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II. 12. 15. 3. Skull and skin. Same locality.

Same donor, 1911.

11. 12. 15. 4. Skull and skin. Same locality.

Same history.

12. 6. 5. 31. Skull and skin. Bonasica Creek, British
Guiana. Same donor, 1912

12. 12. 19. 10. Skull and skin. Bonasica Creek,
British Guiana. Same history.

5. 11. 1. 20. Skull and skin, young. Georgetown,
Demerara; collected by S. B. Warren, Esq. Purchased, 1905.



382 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



B. Dicotyles tajacu torvus.

Tayassu torvus, Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wasliington, vol. xii, p. 164,

1898.
Dicotyles tajacu torvus, Lydekher, Great and Small Game of Europe,

etc. p. 382, 1901.
Tagassu torvus, Elliot, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus. (Field Mus. Zool.

Pub. vol. viii) p. 35, 1907.
Tayassu torvum, Osgood, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. x, p. 46, 1912.

Typical locality Santa Marta district, Colombia.
Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.
Skull relatively small, short, wide, and depressed.

The reference of the following specimens to this race is
provisional :

97. 11. 7. 56. Skull and skin, young. Cachavi, Ecuador ;
collected by Mr. W. F. H. Eosenberg. Purchased, 1897.

99. 10. 3. 65. Skull and skin, young. Near Bogota,
Colombia ; collected by Mr. G. D. Child.

Presented ly 0. Thomas, Esq., 1899.

14. 11. 6. 2. Skull and skin. Eio Cesar Valley,
Colombia ; collected by W. K. Pomeroy, Esq.

Presented ly the Zoological Society, 1914.



C. Dicotyles tajacu niger.

Dicotyles torquatus, Tomes, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 262 ; nee Cuvier.
Tayassu niger, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xxxii, p. 476,
1913.

Typical locality Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

Type in American Museum of Natural History, New
York.

Differs from both the preceding races by the general
colour being nearly uniform black instead of grizzled grey
or tawny.

97. 11. 7. 56. Skin, young female, provisionally referred
to this race. Cachavi, Ecuador.

Presented ly 0. Thomas, Esq., 1897



SUID^K :;s:i

III. DICOTYLES (PECARI) ANGULATUS.

Dicotyles angulatus, Cope, Amer. Nat. vol. xxiii, p. 147, 1889 ; Weber,

Siiugetliiere, p. 652, 1904.
Tayassu angulatus, Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xii,

p. 165, 1898 ; Merriam, ibid. vol. xiv, p. 120, 1901 ; Stone and

Cram, American Animals, p. 30, 1903 (angulatum).
Dicotyles tajacu angulatus, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of

Europe, etc. p. 381, 1901.
Tagassu angulatum, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies (Field

Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 63, 1904, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus.

(ibid. vol. viii) p. 34, 1907.
Pecari angulatus, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383, 1912.

Typical locality Guadelupe Valley, Texas.

General characters those of D. tajacu, but palate with
sharp ridge reaching from first pre molars to bases of sockets
of canines ; nasal bones more angulated in median line ; last
upper pre molar quadrangular, with four main tubercles and
intermediate tubercles ; molars wrinkled ; sides of cranial
rostrum deeply excavated above premolars. When only one
form of peccari with this type of skull and dentition was
known, the writer regarded it as a race of D. tajacu, now
that a number are recognised, it is convenient to allow
specific rank to this type, of which the local races are
distinguishable as follows :

A. Size larger.

a. Shoulder-stripe white ; sides of body black

and white D. a. angulatus.

b. Shoulder-stripe yellowish ochery, narrow ;

sides greyer D. a. humeralis.

c. Shoulder-stripe broad ; sides whitish D. a. yucatanensis.

d. Shoulder-stripe indistinct, very narrow ; sides

grizzled grey D. a. crassus.

e. Shoulder-stripe indistinct; sides mixed greyish

and brownish black D. a. sonoriensis.

f. Shoulder-stripe wide and tawny D. a. crusnigrum.

