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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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Face white, with the ears, a patch round eyes, and a
streak above whiskers black ; dorsal crest from behind ears
to middle of back black with long white tips, and similar
bristles on loins ; sides of back rich rufous mingled with
black ; flanks, sides of neck, under-parts, and limbs black.

4. 11. 5. 17. Skull, imperfect, and wanting lower jaw.
Kenia district, B. E. Africa. Presented by

Capt. Ii. Meinertzhagen, 1904.

12. 7. 2. 9. Skull and skin, female. Kidori, Tana Valley,
B. E. Africa. Presented by G. Blaine, Esq., 1912.

12. 7. 28. 1. Skin. Mau Forest, above Njoro, B. E.
Africa. Presented ly C. W. Woodhouse, Esq., 1912.

13. 3. 19. 11. Skeleton and skin, old boar. Urnbagasi
Valley, B. E. Africa. Presented ly the East Africa and

Uganda Natural History Society, 1913.



SUID.K



III. POTAMOCHCEEUS HASSAMA.

Nyctochcerus hassama, Heiiglin, Nova Acta. Ac. Cces. Leop.-Car.
vol. xxx, Nachtrag 2, p. 7, 1863, Beise Nord-Ost Afrika, pp. 97
and 277, 1877 ; Nehring, Zool. Garten, vol. xxxvi, p. 50, 1895.

Potamochoerus hassama, Major, Proc. Zoc. Soc. 1897, p. 368 ; Both-
schild, Powell-Cotton's Abyssinia, p. 481, 1902; Lydekker, Game
Animals of Africa, p. 395, 1908 ; Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii,
no. 6, p. 37, 1910.

Sus choeropotamus hassama, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of
Africa, p. 523, 1899.

ASSAMI.

Type of Nyctoch&rus.

Typical locality Abyssinia.

Type in Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt-am-Main.

Apparently allied in external characters, as well as in
the development of the facial tuberosities, to P. cheer opotamus,
but the parietal region of which the flat portion is com-
paratively narrow, although rather less so than in P. c.
nyasce much longer, both actually, and relatively to the
rest of the skull.

No specimen in collection.

IV. POTAMOCHOERUS POROUS.

Sus porcus, Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 50, 1759, ed. 12,
vol. i, p, 108, 1766; Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals,
p. 286, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 363, 1893 ; Bryden,
Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 531, 1899.

Sus penicillatus, Schinz, Monogr. Sdugeth. pt. x, p. 12, 1848, Rev.
Zool. 1848, p. 152.

Potamochoerus penicillatus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1852, p. 131,
pi. xxxiv, 1854, 1858, p. 58; Sclater, ibid. 1861, p. 62, pi. xii ;
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 279, 1862 ; Noack,
Zool. Jahrb., Syst. vol. ii, p. 197, 18b7 ; Pousargues, Ann. Sci.
Nat., Zool. vol. iv, p. 90, 1896 ; Stehlin, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges.
vol. xxvi, p. 71, 1899.

Potamochoerus porcus, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 36, Cat.
Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 349, 1869, Hand-List Thick-
skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 56, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.
ser. 4, vol. xv, p. 45, 1875 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol.
Mus. B. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 356, 1884 ; Major, Proc. Zool. Soc.
1897, pp. 363 and 369 ; Stehlin, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvii,
pi. x, fig. 7, 1900 ; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, p. 396,
1908 ; Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii, no. 6, p. 3, 1910 ; Ward,
Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 456, 1910, ed. 7, p. 455, 1914.

Sus choeropotamus porcus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of
Africa, p. 523, 1899.



358 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

BED EivER-Hoo.

Typical locality West Africa.

Compared with P. chceropotamus, the coat is shorter and
denser, so that no portion of the skin is visible ; dorsal crest
short, white, and conspicuous, commencing, as a rule, a little
behind the ears ; general colour typically reddish brown or
rufous, but in adults the upper portion of the forehead,
between the eyes and ears, black, whitish in one race ; ears
black with more or less of the upper portion of the margins
of part of the tufts whitish ; in immature individuals the
forehead, except for the admixture of black hairs, coloured
like body ; facial tuberosities generally much less developed
than in typical species, the upper pair not projecting above
nasal plane (fig. 53).

