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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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or Tierra-del-Fuego during the voyage of H.M.S. " Beagle."

Presented ~by C. E. Darwin, Esq.

44. 10. 7. 34 (674, I). Skull. Chile ; collected by Mr.

T. Bridges. Figured in Gray's Catalogue of Ungulata,

pi. xxiv, 1852. Purchased, 1844.

46. 1. 22. 4. Skin, young, mounted. Locality unknown.

Purchased ( Warwick), 1846.

54. 5. 11. 2. Skin, young, mounted. Locality unknown.

Purchased (Baker), 1854.



304 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

55. 7. 3. 1. Skin, young. Locality unknown.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1855.
90. 2. 20. 15. Skull. Fox Point, Falkland Islands;
collected during the voyage of H.M.S. " Challenger."

Presented "by the Government, 1890.

99. 2.. 22. 12. Skin, female. Province of Buenos Aires.
Presented ~by the La Plata Museum, 1899.
2.1.1.111. Head-skin, female. Choquecamati, Bolivia ;
collected by Mr. P. 0. Simons.

Presented ly 0. Thomas, Esq., 1902.
2. 10. 16. 1. Skin, mounted. Patagonia.

Presented ly the Zoological Society, 1902.

B. Lama glama caesilensis.

Lama huanachus caesilensis, Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. viii, no. 19,
p. 8, 1913.

Typical locality Cacsile, Nunoa, Peru.
Type in Eoyal Swedish Museum of Natural History.
Considerably smaller than preceding race, the basicranial
length being 9| inches (244 mm.) in the type specimen.
No example in collection.



II. LAMA VICUGNA.

Camelus vicugna, Molina, Saggio Storia Nat. Chile, p. 313, 1782;

H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 58, 1827.
Auchenia vicugna, Illiger, Abh. Ak. Sci. Berlin, 1811, p. 108, 1815 ;

H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 300, 1827;

Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii,

p. 334, 1884 ; Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 300,

1901.
Llama vicugna, Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 256, 1852, Cat.

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 101, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit.

Mus. p. 170, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.

p. 272, 1862.
Lama vicugna, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1891, p. 387 ; Lydekker,

Great and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 378, 1901 ; Elliot, Cat.

Mamm. Field Mus. (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 37, 1907 ;

Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. viii, no. 19, p. 3, 1913.

VICUGNA.

Typical locality probably Peru, whence the range extends
to southern Ecuador and central Bolivia.

Size about one-fourth less than that of L. g. huanacus



CAMEL1D.E 305

(shoulder-height about 2 feet 9 inches ; basicranial length
about 8-j-J inches = 220 nim.) ; build more slender ; head
shorter ; colour lighter, without black on face ; no bare
callosities on limbs.

46. 7. 28. 20 (675, b). Skin, mounted, and skin, female.
Bolivia; collected by Mr. T. Bridges. Purchased, 1846.

46. 10. 16. 16. Skull. Same locality and collector.

Same history.

61. 1. 18. 3. Skeleton, immature. Locality unknown.
Purchased (Zoological Society), 1861.

96. 10. 7. 29. Skin, mounted. Catamarca, Argentina.

Presented by the La Plata Museum, 1896.

97. 10. 3. 18. Skin. Junin, Peru ; collected by Mr. J.
Kalinowski. Purchased, 1897.

2. 1. 1. 112-113. Two skins, female. Choquecamate,
Bolivia ; collected by Mr. P. 0. Simons.

Presented bij 0. Thomas, Esq., 1902.



SECTION D. SUINA.

Large or medium-sized Artiodactyla, with neobunodont *
molars, absence of complete fusion of third and fourth meta-
carpals and metatarsals to form cannon-bones, and the skin
either covered with sparse bristly hairs, or more or less
nearly naked ; no cranial appendages.

The distribution includes the greater part of the world,
exclusive of Australia and New Zealand ; but to what extent
the Suina now inhabiting south-eastern Asia have been
introduced by human agency is uncertain.

The existing members of the section are divisible into
the two following families t :

A. Head with an elongated mobile snout, terminating

in an expanded, truncated, nearly naked, flat,

oval disc in which the nostrils are pierced Suidce.