B. Size smaller; sides grizzled black and buff D. a. nanus.

A. Dicotyles angulatus angulatus.

Pecari angulatus angulatus, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383,
1912.

Typical locality Guadelupe Valley, Texas.
General colour black and white, shoulder-stripe white.
The range includes Texas and north-eastern Mexico.
No specimen in collection.



384 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



B. Dicotyles angulatus sonoriensis.

Dicotyles angulatus sonoriensis, Mearns, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus.,

vol. xx, p. 469, 1897.
Dicotyles tajacu sonoriensis, Lydekker, Great and Small Game of

Europe, etc. p. 382, 1901.

Tayassu angulatus sonoriensis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,

vol. xiv, p. 120, 1901.
Tagassu angulatum sonoriense, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and

W. Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 64, 1904.

Pecari angulafcus sonoriensis, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383,
1912.

Typical locality San Bernadino Valley, Sonora. Mexico.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Larger and paler than typical race, with bigger ears and
feet, and smaller and simpler molars ; general colour greyish
and brownish black, with a sharply contrasting black dorsal
stripe, and the light shoulder-stripe indistinct ; young pale
reddish brown, with a black dorsal stripe.

12. 7. 3. 1. Skin, mounted. Sonora.

Presented by I. N. Dracopoli, Esq., 1912.



C. Dicotyles angulatus humeralis.

Tayassu angulatus humeralis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
vol. xiv, p. 122, 1901.

Tagassu angulatum humerale, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W.
Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 63, Check-List Mamm.
N. Amer. etc. (ibid. vol. vi) p. 35, 1905, Cat. Mamm. Field Mus.
(ibid. vol. viii) p. 34, 1907.

Pecari angulatus humeralis, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383,
1912.

Typical locality America, State of Colima, Mexico.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Generally similar to typical race, but flanks greyer, head
yellower, dorsal stripe more pronounced, and shoulder-stripe
yellowish ochery ; skull of female larger, with longer row of
cheek-teeth.

The range extends from Colima to Tehuantepec.

98. 3. 2. 151. Skull and skin. Sinaloa, Southern
Mexico ; collected by Mr. P. 0. Simons.

Purchased (Price), 1898.



SUID.K :;sr,



D. Dicotyles angulatus crassus.

Tayassu angulatus crassus, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington,
vol. xiv, p. 124, 1901.

Tagassu angulatum crassum, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies
(Field Mas. Zool Pub. vol. iv), p. 64, 1904.

Pecari angulatus crassus, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383, 1912.

Typical locality Metlaltoyuca, State of Puebla, Mexico.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Size larger and coat coarser than in typical race ; general
colour grizzled grey, with a black dorsal stripe; shoulder-
stripe very narrow and indistinct.

No specimen in collection.



E. Dicotyles angulatus yucatanensis.

Tayassu angulatus yucatanensis, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washing-
ton, vol. xiv, p. 123, 1901.

Tagassu angulatum yucatanense, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and
W. Indies (Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 63, 1904.

Pecari angulatus yucatanensis, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383,
1912.

Typical loc ility Tunkas, Yucatan.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

General colour much whiter than in typical race, with
the shoulder-stripe very wide and conspicuous ; female not
larger than male ; nasals more acute and shorter than in
D. a. anf/ulatus.

F. Dicotyles angulatus erusnigrum.

Tayassu erusnigrum, Bangs, Ball. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. xxxix,
p. 20, 1902.

Tagassu erusnigrum, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies
(Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 65, 1904.

Pecari erusnigrum, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 383, 1912.

Typical locality Boquete, Chiriqui, Panama.
Type in Harvard College Museum.

Specially distinguished by the width and tawny colour of
the shoulder-stripe.

No specimen in collection,
iv. 2 c



386 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



G. Dicotyles angulatus nanus.

Tayassu nanus, Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xiv,
p. 102, 1901.