The range extends from the Gabun, Cameruns, and
adjacent districts to the Belgian Congo.

The following is a tentative. " key " to the local races :

A. Facial tuberosities of skull, when known, not

projecting above nasal plane.

a. Forehead and muzzle black.

a'. Parietal region narrower (42-47 min.) P.p. porcus.

V . Parietal region wider (49-58 mm.) P.p. pictus.

b. Either muzzle or forehead whitish.

b'. Size smaller, muzzle whitish P.p. ubangensis.

c'. Size larger, forehead whitish P. p. albifrons.

B. Facial tuberosities of skull projecting slightly

above nasal plane, and upper one of each side

connected with the lower one by a bony arch... P. p. congicus.*

A. Potamoehcerus porcus porcus.

Typical locality Upper Guinea.

General characters those of the species; flat portion of
parietal region moderately wide (about 42-47 mm.) ; muzzle
black.

64. 7. 16. 2 (715, &). Skull, female. West Africa;
collected by Mr. Dalton. Purchased, 1864.

65. 5. 3. 3 (715, c). Skull. Niger Valley; collected by
Dr. W. B. Baikie. Noticed by Lonnberg, op. cit. p. 8.

Purchased, 1865.

* Possibly identical with albifrons.



SUID.E



359



65. 5. 3. 4 (715, d). Skull. Same locality and collector.
Noticed by Lonnberg, loc. cit. Same history.

71. 5. 27. 6 (1363, e). Skull and skin. Gabun. Noticed
by Lonnberg, loc. cit. Presented by

Monsieur P. B. die Chaillu, 1871.

71. 5. 27. 6* (1363, /). Skull and skin, immature.
Same locality. Same history.

12. 6. 20. 12. Skull and skin, very young. Bibianaha,
Gold Coast. Presented by Dr. H. G. F. Spurrdl, 1912.



B. Potamoehcerus porous pictus.

Choiropotamus pictus, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. x,

p. 281, 1852.
Potamochoerus porous pictus, Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii, no. 6,

p. 7, 1910 ; Lydekker, Game Animals of Africa, Suppl. p. 2,

1911.




FIG. 53. SKULL OF CAMERUN Busn-Pic, OR RED BIVER-HOG
(Potamochmrus porcus pictus}.

From Gray, Hand-List of Thick-skinned Mammals.

Typical locality Cameruns, W. Africa.

Flat portion of parietal region wider than in typical race
(49-58 mm.) ; muzzle black.

56. 12. 30. 7. Skin, young. From an animal born in
London Zoological Gardens.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1856,



360 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

57. 3. 5. 2. Skin, young. This and the next specimen
were from the offspring of the animals represented by
numbers 60. 7. 22. 9 and 61. 1. 18. 7.

Purchased (Bartlett), 1857.
57. 8. 3. 1. Skin, young. Vide No. 57. 3. 5. 2.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1857.

60. 7. 22. 9-10 (1363, a). Skin, mounted, and skeleton.
Cameruns. Type. Skull (fig. 53) figured in Gray's Hand-
List, pi. xxiii, fig. 1. The animal lived in the London
Zoological Gardens from 1852 to 1860.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1860.

61. 1. 18. 7. Skeleton, female. Cameruns.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1861.
67. 10. 5. 2. Skin, young, mounted. Menagerie-born.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1867.
94. 7. 25. 1-2. Two skulls. Benin, Nigeria.

Presented ly E. Millson, Esq., 1894.
4. 10. 12. 9. Skin, immature, mounted. Cameruns.

Purchased, 1904.

6. 5. 25. 1. Skin, immature, mounted. Cameruns.

Purchased (Ward), 1906.

12. 10. 22. 76. Skull, immature. Oban district, Southern
Nigeria. Presented ly P. A. Talbot, Esq., 1912.