B. Head with a broad and rounded bristly muzzle... Hippopotamidce.



* Stehlin, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 124, 1899 ; a term
denoting a type of tubercular (bunodont) dentition with traces of a
selenodont structure ; whether this is a distinct modification or a
derivative from decadent selenodontism is still uncertain.

t The writer follows Trouessart and Max Weber in regarding the
peccaris as a subfamily of Snider instead of a separate family.

IV. X



306 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



FAMILY L SUHLE.

Head terminating in an elongated mobile snout, the tip
of which forms an expanded, truncated, nearly naked, flat,
oval disc containing the nostrils, and supported by a
prenasal bone ; feet narrow, with four toes in front pair, the
hoofs of the two middle ones in each pair with their adjacent
surfaces flattened, and those of the lateral ones not applied
to the ground in walking ; teeth typically forty -four, but the
number frequently reduced by suppression of one or more
pairs ; incisors rooted ; molars elongated, with the outer and
inner pair of tubercles connected by intermediate ones, and
not forming distinct trefoils; no descending flange to
mandible.

Distribution co-extensive with that of section.

The family is divisible into the two following sub-
families :

A. Four toes to both fore- and hind-limbs ; upper

canines curving more or less upwards or outwards ;
stomach simple, except for a larger or smaller
cardiac pouch ; no dorsal gland ; at least 4 teats Stiinw.

B. Hind-feet with only three functional toes; upper

canines directed downwards ; stomach complex ; a

dorsal gland ; 2 teats Dicotylince.



SUBFAMILY i. SUIN^E.

Four complete toes to each foot ; teeth typically forty-
four, but often reduced by the suppression of one or more
pairs; upper canines curving more or less outwards or
upwards ; stomach simple, except for a more or less
developed cardiac pouch; no dorsal gland; at least four
teats ; tail well developed ; third and fourth metacarpals
and metatarsals completely free.

The distribution is limited to the Old World, extending
at the present day so far eastward as New Guinea, although
there is very strong probability that the Papuan forms were
introduced by human agency.

The subfamily is divisible into the following generic
groups :



30?

A. Summits of upper canines of males completely

abraded by attrition of lower pair.

a. No osseous tuberosities on or above sheaths

of upper canines ; ears not distinctly tufted Sus.

b. Two pairs of osseous tuberosities on and

above sheaths of upper canines Potamochcerus.

B. A facet worn on lower surface of upper canines

by attrition of lower pair, leaving the summits
more or less nearly entire.

a. Last molar in each jaw brachyodont and

normal Hylochosrus.

b. Last molar in each jaw hypsodont and

abnormally complex Phacochoerus.

c. No abrasion of upper canines (which are very long

and slender) by lower pair Babirussa.



I. Genus SUS.

Sus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 49, 1758, ed. 12, vol. 1, p. 102,

1766 ; Blasius, Sdugeth. Deutschlands, p. 508, 1857 ; Gray, Cat.

Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mas. p. 326, 1869 ; Stehlin, Abh. schweiz.

pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, passim, 1899 ; Flower and Lydekker, Study

of Mammals, p. 281, 1891 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe,

p. 956, 1912.
Aper, Pallas, Misc. Zool. p. 16, 1766 ; Bafinesque, Analyse de Nature,

p. 56, 1815.
Centuriosus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 17, 1868, p. 40, Cat.

Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 347, 1869, Hand-List Thick-
skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1873.
Scrofa, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 38, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit.

Mus. p. 345, 1869.
Euhys, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 339, 1869, A nn. Mag.

Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. x, p. 435, 1873, Hand-List Thick-skinned

Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 57, 1873.
Aulacochcerus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xi, p. 435,

1873, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 58, 1873.
Dasychcerus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xi, p. 435, 1873,

Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 58, 1873.

Dentition : i. f , c. -{-, p. J, m. f = 44 ; outer upper incisors
and first upper and lower premolars not infrequently
wanting in adults ; summits of upper canines completely
abraded by wearing against the lower pair ; molars brachyo-
dont and of the normal neobunodont type ; skull long, high,
and narrow, without osseous tuberosities above or on sheaths
of upper canines ; ears not distinctly tufted. Young usually
striped longitudinally.

The distribution is co-extensive with that of the sub-

x 2



308 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

family, except that, with the exception of the occurrence of
one species in the Eastern Sudan, it does not include
Ethiopian Africa.

The genus is divisible into the two following subgeneric
groups :

A. Size large or medium ; tail usually of moderate length ;

6 pairs of teats Sus.

