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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 174, 1891;
Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 316, 1893, Deer of All Lands,
p. 208, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 989 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1910, p. 954; Aoki, Annot. Zool. Japon. vol. viii, p. 343,
1913.

Typical locality Canton, Eastern China.

Smaller than the typical form of M. lacrymans, the
shoulder-height being about 16 inches, the basal skull-length
5f inches, and the length of the upper series of cheek-teeth
If to 1^| inches; skull shorter and wider, with more divergent
antlers, and larger lachrymal pits, which occupy the whole
surface of the bone, and are larger than the orbits, with which
they are in complete contact, not extending in advance of
first line of anterior premolars ; nasals expanded laterally
at junction with maxillae; nape usually with a distinct
black stripe ; upper part of forehead cinnamon (pale rufous),
and upper part of ears dusky ; general colour reddish
chestnut, more or less full speckled with yellowish grey ;
limbs blackish brown ; in females most of the backs of the
ears and the greater part of the forehead blackish or black.
The range includes Southern China and Formosa.



A, Muntiacus reevesi reevesi.

Typical locality Canton, Eastern China.
General characters those of the species ; forehead between
black pedicle-streaks distinctly rufous ; chin and throat
white.

50. 11. 22. 12. Skull, imperfect, and skin, female. China.
Purchased (Zoological Society), 1850.
53. 8. 29. 44. Skull and skin, female. Canton.

Presented by J. R. Reeves, Esq., 1853.
55, 12. 24. 283. Skull, imperfect, and skin. Canton.
Type. Length of upper series of cheek-teeth 2 inches.

Same history.

* Or reevesi.



29

01. 1. 7. 1. Skull and skin, young. Amoy, China;
collected by 11. Swinhoe, Esq. The first molar is not yet
in use. Purchased, 1861.

7'2. 9. 3. 2. Skull and skin, female, in spotted coat.
Ningpo ; same collector. Purchased, 1872.




A B

FIG. 5. SKULL AND ANTLERS OF REEVES'S MUNTJAC (Muntiacusreevesi), A,

and BRIDGEMAN'S MUNTJAC (M. sinensis), B.

From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910.

72. 9. 3. 8. Skeleton, subadult. Same locality and
collector. Same history.

1524, a. Skeleton. Menagerie specimen.

Purchased (Zoological Society).

0. 7. 6. 2. Skull and skin, female. Foochow, Fokien,
South-eastern China. Presented by C. B, Rickett, Esq, 1900.



30 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

0. 7. 6. 3. Skull, with milk-molars and first molar in
use, young female. Same locality. Same history.

1. 3. 2. 7. Skin, female. Foochow.

Presented by F. W. Styan, Esq., 1901.
1. 3. 2. 10. Skull, imperfect, with much worn cheek-
teeth, and skin, female. Ningpo. Same history.
1. 3. 2. 11. Skull, imperfect, and skin of a younger
female. Same locality. Same history.
1. 3. 2. 12. Skull, imperfect, with milk-molars, and skin,
female. Same locality. Same history.
4. 5. 7. 1. Skin, subadult, mounted. China.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1904.

B. Muntiacus reevesi ping-shiangieus.

Cervulus reevesi pingshiangicus, Hilzheimer, Abh. Mus. Naturk.

Magdeburg, vol. i, p. 169, 1906.
Cervulus reevesi, var. LydehJcer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 991.

Typical locality Pingshiang, Central China.

General colour similar to that of typical race, but the
forehead between the black lines uniformly leather-brown
without a rufous tinge ; backs of ears streaked with blackish,
in females wholly blackish ; chin, throat, and under side of
neck yellowish white ; under-parts brownish grey.

10. 10. 22. 3. Skull and skin, female, provisionally
referred to this race. Feng Luang Shan, An-hwei, Central
China. Presented ~by Commander the Hon. E. 0. B.

Bridgeman, R.N., 1910.

C. Muntiacus reevesi mierurus.

Cervulus mierurus, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 421, 1876,
p. 696.

Typical, and only, locality Formosa.

Distinctly richer and darker in colour than either of the
races from the Chinese mainland. The supposed shortness
of the tail, which constituted the grounds for separating the
island from the mainland form, turned out to be the result
of an individual injury.

62. 12. 24. 3. Skull and skin, subadult, female. Formosa ;
collected by E. Swinhoe, Esq. Purchased, 1862,



CEKV1D.E 31

70. 2. 10. 82, 83, and 85. Three frontlets, with autlers.
Formosa ; same collector. Purchased, 1870.

93. 12. 5. 7. Skull and skin. Formosa; collected by
Mr. P. A. Hoist. A menagerie specimen.

Presented ~by H. Seebohm, Esq., 1893.

93. 12. 5. 8. Skull and skin, young. Same locality and
collector. Same history.

94. 11. 22. 7. Skull and skin, female. Tongapo, southern
Formosa; same collector. Purchased, 1894.

8. 4. 1. 55. Skull, imperfect, and skin. Central Formosa ;
collected by Mr. A. Owston. Purchased.