C. Potamoehcerus poreus ubangensis.

Potamochcerus poreus, Alexander, From Niger to Nile, vol. ii,

p. 394, 1907.
Potamochcerus poreus ubangensis, Lonnberg, Arkiv Zool. vol. vii,

no. 6, p. 10, 1910 ; LydeJclcer, Game Animals of Africa, Suppl.

p. 21, 1911.

Typical locality Ubangui Valley, northern Belgian Congo.

Smaller than the other races, with the flat portion of the
parietal region of the skull much narrower (26 mm.), and
the whole muzzle whitish.

7. 7. 8. 258. Skull and head-skin. Ubangui Valley.
Type. Presented ~by the Alexander-Gosling Expedition, 1907.



SUID/E 361

D. Potamochoerus poreus albifrons.

Potamochoerus albifrons, du Chaillu, Boston Journ. Nat. Hist. 1860,
p. 301, Adventures in Equatorial Africa, p. 422, pi. Ixii, 1861.

Potamochoerus poreus albifrons, Lonnberg, ArJciv Zool. vol. vii,
no. 6, p. 11, 1910.

Typical locality near Cape Lopez, western French Congo.

Type probably in the Boston Museum, U.S.A.

Larger than the preceding race, with the muzzle black ;
forehead mainly white, except for a triangular black area
between the ears ending in a point about three inches below
the line of the eyes ; skull -characters unknown.

No specimen in collection.

E. Potamoehcerus poreus congieus.

Potamochcerus poreus congicus, Lonnberg, ArJciv Zool. vol. vii,
no. 6, p. 14, 1910.

Typical locality Lower Congo.

Type in Eoyal Swedish Museum of Natural History,
Stockholm.

A provisional race, founded on the skull, which is much
larger than that of P. p. ulangensis, with the flat portion of
the parietal area narrow (31 5 mm.), and the facial tuber-
osities more developed than in any other race, the upper
ones projecting slightly above the nasal plane, and being
connected in old males by a bony arch on each side with
the lower pair ; nasal region wider than in P. p. pictus.

Whether this type of skull is really distinct from that of
P. p. albifrons has still to be proved.

No specimen in collection.

V. POTAMOCHCERUS INTEEMEDIUS.

Potamochcerus intermedius, Lonnberg, ArJciv Zool. vol. vii, pt. 6,
p. 38, 1910; LydeJcJcer, Game Animals of Africa, Suppl. p. 21,
1911 ; ScJioitteden, Rev. Zool. Africaine, vol. ii, p. 138, 1912.

Typical locality Euwenzori district, Upper White Nile,
Uganda.

Intermediate in general characters between P. chceropo-
tamiLS and P. poreus, and therefore suggestive that all the
forms of bush-pig are no more than local races of the Mala-
gasy P. larvatus. Schouteden considers this bush-pig to be



362 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

much nearer to P. choeropotamus than to P. porous. Coat long
and coarse and dorsal crest long and parti-coloured, as in the
former, but general colour and colour-pattern like those of
the latter.

6. 7. 1. 188. Skull, immature, referred by Lonnberg,
op. dt. p. 16, to this species. Eastern Kuwenzori; collected
by E. E. Dent, Esq.

Presented by the Ruwenzori Expedition, 1906.

6. 7. 1. 189. Skull, half-grown female. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

6. 12. 4. 71. Skull, old boar. Same locality ; noticed
by Lonnberg, op. cit. Same history.

7. 12. 18. 1. Skin. Upper White Nile, Uganda, 4000
feet ; collected by E. J. Cuninghame, Esq. Purchased, 1907.



IV. Genus HYLOCHCERUS.

Hylochoerus, Thomas, Nature, vol. Ixx, p. 577, 1904, Proc. Zool. Soc.
1904, vol. ii, p. 193.

To a considerable extent intermediate between Potamo-
chcerus and Phacochwrus, the molars being of the brachyodont
type of those of the former, while the upper canines are
abraded in the fashion characteristic of the latter, and there
is but one pair of upper incisors; the skull conforms in
general features to the Sus and Potamochcerus type, although
in its depressed form and the markedly lower occipital region
it foreshadows that of Phacochcerus.