B. Size small; tail very short ; 3 pairs of teats Porcula.



1. SUBGENUS SUS.

Size large or medium ; tail usually of moderate length ;
six pairs of teats.* Distribution co-extensive with that of
genus.

The species here recognised f are distinguishable as
follows :

A. Young striped ; no warts on face.

a. Lower canine with hind surface wider than outer

one.

a'. Face typically not banded; last molars
complex.

a". Nuchal crest moderate S. scrofa.

b". Nuchal crest taller S. cristatus.

V. Face typically banded ; last molars simpler.

c'. A brownish streak on muzzle 8. vittatus.

d'. A whitish streak on muzzle S. leucomystax.

b. Lower canine with hind surface narrower than

outer one.

b'. Size medium; head moderate ; tail- tuft small S. celebensis.
c'. Size large; head very long ; tail-tuft large ... S. barbatus.

B. Young uniformly coloured ; face with warts S. verrucosus.

I. SUS SCBOFA.

Sus scrofa, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 49, 1758, ed. 12, vol. i,
p. 103, 1776 ; Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 389, 1822 ;
Griffith, Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 287, 1827 ; Jenyns, Brit.
Vert. Anim. p. 39, 1835 ; Bell, British Quadrupeds, p. 358, 1837 ;
Owen, Brit. Foss. Matnm. and Birds, p. 426, 1846 ; Gray, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1856, p. 158, 1860, pp. 183 and 448, 1868, p. 30,
Cat. Carnivora etc. Brit. Mus. p. 337, 1869, Hand-List Thick-
skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 60, 1873 ; Blasius, Sdugeth.



* So far as recorded.

f The views of Major are in the main followed on this subject.



SUID^E



300



Deutschlands, vol. i, 517, 1857 ; Severtzow, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.
ser. 4, vol. xviii, p. 387, 1876 ; Blanford, Eastern Persia, vol. ii,



mm.



FIG. 47. EIGHT UPPER (A) AND LOWER (B) CHEEK-TEETH OF
WILD BOAR (821$ scrofa). nat. size.
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe.

p. 86, 1876 ; Danford and Alston, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 275 ;
Harting, Extinct Brit. Anim. p. 76, 1880 ; Thomas, Trans. Linn.
Soc. ser. 2, vol. v, p. 195, 1889, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1911, p. 140,



310 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

1912, p. 392; Tristram, Fauna Palestine, p. 3, 1884; Flower
and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. E. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 348, 1884 ;
Lataste, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xxxix, p. 163, 1885 ;
Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 260, 1885,
Horns and Hoofs, p. 353, 1893, Brit. Mamm. p. 255, 1895, Great
and Small Game of Europe, etc. p. 278, 1901, Great and Small
Game of Africa, p. 388, 1908; Radde, Zool. Jahrb. vol. iv,
p. 1068, 1889; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii,
p. 195, 1891 ; Flower and LydekJcer, Study of Mammals, p. 283,
1891 ; Stehlin, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, 1899, vol. xxvii,
1900, passim ; Anderson and de Winton, Mamm. Egypt, p. 354,
1902 ; Millais, Mamm. Gt. Britain, vol. iii, p. 63, 1906 ; Scharff,
European Animals, p. 44, 1907 ; Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus.
(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 31, 1907; Ward, Records
of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 453, 1910, ed. 7, p. 452, 1914; Trouessart,
Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 225, 1910 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West.
Europe, p. 957, 1912.

Sus setosus, Boddaert, Elenchus Anim. vol. i, p. 157, 1785.

Sus setosus, var. a. aper, Boddaert, loc. cit. 1785.





A B

FIG. 49. TRANSVERSE SECTIONS OF LOWER CANINES OP Stis scrofa (A)

AND Sus verrucosus (B). i, inner, h, hind, o, outer surface.

From Stehlin.



Sus europaeus, Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. vol. i, p. 265, 1811.

Sus scropha, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. v, p. 205, 1836.

Sus fasciatus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 184, 1843.

Sus scrofa fasciatus, Wagner, Schreber's Sdugthiere, Suppl. vol. iv,

p. 322, 1844.
Sus scrofa, var. celtica, Strobel, Atti. Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. xxv,

p. 79, 1882.

WILD BOAR or WILD SWINE.