Tagassu nanus, Elliot, Mamm. Mid. Amer. and W. Indies (Field
Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. iv), p. 62, 1904.

Pecari nanus, Miller, List N. Amer. Mamm. p. 384, 1912.

Typical locality Cozumel Island, off Yucatan.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

A dwarf island-race, characterised by its grizzled black
and buff general colour, dark dorsal stripe, and wide buffish
shoulder-stripe.

No specimen in collection.



FAMILY II. HIPPOPOTAMID^E.

Head terminating in a broad, rounded muzzle, at the
summit of which are the nostrils; feet four-toed, with the
middle pair, at least, connected by membrane, and all four
touching the ground in the ordinary standing posture ;
incisors and canines growing from persistent pulps, the
upper curved and directed downwards, the lower incisors
straight and procumbent, and the canines curved and directed
upwards ; molars with trefoil-shaped dentine islands (fig. 55) ;
a descending flange to hind part of mandible, and lateral
aspect of gape S-shaped.

Kestricted at the present day to Ethiopian Africa, but in
the Pleistocene and Pliocene spread over a large part of the
Old World, including England.



I. Genus HIPPOPOTAMUS.

Hippopotamus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 74, 1758, ed. 12,
vol. i, p. 101, 1766 ; Gielel, Sdugethiere, p. 217, 1855 ; Gray, Cat.
Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 356, 1869 ; Lydekker, Pal. Indica
(Mem. Geol. Surv. India), ser. 10, vol. iii, p. 47, 1884, Cat. Foss.
Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 277, 1885, Game Animals of Africa,
p. 403, 1908; W. L. Sclater, Fauna S. Africa, Mamm. vol. i,
p. 269, 1900 ; Anderson and de Winton, Mamm. Egypt, p. 356,
1902.



HIPPOPOTAMID^E 387

Tetraprotodon, Falconer and Cautley, Asiatic Researches, vol. xix,
p. 51, 1836 ; Owen, Odontography, p. 566, 1840-45.

Tetraproctodon, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 356, 1869,
errorim.

Dentition : i. fEf, c. \, p. |, m. f = 42 or 44 ; size, at least
in the existing species, very large, and the head dispro-
portionately big, with an extremely broad muzzle, very
prominent eyes, and small rounded ears; body elongated;
tail and limbs short, the latter with the digits closely
approximated, connected up to the hoofs by membrane, and
thus almost incapable of lateral expansion.

Distribution co-extensive with that of the family. The
Pliocene subgenus Hexaprotodon, as typified by H. sivalensis,
has three pairs of subequal incisors in each jaw.



HIPPOPOTAMUS AMPHIBIUS.

Hippopotamus amphibius, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 75, 1758,
ed. 12, vol. i, p. 101, 1769; Schreber, Sdugthiere, pi. cccviii,
1791; A. Smith, Illustr. Zool. S. Africa, vol. i, pi. vi, 1838:
Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 188, 1843, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868,
p. 491, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 356, 1869, Hand-List
Thick-skinned Mamm. p. 71, 1873; Peters, Saugeth. Mossambique,
p. 180, 1852, Monatsber. Ak. Berlin, 1854, p. 367 ; Wolf, Zool.
Sketches, vol. i, pi. xxvii, 1861 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm.
p. 284, 1862; Garrod, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. xi, p. 11, 1880;
LydehJcer, Pal. Indica (Mem. Geol. Surv. India), ser. 10, vol. iii,
p. 47, 1884, Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 277, 1885,
Great and Small Game of Africa, p. 532, 1899, Game Animals
of Africa, p. 403, 1908 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus.
R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 365, 1884 ; Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1887,
p. 619; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 197,
1891, Fauna S. Africa, Mamm. vol. i, p. 269, 1900 ; Nicolls and
Eglington, Sportsman in S. Africa, p. 65, 1892 ; , Matschie,
Saugeth. Deutsch-Ost-Africa, p. 98, 1895; Selous, Great and
Small Game of Africa, p. 533, 1899; Rothschild, Powell-Cotton's
Abyssinia, p. 480, 1902 ; Anderson and de Winton, Mamm.
Egypt, p. 356, 1902 ; Boussac, Rev. Scient. ser. 5, vol. i, p. 425,
1904 ; Wolf, Ber. Senckenb. Ges. vol. xli, p. 7, 1910 ; Beddard,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 270, Cambridge Nat. Hist., Mamm.
p. 273, 1902; Miller, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. Ixiv, no. 7,
p. 3, 1910; Maurer, Anat. Anz. vol. xxxviii, p. 145, 1911;
Lonnberg, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. vol. xlviii, no. 5, p. 136,
1912 ; Allen, Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. Iviii, p. 323, 1914.