Dentition : i. %^, c. -J-, p. f , m. f = 32 or 34 ; outer lower
incisors frequently shed early, and in some instances perhaps
never developed; upper canines of males very large and
thick, with facets worn on their lower surfaces by the attrition
of the lower pair, so that their summits remain more or less
nearly entire ; last molars in each jaw brachyodont and
normal in structure; face with a pair of large fungus-like
warty growths below the eyes ; ears relatively small and not
distinctly tufted ; terminal disc of muzzle relatively large ;
coat very coarse, sparse, and uniformly dark-coloured ;
prenasal ossicle welded to nasals ; occipital surface of skull
broader and lower than in Potamochcerus ; forehead wide and



SUID.E 363

concave, and sides of nasal region sloping evenly outwards,
.as in the next, without the sharp lateral angulation of the
nasals found in Potamochcerus and Sus. Coloration of young
apparently unknown.

The distributional area is probably co-extensive with the
great forest-tract of equatorial Africa, in which it is known
to extend from the Cameruns in the west, to the Ituri and
Semliki Valleys in the east, while northwards it reaches
southern Abyssinia.



HYLOCHCERUS MEINERTZHAGENI.

Hylochcerus meinertzhageni, Thomas, Nature, vol. Ixx, p. 577, 1904,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. ii, p. 193 ; Rothschild, Proc. Zool. Soc.
1906, p. 632; M. Eothscliild and Neuville, Bull. Soc. Philom.
ser. 9, vol. viii, p. 141, pis. i-xi, 1906; Lydekker, Game Animals
of Africa, p. 396, 1908, Suppl. p. 22, 1911, Field, vol. cxxi,
p. 488, 1913; Allen, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxiii,
p. 49, 1909 ; Ward, Eecords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 457, 1910,
ed. 7, p. 456, 1914; Ldnnberg, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl.
vol. xlviii, no. 5, p. 136, 1912.

(?) Hylochcerus ituriensis, Matschie, Ann. Mus. Congo, Zool. ser. 5,
vol. i, p. 9, pis. i-v, 1906.

(?) Hylochcerus meinertzhageni ituriensis, Lydekker, Game Animals
of Africa, p. 398, 1908, Suppl. p. 24, 1911 ; Allen, Proc. Biol.
Soc. Washington, vol. xxiii, p. 49, 1909.

(?) Hylochcerus gigliolii, Baldacci, Publ. R. Prim. Stud. Super.
Fircnzc, 1909, p. 1.

Typical locality the Kenia district of British East Africa :
the range co-extensive with that of the genus.

Size very large, build heavy, and limbs relatively long ;
coat long, coarse, and wholly black, becoming sparse in old
age ; skin blackish grey.

The external characters by which H. ituriensis, from the
Ituri Valley (with which H. yigliolii, from the Upper Congo,
is almost certainly inseparable), is stated to be distinguished
appear to be mainly features of immaturity; the under-
mentioned skull from the Semliki does not appear to be
racially separable from that of the type.

The two races here recognised are distinguishable as
follows :

A. Molars broad, with much cement H. m. meinertzliageni.

B. Molars narrower, with less cement H. m. rimator.



364 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

A. Hylochoerus meinertzhagreni meinertzhagreni.

Typical locality the Kenia district of British East Africa :
the range extends northwards to Abyssinia,

Cheek-teeth broad and heavy, with a large development
of cement in the valleys.

4. 11. 5. 14. Skull and portion of skin. Nandi Forest,
B. E. Africa. Type.

Presented ~by Capt. R. Mdnertzhagen, 1904.

4. 11. 5. 15. Hind half of skull, wanting lower jaw,
female. Same locality. Same history.

5. 5. 16. 1. Skeleton and skin, immature female. Nyeri,
B. E. Africa. Presented ly C. W. Hayivood, Esq., 1905.

