. 21. 30. Antlers, in velvet. Salair, Altai;

collected by Dr. 0. Finsch. By exchange with the

Geographical Society of Bremen, 1878.

E. Rangifer tarandus pearsoni.

Rangifer tarandus pearsoni, Lydelcker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii,
p. 361 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 84, 1910, ed. 7,
p. 84, 1914.

Typical (and only) locality Novaya Zemlya.

Type in possession of H. J. Pearson, Esq., Bramcote,
Nottinghamshire.

Distinguished from other Old World races by the
symmetry of the antlers (fig. 40), and the excessive palmation
of the basal and second tines and summits ; the whole antler
approximating to the R. t. caribou type.

No specimen in collection.



OERVID^



245




FIG. 41. SIDE VIEW OF SKULL AND ANTLERS OF NOVAYA ZEMLYAN
REINDEER (Rangifer tar andus pear soni}.



F. Rangifer tarandus phylarehus.

Eangifer phylarchus, Hollister, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. Ivi,
no. 35, p. 6, 1912.

Typical locality Kamchatka.
Type in U.S. National Museum.

Described from a skull (without antlers), measuring
inches (387 mm.), against 14 J inches (357 mm.) in a



240 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

skull of E. t.fennicus, and thus indicating a race larger than
of the other Old World forms, and probably related to the
American R. t. caribou.

No specimen in collection.

G. Ranglfer tarandus caribou.

Cervus tarandus caribou, Gmelin, Linn's Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 177, 1788.
Cervus hastalis, Agassig, Sillimaris Journ. 1847, p. 436.

Kangifer caribou, Audubon and Bachman, Quadrupeds N. Amer.
vol. iii, p. Ill, 1853; Baird, N. Amer. Mamm. p. 633, 1857;
J. A. Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. viii, p. 234, 1896 ;
Miller, Proc. Boston Soc. vol. xxviii, p. 40, 1897 ; Elliot, Synop.
Mamm. N. Amer. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. ii) p. 35, 1901,
Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (op. cit. vol. viii, p. 40, 1907) ; Grant,
1th Eep. New York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902; Stone and Cram,
American Animals, p. 47, 1903.

Tarandus hasfcalis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. 7c. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii,
pt. 1, p. 349, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 542, 1874.

Rangifer tarandus caribou, True, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. vii,
p. 592, 1885 ; Lydehker, Deer of All Lands, p. 42, 1898, Great
and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 29, 1901 ; PococJc, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 960 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 84, 1910, ed. 7, p. 84, 1914.

Rangifer caribou caribou, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 392,
1912.

CARIBOU, or WOODLAND CARIBOU.

Typical locality Eastern Canada.

A large-sized race, with the antlers stout, flattened, much
palmated, and not of excessive length, one of the brow-tines
being much expanded, while the other is simple; the bez-
tine is also more palmated than in the Scandinavian reindeer,
and the back-tine well developed. Female antlers are
proportionately smaller than in the typical race. General
colour much darker than in the Newfoundland race (p. 248),
the dark area extending over the anterior half of the lower
surface of the body; and, except the extremity of the
upper lip, the muzzle as dark as the face, no light ring
round the eye; on the limbs the white restricted to a
sharply-defined band of about half-an-inch in width above
the hoofs, but ascending behind to enclose the lateral hoofs ;
lower incisors diminishing gradually in size from middle to
outer pair.



247

702, l>. Head, mounted, with the aiitlers in velvet
(fig. 42). Arctic America.

Presented by the Hudson Bay Co., about 1850.




FIG. 42. FRONT VIEW OF HEAD OF WOODLAND CARIBOU (Rangifer
tarandus caribou), wilh the antlers in "velvet."

702, c 1 . Skull and antlers. North America ; collected
by Sir John Franklin. Purchased (?).



248 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

702, /. Antlers, female. North America ; same collector.

Same history.

702, d. Skull and antlers. North America. No history.
46. 3. 13. 1. Skull and antlers. North America.

Purchased (Argent), 1846.

46. 8. 19. 7. Front of skull and antlers. Green Pond,

Nova Scotia ; collected by Mr. J. Florence ; figured in Deer

of All Lands, p. 43. Purchased, 1846.

65. 10. 24. 6 (702, y). Skull and antlers, female. North

America. Presented by A. Murray, Esq., 1865.

65. 10. 24. 8 (702, a 2 ). Skull and antlers. North

America. Same history.

3. 2. 15. 2. Skin, mounted. Canada.

Presented by the Dominion Government, 1903.

H. Ranglfer tarandus sylvestris.

Cervus tarandus, var. sylvestris, Richardson, Fauna Bor.-Amcr.

p. 251, 1829.
Rangifer caribou sylvestris, Hollister, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol.

Ivi, no. 35, p. 4, 1912 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 392,

1912.

Typical locality south-west shore of Hudson Bay.