Hippopotamus abyssinicus, Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm.
p. 158, 1842 ; nomen nudum.

Hippopotamus typus, Duvernoy, C. R. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xiv, p. 33,
1846,

2 C 2



388



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



Hippopotamus (Tetraprotodon) amphibius, Falconer. Journ. Ac. Sci.
Philad. ser. 2, vol. i, p. 237, 1849, Pal. Mem. vol. ii, p. 405, 1868.

Hippopotamus senegalensis, Falconer, Journ. Ac. Sci. Philad. ser. 2,
vol. i, p. 237, 1849 ; Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 357,
1869 : quoted but not recognised as a species, as if from
Desmoulins, Journ. Physiol. vol. v, p. 354, 1825, where, however,
according to Miller (1910), no such name was given.

Typical locality Nile Valley.

Size very large length of head and body about 14 feet ;
two pairs of incisors in each jaw, the inner pair in lower jaw




FIG. 55. PALATAL ASPECT OP SKDLL AND LOWER JAW OF HIPPOPOTAMUS
(Hippopotamus amphibius).

much larger than the outer; neck very short and line of
back but little arched ; skin, with the exception of bristles
on the muzzle and tail, nearly naked, and forming heavy
folds on neck, shoulders, and sides of chest.

The distributional area formerly included suitable locali-



HIPPOPOTAMID;E 389

ties over the greater part of Ethiopian Africa, exclusive of
the forest-tract, and in the Pleistocene embraced a large
part of Europe.

The five following races are recognised :

A. Width of orbit not exceeding height.

a. Skull with moderate preorbital constriction

and convex upper surface H. a. amphibius.

a' . Size larger, colour darker.

a 2 . Orbits less prominent H. a. amphibius.

b 2 . Orbits more prominent H. a. tschadensis.

b'. Size smaller, colour lighter H. a. Jcoboko.

b. Skull with deeper preorbital constriction and

flatter upper surface H. a. constrictus.

B. Width of orbit exceeding height, and flattening

of skull still greater than in b H. a. australis.



A. Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius.

Hippopotamus amphibius amphibius, Schwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.
ser. 8, vol. xiii, p. 31, 1914.

Typical locality Nile Valley.

Skull with moderate preorbital constriction, convex upper
surface, long mandibular symphysis, and relatively large
cheek-teeth.

The reference to this race of the undermentioned Gambian
specimens, and also of those of which the locality is unknown,
is provisional.

726, b. Fore part of lower jaw, with canines and incisors.
Locality unknown. No history.

726, rf. Skull. Gambia, West Africa.

Presented by the Earl of Derby, about 1848.

726, j. Skeleton, imperfect. West Africa (?), Gambia ;
collected by Mr. Dalton. Same history.

41. 1. 14. 45 (726, e). Lower canine, immature. Locality
unknown ; collected by Dr. G. Mantell. Purchased, 1841.

46. 3. 19. 1 (726, c). Lower canine. Locality unknown ;
collected by Mr. Harnett. Purchased, 1846.

51. 11. 10. 12 (726, b). Skull, young. Locality unknown.
Purchased (Zoological Society), 1851.

68. 2. 12. 1. Skull, female. Locality unknown.