5. 10. 21. 1. Skull, Semliki Forest. Probably represents
H. ituriensis. Presented ~by Litut.-Col. J. J. Harrison, 1905.

5. 10. 21. 2. Skull. Same locality. Same history.

7. 1. 12. 1. Skull, immature, wanting lower jaw. B. E.
Africa. Presented ly C. W. Hay wood, Esq., 1905.

12. 7. 28. 9-10. Two skins. Mau Forest, above Njoro,
B. E. Africa. Presented ly C. W. Woodhouse, Esq., 1912.

12. 7. 28. 11. Skull, imperfect, and skin, female. Same
locality. Same history.

12. 7. 28. 12. Skin. Laikipia Escarpment, B. E. Africa.

Same history.

12. 7. 28. 13-14. Two skulls and skins, young. Same
locality. Same history.

12. 7. 28. 15. Skin, mounted, and skull. Mau Forest.

Same history.

13. 3. 2. 6. Fore part of skull. Salle Forest, Mount
Gore, Abyssinia. Presented ly S. C. G. Clarke, Esq., 1913.

B. Hyloehcerus meinertzhagreni rimator.

Hylochoerus rimator, Thomas, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1906, p. 2 (Abs.

P.Z.S. 1906, p. 1) ; Matschie, Ann. Mus. Congo, Zool. ser. 5,

vol. i, p. 8, 1906 ; Allen, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxiii,

p. 49, 1909.
Hylochoerus memertzhageni rimator, LydeJcJcer, Game Animals of

Africa, p. 398, 1908.

Typical locality Ja Valley, Cameruns.

Generally similar to typical race,* but cheek-teeth,

* Vide Allen, op. cit.



SUID.K 365

especially the last molar ill each jaw, markedly narrower,
with less cement in the valleys.

6. 2. 21. 1. Skull, female. Ja Valley, Cameruns; col-
lected by G. L. Bates, Esq. Type. Purchased, 1906.

8. 6. 23. 13. Skull and skin, immature. Cameruns ;
same collector. Purchased, 1908.

14. 4. 16. 1. Skin, mounted. Cameruns.

Presented "by the Roiuland Ward Trustees, 1914.



V. Genus PHACOCHCERUS.

Phacochcerus, Cuvier, Eegne Animal, vol. i, p. 236, 1817 ; Owen,
Phil. Trans. 1850, p. 481 ; Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus.
p. 359, 1869, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 69,
1873; W. L. Sclater, Fauna S. Africa, Mamm. vol. i, p. 276,
1960 ; Stehlin, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. xxvii, p. 376, 1900.

Phascochcerus, F. Cuvier, Mem. Mus. Paris, vol. viii, p. 451, 1817.
Eureodon, Fischer, Mem. Soc. Moscou, vol. v, p. 373, 1817.
Phocochorus, Voigt, Uebersicht Naturgesch. p. 422, 1819.
Phascochaeres, Cretzschmar, Atlas to Rilppells Reise nordl. Afrika,

p. 61, 1826 ; Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. v, p. 219,

1836.

Phascochaerus, Griffith, Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 289, 1827.
Phacocherus, Smuts, Enum. Mamm. Cap. p. 60, 1832.
Phacellochoerus and, Phacellochaerus, Hemprich und Ehrenberg,

Symbol. Phys., Mamm. vol. ii, pi. xx, 1832.
Dinochoerus, Gloger, Handbuch Naturgesch. vol. i, pp. xxxii and

131, 1841.
Macrocephalus, Elliot (ex Frisch, 1775), Cat. Mamm. Field Mus.

(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. viii) p. 32, 1907.