Typical locality Germany.

Size moderately or very large; face without warts;
muzzle relatively short ; lower canine (fig. 48) with outer
surface markedly less in width than hind one, which is
oblique and next in width to the inner surface the widest
of the three ; last upper molar typically large, with a
distinct third ridge (fig. 47) ; general colour brown, with an



SUID.K



311



individual tendency to blackish, greyish, or rufous ; face,
cheeks, and throat with a grizzling of whitish hairs, which
does not, however, form definite markings ; bristles of nape
long, but not forming a conspicuous crest ; under-fur
(occasionally wanting) thick and woolly ; young brown with
blackish stripes.

The range formerly included the whole of the afforested
districts of temperate Europe, from Ireland and Scandinavia




FIG. 49. SIDE VIEW OF SKULL, WITH THE LOWER JAW DETACHED, OF
WILD BOAR (Stis scrofa). \ nat. size.
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe.

eastwards, but is now limited to the countries south of the
Baltic ; eastwards it appears to include all temperate Asia
north of the line of the Himalaya.

The better-known races are distinguishable as follows :

A. Colour dark, without marked contrast between
body and limbs.

a. Size very large ; upper skull-length

17f inches S. s. attila.

b. Size smaller; skull-length 15 to J6 inches S. s. scrofa.



312



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



c. Size smaller;* skull-length 14 inches... S. s. lybicus.

d. Size smaller; skull-length 13| inches S. s. castilianus.

e. Size smaller; skull-length 11 inches;

face banded S. s. meridionalis.

f. Size slightly smaller; skull-length 11 f

inches ; face not banded ; no under-fur S. s. boeticus.

B. Colour lighter, with a distinct contrast between

body and limbs (which are black) S. 8. nigripes.





A B

FIG. 50. FRONTAL (A) AND PALATAL (B) ASPECTS OF SKULL OP
WILD BOAR (Sus scrofd). \ nat. size.
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe.



S. s. barbctrus, S. s. moupinensis, and S. s. sennaarensis
(the last two of which are only provisionally included under
the present specific heading) are too imperfectly known to be
definitely classified.

* One specimen only.



313



A. Sus serofa scrofa.



Sus scrofa ferns, Gmelin, Linn.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 207, 1788;

Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 13 ; Nehring, Sitzber. Ges. nat.

Freunde, 1890, p. 9.
Sus scrofa scrofa, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, p. 392.

Typical locality Germany.

Size relatively large, upper skull-length ranging from
about 15 to 16 inches (380-410 mm.); woolly under-fur
developed ; third ridge of last upper molar distinct (fig. 47).
58, a. Skin, young. Europe (?). Type of fasdatus.

No history.
713, m. Skeleton. Germany.

Transferred from Zoological Society's Museum.
43. 12. 29. 12. Skin, young. France.

Purchased (Lefebre), 1843.

58. 5. 4. 38 (713, i). Skull, immature female. Europe.*
Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858.

58. 5. 4. 42 (713, k). Skull, young. Europe.

Same history.

59. 9. 6. 100 (713j). Skull. Wiirtemberg; collected
by Dr. A. Giinther. Purchased, 1859.

62. 3. 20. 6. Skull. Germany. Purchased, 1862.

92. 8. 3. 1. Skin. Waldleiningen, Baden. Presented

by H.R.H. the Grand Duke Louis of Hesse, 1892.

13. 2. 22. 1. Skull and skin, young. Valescure, Var,

France. Presented ty W. E. de Winton, JEsq., 1913.

B. Sus scrofa meridionalis.

Sus scrofa meridionalis, Major, Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat. vol. iii,
P.V. p. 119, 1881, vol. vi, p. 346, 1883, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 295,
1883 ; Stehlin, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 68, 1899.

Sus scrofa var. sardous, Strobel, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. vol. xxv,
p. 221, 1882 ; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 226, 1910 ;
Dehaut, Hist. Zool. Pal. Corse et Sardaigne, fasc. 4, p. 64,
pis. i, ii, 1912.

Sus meridionalis, Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 960, 1912.

Typical locality Sardinia ; the range may include Corsica
(vide Dehaut, op. cit.).

* Specimens of which the locality is uncertain may belong to
other races.