Presented by Executors of Dr. H. Falconer, 1868.



390 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

74. 6. 4 2. Skull. White Nile.

Presented ly Sir Samuel Baker, 1874.
83. 12. 20. 1. Skin, mounted. Nile, from an animal
presented to the Zoological Society by the Pasha of Egypt.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1883.
87. 12. 29. 1. Skull. Kilwa Kisi-wani, south of Zan-
zibar. Presented ly Lieut. W. C. EM, R.N., 1887.
87. 12. 29. 2. Skull, female. Same locality.

Same history.

* * * *. Foetus in alcohol. Figured Proc. Zool. Soc.

1868, p. 491, and Cat. Carnivora, etc., p. 357. Purchased.

5. 8. 25. 1. Skin, mounted. Lower Zambesi. Miller,

op. cit. refers the Zambesi hippopotamus to the present, and

not to the southern race.

Presented ly J. Rowland Ward, Esq., 1905.
7. 10. 25. 2. Skull. Portuguese East Africa (? Beira).
Presented ly F. Vaughan Kirly, Esq., 1907.

7. 11. 17. 2. Skull, immature. Pangani Valley, Por-
tuguese East Africa.

Presented ly Rear-Admiral R. Montgomerie, G.B., 1907.

8. 4. 3. 8-9. Two skulls. Luenta Valley, Portuguese
Zambesia. Presented ly Mr. C. H. B. Grant, 1908.

12. 12. 8. 1. Skull, with damaged brain-case. Inham-
bane, Portuguese East Africa.

Presented ly T. Thompson, Esq., 1912.
12. 12 8. 2. Skull, in very similar condition to the last.

Same history.

726, I. Front of lower jaw, with canines and incisors.

Locality unknown. No history.

41. 1. 14. 45 (726, e). Lower canine, immature. Locality

unknown; collected by Dr. G. Mantell. Purchased, 1841.

46. 3. 19. 1 (726, c). Abnormally elongated lower canine,

from an aged animal. Locality unknown.

Purchased (Harnetf), 1846.

B. Hippopotamus amphibius tschadensis.

Hippopotamus amphibius tschadensis, Schwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat.
Hist. ser. 8, vol. xiii, p. 31, 1914.

Typical locality Katuna, Bornu, N.W. Africa.
Type in Senckenberg Museum, Frankfurt-am- Main.



HIPPOPOTAMI!) 1. 391

Nearly allied to typical race, but with the orbits more
prominent ; distinguished from H. a. australis (infra) by the
much shorter and wider facial region and the more forward
direction of the orbits.

10. 9. 30. 1. Skull, provisionally referred to this race.
Lagos, Southern Nigeria.

Presented ly J. R. Norman, Esq., 1910.

15. 2. 3. 1. Skull, very large, provisionally referred to
this race. Zaria Province, Nigeria ; collected by Capt. G. F.
Abadie. Presented ly Major-Gen. H. E. Abadie, C.B., 1915.

C. Hippopotamus amphibius kiboko.

Hippopotamus amphibius kiboko, Heller, Smithson. Misc. Collect.
vol. Ixi, no. 22, p. 1, 1914.

Typical locality Lake Naivasha, British E. Africa.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Size smaller than in typical race, colour lighter, and ears
and tail-tip more thickly haired than in If. a. australis ;
skull with very broad nasals, relatively small rostral con-
striction, and great elevation of orbits and occipital crest
above the deeply hollowed interorbital region. The orbits
are more nearly circular than in //. a. australis, and more
prominent than in H. a. eonstrictus, which also differs by the
greater rostral constriction and shorter mandibular symphysis.

14. 1. 7. 1-2. Two skulls, provisionally referred to this
race. Lower Baringo Valley, B. E. Africa.

Presented ty G. Elaine, Esq., 1914.

D. Hippopotamus amphibius eonstrictus.

Hippopotamus eonstrictus, Miller, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. liv,

no. 7, p. 1, 1910.
Hippopotamus amphibius eonstrictus, Heller, Smithson. Misc. Collect.

vol. Ixi, no. 22, p. 1, 1914.