Dentition : i. J, c. -}-, p. , m. f = 34 ; outer incisors and
anterior premolars lost early, and in some cases all the teeth
except the canines and last molars wanting ; upper canines,
which are devoid of enamel except at the tips, very large,
massive, and longer than lower pair, the attrition of the
latter forming merely a facet on the lower surface of the
former and not touching their summits ; last molars in both
jaws, very large, hypsodont, and formed of a closely packed
series of small parallel and vertical subcylindrical denticules ;
canines of females relatively large ; face much flattened, with
a very wide muzzle, and two pairs of triangular warty
tubercles, the upper and larger pair situated immediately



366 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

below the eyes (fig. 54); ears small and triangular; coat
sparse and bristly, almost completely shed in adults, with
the exception of a mane on the neck and a terminal tail-tuft ;
skull wide and long, much depressed, with a deeply concave
profile, a very short postorbital portion, and no lateral
angulation of the nasal region ; prenasal ossicle separate from
nasals. Young uniformly coloured.

The range embraces suitable localities throughout Ethio-
pian Africa.

PHACOCHCERUS ^THIOPICUS.

Aper aethiopicus, Pallas, Spirit. Zool. fasc. ii, p. 2, 1767.

Sus sethiopicus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, vol. i, p. 223, 1768 ; Erxle-

ben, Syst. Regn. Anim. vol. i, p. 187, 1777 ; Griffith, Animal

Kingdom, vol. iii, p. 833, 1827.

Phacochcerus sethiopicus, Cuvier, Eegne Animal, vol. i, p, 1817 ;
F. Cuvier, Dent. Mamm. p. 217, pi. xxviii, 1822 ; J. B. Fischer,
Synop. Mamm. p. 424, 1829 ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus.
p. 185, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 48, Cat. Carnivora, etc.
Brit. Mus. p. 353, 1869, Hand-List Thick-skinned Mamm. Brit.
Mus. p. 69, 1873 ; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 78, pi. xvii,
1860, p. 443 ; Giebel, Sdugethiere, p. 236, 1855 ; Gerrard, Cat.
Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 279, 1862 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak.
Wiss. Wien, vol. xix, pt. 1, p. 39, 1864 ; Flower and Garson, Cat.
Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 363, 1884 ; W. L. Sclater,
Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 197, 1891, Fauna S. Africa,
Mamm. vol. i, p. 277, 1900; Flower and Lydekker, Study of
Mammals, p. 289, 1891 ; Nicolls and Eglington, Sportsman in
S. Africa, p. 77, 1892 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 370, 1893,
Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 517, 1899, Game Animals of
Africa, p. 399, 1908, Suppl. p. 23, 1911 ; Stehlin, Abh. schweiz.
pal. Ges. vol. xxvi, p. 276, 1899; Eothschild, Powell- Cotton's
Abyssinia, p. 482, 1902, Alexander, From Niger to Nile, vol. ii,
p. 394, 1907 ; Drake-Brockman, Mamm. Somali, p. 100, 1910 ;
Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 458, 1910, ed. 7, p. 457,
1914.

Phascochcerus asthiopicus, F. Cuvier, Mem. Mus. Paris, vol. viii,
p. 450, pi. xxiii, 1817.

Phacochcerus barbatus, Temminck, Mon. Mamm. vol. i, p. 29, 1827.

Phascochcerus edentatus, I. Geoffroy, Diet. Class. Hist. Nat. vol. xiii,
p. 320, 1828.

Phacochcerus typicus, A. Smith, S. African Quart. Journ. vol. ii,
p. 90, 1834.

Phacochcerus pallasi, Van derHoeven, Nova Ada Ac. Cxs. Leop.-Car.
vol. xix, p. 171, 1839; Owen, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 63, Ann.
Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, vol. xi, p. 246, 1853. '

Phacochcerus aper aethiopicus, Beichenbach, Pachyderm, p. 35, 1846.



SUID.E 367

WART-HOG.

Typical locality South Africa; range co-extensive with
that of the genus.

Shoulder-height reaching about 30 inches ; general colour
of the sparse coat brownish grey, with a more or less distinct




FIG. 54. HEAD OF WART-HOG (Phacochcems irthiopicw).

rufous tinge ; very large upper tusks measure as much as
from 25 to 27 inches along the convexity, but the length of
lower ones seldom exceeds 6 inches.

The local races, according to a scheme by Lonnberg, are
distinguished as follows :

A. Postorbital portion of skull very short and wide,

its length and breadth percentages to skull-
length being 10 and 13 ; interorbital width
large, 36'5% B. x. xtliiopicm.