314 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Smaller than typical race, the upper skull-length about
11 J- inches (300 mm.); talon of third upper molar obsolete;
colour generally similar, but a light band on each side of the
face, which unites with its fellow on under surface of the
muzzle to form a chevron. Major and Dehaut regard this
race as nearly related to the Malay S. vittatus, between which
and S. scrofa it is stated by the former writer to be almost
exactly intermediate ; probably no under-fur.

No specimen in collection.

C. Sus scrofa castilianus.

Sus scrofa castilianus, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, pp. 391 and
392 (Abs. P.Z.8. 1912, p. 13) ; Miller, Cat.Mamm. West. Europe,
p. 960, 1912 ; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mamm. Mus. Madrid, p. 133,
1912.

Typical locality Burgos, Northern Spain.

Intermediate in point of size between typical race and
the undermentioned S. s. bceticus : length of upper surface of
skull about 13f inches (353 mm.); under-fur present.

11. 10. 5. 3. Skull and skin. Quintanar de la Sierra,
near Burgos ; collected by Eev. S. Gonzales. Type.

Presented ly the Hon. N. C. Rothschild, 1911.

8. 7. 7. 32, 33. Two skulls and skins, female. Same
locality ; collected by Srs. S. and N. Gonzales.

Purchased, 1908.

D. Sus scrofa boeticus.

Sus scrofa boeticus, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, pp. 391 and 393
(Abs. P.Z.S. 1912, p. 14); Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe,
p. 960, 1912.

Typical locality Goto Donana, Huelva, Southern Spain.
Smaller than preceding race length of upper surface of
skull about llf inches (324 mm.), without under-fur.

95. 9. 4. 16. Skull and skin, female. Almonte, Seville.
Presented ly the Lord Lilford, 1895.
8. 3. 8. 12. Skull and skin. Goto Donana. Type.

Presented ly Abel Chapman, Esq., 1908.
8. 3. 8. 13. Skull. Same locality. Same history.



SU1D.K 315



E. Sus scrofa barbarus.

Sus scrofa, var. barbarus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 43.
Sus scrofa barbarus, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 338,
1869; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, p. 389, 1908.

Typical locality Morocco.

Imperfectly known, but stated to have a shorter and less
abundant coat than French wild boars, from which it also
frequently differs by its rather darker colour. From 33 to
35 inches is the probable shoulder-height, although a still
taller stature has been suggested.

* * * *. Skin, immature, mounted. Morocco ; collected
by E. W. A. Drummond, Esq. Purchased (Zoological Society}.

62. 12. 26. 1 (713, v\ Skin and skeleton. Barbary.
TyP e (-)- Purchased (Zoological Society), 1862.

64. 12. 4. 1. Skeleton. Barbary.

Presented by H. Christy, Esq., 1864.

12.10.17.1. Skull and skin, immature. Morocco;
collected by Major H. F. Brooke.

Presented ly the Zoological Society, 1912.

F. Sus scrofa sennaarensis.

Sus sennaarensis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. If. AJc. Wiss. Wien, vol. xix,
p. 365, 1864; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 32, Cat. Carni-
vora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 338, 1869 ; Hartmann, Zeits. Erdlcunde,
vol. iii, p. 349, 1868.

Sus vittatus sennaariensis, Major, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 296, 1883.

Sus scrofa, Anderson and de Winton, Mamm. Egypt, p. 354, pi. Ixiii,
1902.

Sus scrofa sennarensis, LydeJcJcer, Game Animals of Africa, p. 390,
1908.

Typical locality Sennar; the range also including Kor-
dofan and neighbouring districts.

Imperfectly known, coat stated to be very dense and
bristly, and dull olive-black variegated with yellow in colour.
Keference to present species provisional.

No specimen in collection.



316 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



G. Sus scrofa lybicus.

Sus lybicus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 31, Cat. Carnivora, etc.
Brit. Mus. p. 338, 1869, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit.
Mus. p. 65, 1872.

Typical locality Xanthus, Asia Minor ; the range may
include Syria.

Described on the evidence of the undermentioned skull,
which measures 14J inches in length, and is stated to differ
from all skulls of German wild boars.

44. 7. 13. 7 (713, a). Skull, female. Xanthus, Asia
Minor. Type. Presented by Sir Charles Felloivs, 1844.

14. 4. 17. 1. Skull and skin. Karajasi, Tiflis, Asia

Minor. Presented ~by the

Tiflis Museum (through Col. Kaznakow), 1914.