Typical locality Angola.

Type in U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Skull lighter than in typical race, with the preorbital
constriction deeper, the upper surface more flattened, the
muzzle less expanded, the mandibular symphysis shorter,
and the cheek-teeth smaller.

No specimen in collection.



392 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



E. Hippopotamus amphibius australis.

Hippopotamus australis, Duvernoy, C. JR. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xiv,
p. 333, 1846 ; Miller, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. liv, no. 7, p. 3,
1910.

Hippopotamus capensis, Falconer, Journ. Ac. Sci. Pliilad. ser. 2,
vol. i, p. 237, 1849 ; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. Bengal,
p. 142, 1863 ; Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 357, 1869 ;
quoted although not recognised as a species as from Des-
moulins, Journ. Physiol. vol. v, p. 354, 1825, where, however,
according to Miller (1910), no such name was given.

Hippopotamus amphibius capensis, Heller, Smithson. Misc. Collect.
vol. Ixi, no. 22, p. 1, 1914.

Hippopotamus amphibius australis, Schwarz, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.
ser. 8, vol. xlii, p. 32, 1914.

Typical locality Cape Colony.

Skull apparently still more flattened than in H. a.
tschadensis, so that the width* of the orbit is greater than the
height.

726, a. Skull. South Africa. No history.

51. 12. 23. 4. Skull, young. South Africa.

Purchased (Stevens), 1851.

63. 11. 12. 51. Skull. Cape Colony. Formerly in

Museum of Linnean Society. Purchased (Stevens), 1863.

69. 8. 13. 2. Skull. Natal ; collected by Mr. B. Isaacson.

Purchased, 1869.
13. 1. 31. 1. Pair of lower tusks. South Africa.

Presented ly J. C. Lyell, Esq., 1913.



II. Genus CHCEROPSIS.

Diprotodon, Duvernoy, C. P. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xxix, p. 277, 1849 ;
nee Owen, 1838.

Chcerodes, Leidy, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1852, p. 52; nee White, 1846.

Chceropsis, Leidy, Journ. Ac. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. ii, p. 213, 1853 ;
Gratiolet, Eecherches Anat. Hippopotame, p. 202, 1867 ; Milne-
Edwards, Eech. Mamm. p. 77, 1868 ; Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc.
Brit. Mus. p. 357, 1869 ; Macalister, Proc. B. Irish Ac. ser. 2,
vol. i, p. 494, 1873 ; Peters, Monatsber. Ak. Berlin, 1873, p. 445 ;
Chapman, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1893, p. 185; Beaux, Zool.
Anz. vol. xl, p. 227, 1912 ; PococJc, Field, vol. cxxi, p. 336, 1913.

Ditomeadon, Gratiolet, Gervais 1 Zool. et Pal. Gen. ser. 1, p. 250, 1860,
Eecherches Anat. Hippopotame, p. 202, 1867.

Diproctodon, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 357, 1869,
errorim.



HIPPOPOTAMI!). K

Dentition : /. if, e. ]-, p. |, m. = 38 ; build comparatively
light; bodily size and head relatively small ; eyes not markedly
prominent ; limbs proportionately much longer than in
typical genus, with the feet (fig. 56) approximating in
general characters to those of pigs, the lateral digits,
although touching the ground, free from webbing, and the
two middle toes, in spite of a basal web, subspatulate, and
capable of a considerable amount of lateral spreading.

Eestricted at the present day to West Africa.

CHCEROPSIS LIBERIENSIS.

Hippopotamus minor, Morton, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1844, p. 14 ; nee
Desmarest, 1882.