Closely allied to last, but regarded by Hollister as
entitled to distinction, the skull being longer and more
slender, with a narrower rostrum, longer nasals, and larger
cheek-teeth ; neck, especially the sides, and head darker,
and the ears much darker, with the hairs, like those of the
sides of the neck, brown to the roots.

No specimen in collection.

I. Rangifer tarandus terraenovse.

Rangifer terrsenovae, Bangs, Descript. Newfoundland Caribou, 1896 ;
Allen, Butt. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. viii, p. 233, 1896;
Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Zool. Pub. Field Mus. vol. ii)
p. 36, 1901, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (op. cit. vol. viii) p. 40,
1907 ; Grant, 7th Rep. New York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902 ; Stone
and Cram, American Animals, p. 51, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer.
Mamm. p. 393, 1912 ; Dugmore, The Newfoundland Caribou,
p. 120, 1913.

Rangifer tarandus terraenovse, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.
vol. viii, p. 235, 1896 ; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 45,
1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 31, 1901 ;
Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 85, 1910, vol. xiv, p. 85,
1914.



CEKVIDJ-; 249

Typical (and only) locality Newfoundland.

Nearly allied to R. t. caribou, the bodily size being large,
and the antlers massive and much palmated, with numerous
points on all the branches and especially on the hind border
of the beam. General colour in autumn greyish brown,
becoming lighter on the flanks, and passing into nearly pure
white on the under surface ; neck dirty white, somewhat
purer in front; a broad, ill-defined light ring round each
eye, and muzzle and lower portion of the face, as well as
extremity of lower jaw, greyish white ; rest of head like
back ; edges and lower surface of tail and buttocks white ;
front and outer surfaces of limbs brownish grey; feet and
terminal third of shanks white, passing gradually into the
general colour of the limbs above. Females show rather
less white ; and the young are still darker, with a dusky
line on the flanks, and a blackish streak running down the
back and expanding over the shoulders.

99. 2. 1. 1. Head, mounted. West Newfoundland.

Presented ly Lieut. W. G. P. Graves, R.N., 1899.

7. 3. 11. 2. Skin, mounted. Newfoundland.

Presented ly F. C. Selous, Esq., 1907.

8. 1. 19. 1. Skull and antlers. Newfoundland.

Presented ly St. George Littledale, Esq., 1908.

J. Rangifer tarandus montanus.

Bangifer montanus, Seton-Thompson, Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xiii,

p. 129, 1899 ; Elliot, Sijnop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Field Mus. Zool.

Pub. vol. ii) p. 36, 1901, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (op. cit.

vol. viii) p. 40, 1907 ; Grant, 7th Rep. New York Zool. Soc. p. 5,

1902 ; Stone and Cram, American Animals, p. 51, 1903 ; Miller,

List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 393, 1912.
Kangifer tarandus montanus, LydehJcer, Great and Small Game of

Europe, etc. p. 33, 1901, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii, p. 361 ;

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 85, 1910, ed. 7, p. 85,

1914.

Typical locality Selkirk Range, British Columbia.

Antlers (fig. 43) of the general type of those of the wood-
land race, but in their relative shortness and much branched
character recalling those of R. t. terrcenovw, although lighter
and more slender ; the most distinctive feature of this
race is the dark colour of the autumn coat, which is



250 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

blackish brown all over the body and limbs, passing in some
individuals into glossy black on the middle of the back from
the withers to the rump, the shoulders, flanks, and under-




FIG. 43. SIDE VIEW OF SKULL AND ANTLERS OF MOUNTAIN CARIBOU

(Rangifer tarandus montanus), to show " Woodland " type of antlers.

From "7th Rep. N. York Zool. Soc.

parts being lighter and the neck grey. Females are much
darker than males, especially on the neck and shoulders,
but have the light ring above the hoofs, the nose and the
edges of the lips pure white instead of grey. This race may



CERVID/K 251

be diagnosed as a black caribou of the woodland type, with
the neck and shoulders, especially in males, much lighter
than the body and limbs. In general form it comes
very close to R. t. stonei, in which, however, the antlers
approach the Barren-Ground type, while the colour is different.
No specimen in collection.

K. Rangifer tarandus dawsoni.

Rangifer dawsoni, Seton- Thompson, Ottaiva Naturalist, vol. xiii,
p. 260, 1900 ; Elliot, Synop. Mamm. N. Amer. (Field Mus. Zool.
Pub. vol. ii) p. 86, 1901 ; Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 392,
1912.

Typical locality Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Group.
Size smaller ; colour relatively dark, but lighter than in
R. t. montanus, the general tint being mouse-colour.
No specimen in collection.

L. Rangifer tarandus stonei.

Eangifer stonei, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xiv, p. 143,
1901 ; Grant, 1th Eep. Neiv York Zool. Soc. p. 5, 1902 ; Stone
and Cram, American Animals, p. 51, 1903 ; Miller, List N. Amer.
Mamm. p. 393, 1912.

Eangifer tarandus stonei, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of
Europe, etc. p. 36, 1901* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1902, vol. ii, p. 361 ;



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