B. Postorbital region less wide, 10 9-10 5 and 11 9-

11-6 % ; interorbital width less, 34 "7-33% P. *. delamerei.

c. Postorbital region of medium length and width
13-4 and 13-1%; interorbital width less than
in any other race, 30% P. ss. africanus.

D. Postorbital region much the same as in last,

14 and 14%; interorbital width considerably

greater, 38'8 % P. x. massaicus.

E. Postorbital region of medium length but narrow,

18'7 and 11%; interorbital width relatively

small, 32-3% P. x. sundevalli.

F. Postorbital region very long and very narrow,

15-4 and 6-3 % ; interorbital width as in last,

32'3% , P. x. xliani.

A. Phacochoerus sethiopicus aethiopieus.

Phacocho3rus aethiopicus typicus, Kirby, Great and Small Game of
Africa, p. 527, 1809.

Typical locality South Africa.

Size medium ; some of the lower anterior teeth usually



368 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

retained in old age ; postorbital portion of skull very short
and wide, the respective percentages to the skull-length being
10 3 x 13 3 ; interorbital width also great, 36 5 per cent.

74, a (719, t). Skull, from a stuffed specimen. South
Africa. Presented by Dr. W. J. Burchell, 1817.

719, a. Skull, female. South Africa.

Presented by J. C. Taunton, Esq., 1836.

50. 8. 24. 24-30. Nine imperfect skulls and upper jaws.
South Africa. Purchased (Argent), 1850.

6. 1. 22. 5 (765, b). Skeleton, female, provisionally
referred to this race. Locality unknown.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1862.

62. 9. 26. 1. Left upper tusk, from a stuffed skin, pro-
visionally referred to this race. Locality unknown. Length
along outer curve 15 1 inches.

Presented by H. Merry weather, Esq., 1862.

71. 7. 3. 4 (719, o). Skull, young. Port Elizabeth, Cape
Colony. Purchased (Gerrard), 1871.

81. 5. 11. 2 (719, r). Skull. South Africa.

Presented by E. G. Brcakes, Esq., 1881.

B. Phacochoerus sethiopieus sundevalli.

Phacochcerus sundevallii, Lonnberg, Sjostedt's Kilimandjaro-Meru
Exped., Mamm. p. 54, 1908, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1908, p. 937.

Phacochoerus aethiopicus sundevalli, Lydekker, Game Animals of
Africa, Suppl. p. 23, 1911.

Typical locality Natal; the range probably includes at
least a portion of the Transvaal, and may extend still further
north.

Type in Koyal Swedish Museum of Natural History,
Stockholm.

Postorbital region of skull moderately elongated but
narrow, 13- 7x11 per cent.; interorbital width relatively
small, 32-3 per cent. ; the one upper and one or two pairs of
lower incisors persistent.

46. 6. 2. 75 (719, a 1 ). Skull, female, provisionally referred
to this race. Transvaal ; collected by J. Wahlberg.

By exchange with the Stockholm Museum, 1846.

83. 7. 28. 11. Skin, female, probably belonging to this or



sriit.v; :;i;>

a nearly allied race. Uuifule Valley, Mashonaland ; collected
by F. C. Selous, Esq. Purchased, 1883.

86. r>. :. ,\ Skin, mounted, racially identical with the
preceding specimen. Sarna Valley, Mashonaland ; same
collector. Purchased, 188(i.

The following specimens, according to Lonnberg, represent
a race allied to, and yet distinct from, P. se. sundevalli, the
inter orbital region being still narrower :

91. 9. 5. 3 (719, w). Skull. Ukanga, Nyasaland. Noticed
by Lonnberg, Proc. Zool Soc. 1908, p. 939.

Presented by Sir H. H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 1891.

91. 9. 5. 4 (719, x). Skull, female. Same locality.

Same history.

93. 7. 2. 29-30. Two skulls. Shiri Highlands, Nyasaland ;



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