14. 4. 17. 2. Skull and skin, female. Same locality.

Same history.

H. Sus scrofa attila.

Sus attila, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1912, pp. 391 and 393 (Abs.

P.Z.S. 1912, p. 13) ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 960,

1912.
Sus scrofa attila, Lydekher, Ward's Records of Big Game, ed. 7,

p. 452, 1914.

Typical locality Kolozsvar (or Klausenburg), Transyl-
vania ; limits of range to eastward not yet ascertained.

Considerably larger than typical race, upper skull-length
about I7f inches (452 mm.); woolly under-fur present;
general colour apparently rather lighter than in typical race.
This eastern representative of the wild boar bears almost
exactly the same relation to the typical German animal as is
presented by the maral or eastern red deer (supra, p. 126) to
the red deer of Western Europe ; and if the maral be regarded
as a subspecies rather than a full species, the same view
must be held in the case of the eastern wild boar.

3. 3. 12. 1. Skin, mounted. Volhynia, Eussian Poland.
Presented ~by Count Josef Potocki, 1903.

12. 1. 23. 1. Skull and skin. Kolozsvar, Transylvania;
collected December, 1911. Type.

Presented ~by Frdulein Sarolta von Wertheimstein, 1912.



SUID.E 317

14. 3. 19. 1. Skull and skin. Soborin, Comitad Arad,
Hungary. Same donor, 1914.

The following specimens are provisionally referred to
this race :

87. 12. 22. 2. Skull, female. Northern slope of Western
Caucasus. Presented ~by St. George Littledale, Esq., 1887.

91. 8. 10. 1. Head, mounted. KW. Amurland.

Presented ly the Hon. Walter Rothschild, 1891.

92. 3. 16. 10. Skull. Northern side of Western Cau-
casus. Presented ly St. George Littledale, Esq., 1892.

I. Sus scrofa nigripes.

Sus scrofa, var. nigripes, Stanford, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal,
vol. xliv, pt. ii, p. 112, 1875, Zool. Second YarJcand Mission,
Mamm. p. 79, 1879; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus.
pt. ii, p. 195, 1891 ; /. H. Miller, Field, vol. cxx, p. 284 (fig.), 1912.

Sus scrofa nigripes, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc.
p. 279, 1901.

Typical locality Tien Shan, in the Kashgar district.

Co-types in the Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Size large ; general colour light dull brown, without
admixture of black hairs ; feet and much of the rest of the
legs black ; a pale hair-brown woolly under-fur present ; ears
darker than head and back, and a black ring round each eye ;
occipital plane forming a more obtuse angle with base of
skull than in Hungarian race.

12. 7. 27. 1. Skull. Tien Shan ; collected by J. H.
Miller, Esq. Purchased, 1912,

J. Sus scrofa moupinensis.

Sus moupinensis, Milne-Edwards, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vii, Bull.

p. 93, 1872, Bech. Mamm. p. 377, pis. Ixxx and Ixxxi, 1874;

Lydekker, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 283, 1907 ; Allen,

Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. liv, p. 205, 1912.
Sus vittatus moupinensis, Major, Zool. Anz. vol. vi, p. 296, 1883.
Sus cristatus moupinensis, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of

India, etc. p. 266, 1900.

Typical locality Moupin, Sze-chuan, Western China.
Type in Paris Museum.



318 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Said to be in a considerable degree intermediate between
scrofa and S. mttatus.

96. 11. 4. 4. Skull and skin. Sze-chuan ; collected by
Berezowski. By exchange with Tring Museum, 1896.

II. SUS CRISTATUS.

Sus scrofa, Sykes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831; Elliot, Madras Journ.
vol. x, p. 219, 1839 ; McCleland, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 150 ;
Adams, ibid. 1858, p. 531 ; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc.
Bengal, p. 139, 1863 ; Blanford. Journ. Asiat. Bengal, vol. xxxvi,
p. 197, 1868; Anderson, Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. xxi, p. 341, 1889 ;
nee Linn.

Sus cristatus, Wagner, Munch. Gelehrt. Anz. vol. ix, p. 535 (misprint
for 435), 1839 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 27, Cat. Carnivora,
etc. Brit. Mus. p. 333, 1869, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm.
Brit. Mus. p. 62, 1873; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal,



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