Hippopotamus liberiensis, Morton, Journ. Ac. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. i,
p. 232, 1849 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. R. Coll.
Surg. pt. ii, p. 365, 1884 ; Lydekker, Pal. Ind. (Mem. Geol. Surv.
India), ser. 10, vol. iii, p. 47, 1884, Great and Small Game of
Africa, p. 532, 1999, Game Animals of Africa, p. 412, 1908 ;
Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1887, p. 612; Flower and Lydekker,
Study of Mammals, p. 280, 1891 ; Eendall, Great and Small
Game of Africa, p. 543, 1899 ; Weber, Sdugethiere, p. 646, 1904.

Diprotodon liberiensis, Duvcrnoy, C. R. Ac. Sci. Paris, vol. xxix,
p. 277, 1849.

Hippopotamus (Tetraprotodon) liberiensis, Falconer, Journ. Ac. Sci.
Philad. ser. 2, vol. 1, p. 237, 1849, Pal. Mem. vol. ii,p. 405, 1868.

Chcerodes liberiensis, Leidy, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1852, p. 52.

Choeropsis liberiensis, Leidy, Journ. Ac. Sci. Philad. ser. 2, vol. ii,
p. 213, 1853 ; Milne- Edwards, Rech. Mamm. p. 77, 1868 ; Gray,
Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus. p. 357, 1869, Hand-List Thick-
skinned Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 79, 1873 ; Macalister, Proc. R.
Irish Ac. ser. 2, vol. i, p. 494, 1873; Peters, Monatsber. Ak.
Berlin, 1873, p. 445 ; Jentink, Notes Leyden Mus. vol. x, p. 29,
1885; Chapman, Proc. Ac. Sci. Philad. 1893, p. 185; Beaux,
Zool. Anz. vol. xl, p. 227, 1912.

Ditomeadon liberiensis, Gratiolet, Gervais' Zool. et Pal. Gen. ser. 1,
p. 250, 1860, Recherches Anat. Hippopotame, p. 202, 1867.

Hippopotamus (Tetraprotodon) liberianus, Gerrard, Cat. Bones
Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 284, 1862, errorim.

Tetraproctodon liberiensis, Gray, Cat. Carnivora, etc. Brit. Mus.
p. 357, 1869, misquotation of Falconer's Hippopotamus (Tetra-
protodon) liberiensis.

Hippopotamus (Choeropsis*) liberiensis, Lydekker, Ward's Records
of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 451, 1914.

Typical locality St. Paul's River, Liberia.

Type in Museum of Philadelphia Academy of Natural

Science.

* Errorim, Chceropotamus.



394 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Size approximately that of a large wild boar ; body
shorter than in Hippopotamus, with the line of the back
much arched, and the croup sloping away behind ; skin
much as in typical genus.

Distribution, at the present day, co-extensive with that of
the genus.

50. 7. 5. 1 (1312, a). Cast of type skull. Original from
St. Paul's Eiver, Liberia.

Presented ly Dr. S. G. Morton, 1850.




FIG. 56. FORE-FEET OF PIGMY HIPPOPOTAMUS (Chceropsis liberiensis), A,

AND ORDINARY HIPPOPOTAMUS (Hippopotamus amphibius), B.

From Pocock, The Field, 1913.

87. 9. 15. 1 (1312, b). Skin and skeleton, mounted. Du
Queah Eiver, Liberia ; collected by Dr. J. Biittikofer.
Noticed by Flower, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1887, p. 612.

Purchased, 1887.

8. 10. 22?. 1. Skin, immature, mounted. Liberian frontier

of Sierra Leone. Presented ly J. Rowland Ward, Esq., 1908.

14. 6. 21. 1. Skull and skin, old and large female. Moa

Valley, Daru, Sierra Leone ; collected by E. M. S. Baynes,

Esq. Purchased, 1914.



INDEX
OF GENERA AND SPECIES



abyssinicus, Hippopotamus, 387

acapulcensis, Cervus, 167

acapulcensis, Odocoileus, 167

acapulcensis, Odocoileus virgini-
anus, 167

aceros, Sikaillus, 107

Achlis, 238

acuticornis, Dama, 100



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 31 of 36)