8. 4. 1. 57. Skull, imperfect posteriorly, with antlers,
and skin. Banhora, central Formosa; same collector.

Same history.

IV. MUNTIACUS SINENSIS.

Cervulus sinensis, Hilzheimer, Zool. Anz. vol. xxix, p. 297, 1905,
AbJi. Mus. NaturJc. Magdeburg, vol. i, p. 165, pi. ii, fig. 1, 1906.

Cervulus bridgemani, Lydeklcer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 989, Abstr.
p. 38 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 82, 1910, ed. 7, p. 82,
1914.

Typical locality, probably the Hwai Mountains (Hwei-
Yas Shan), An-hwei (Ngau-hwei) district of Central China ;
the type specimen was a captive individual at Kiu-kiang,
near Hankau, to the south of the Yang-tsi.

Type in Magdeburg Museum.

Allied to the preceding species, but larger and darker ; the
shoulder-height being about 19 inches, and the general colour
blackish brown mingled with yellow, owing to the presence
of yellow subterminal rings to the otherwise dark hairs
of the middle of the back and rump ; in females the annu-
lated area includes the flanks ; whole forehead, occiput, and
basal two-thirds of backs of ears leather-yellow in males,
blackish in females; black frontal streaks uniting into a
patch behind ears and continued posteriorly as the nuchal
stripe. Antler-pedicles, at least frequently, more divergent
than in M. reevesi, and nasals without lateral expansion at
first contact with inaxilhe; lachrymal pits as large as or
rather larger than orbits, with which they are in contact
only for a very small space, extending anteriorly some



32 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

distance in advance of the line of the anterior upper molar ;
basal length of skull about 5 inches (157 mm.), longer
diameter of orbit 1| (32 mm.), of lachrymal pit 1^ (36 mm.),
length of upper tooth-row 1 J inches (48 5 mm.).

This species (at all events as represented by M. Iridgemani)
lives at high elevations, descending to lower levels only at
periods of extreme cold in mid-winter.

10. 5. 26. 2. Skull, with antlers, head-skin mounted, and
body-skin. Hwai Mountains, An-hwei district.

Presented ~by Commander the Hon R. 0. B.
Bridgcman, R.N., 1910.

10. 5. 26. 3. Skin, mounted. Same locality. Type of
C. bridgemani. Same history,

10. 10. 22. 2. Skull, female. Tai Kung Shan, An-hwei.

Same history.



V. MUNTIACUS

Cervulus feae, Thomas and Doria, Ann. MILS. Genova, ser. 2, vol. vii,
p. 92, 1889 ; Stanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 534, 1891 ;
Thomas, Ann. Mus. Genova, vol. x, p. 945, pi. x, 1892 ; Lydekker,
Horns and Hoofs, p. 315, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 209,
pi. xvi, fig. 1 , 1898, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 263, 1907 ;
Gairdner, J. Siam Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. i, p. 115, 1914.

Typical locality mountains south-east of Muleyit, Tenas-
serim.

Type in Genoa Museum.

Differs from all the preceding species by the absence of
frontal glands, the black middle line of upper surface of the
tail, and the sepia-brown general colour; the tail being
relatively short, the face-markings distinct, and the lower
part of fronts of hind-legs with a white line. In both this
and the next species the young are probably unspotted.
Size approximately the same as in the Indian race of the
type species. The following is an abbreviation of the
original description :

General colour uniformly dark brown, with centre of
crown, pedicles of antlers, occiput, and region round bases
of the ears bright yellow ; a black line running up the inner
side of each pedicle ; neck uniformly brown ; fore-legs brown
superiorly, darkening to black on the metacarpals, with the



33

terminal inch next the hoof white all round, and a line of
scattered white hairs running up fronts to knees ; hind-legs
similarly coloured, but with a distinct white line on fronts ;
tail short, black above, white below and at sides, the two
colours sharply contrasted; under-parts brown, mixed with
whitish on chin and inner surfaces of limbs.

14. 8. 22. 32. Skin of rump and tail. Tenasserim border
of Siam. The sole remnant of an animal killed by a leopard
and eaten by coolies.

Presented ~by K. G. Gciirdner, Esq., 1914.



VI. MUNTIACUS CKINIEKONS.

Cervulus crinifrons, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1885, p. 1, pi. i ; Styan,
ibid. 1886, p. 267 ; LydeJcker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 317, 1893,
Deer of All Lands, p. 210, pi. xvi, fig. 2, 1898 ; Ward, Records of
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 82, 1910, ed. 7, p. 82, 1914.

Typical locality near Ningpo, Eastern China.

Distinguished from all other members of the group by its
large size (shoulder-height from 24^ to, probably, 25 inches),
and the tuft of long hairs on the forehead and crown of the
head, which conceals the antler-pedicles and obscures the
markings of this area ; hair longer and coarser, ears shorter,
more rounded, and more thickly haired on backs, tail much
longer (9 inches), and lateral hoofs better developed than in
any of the chestnut-coloured species. General colour dark
sepia-brown, with a purple tinge, and the back finely
speckled with rufous ; head-crest, ears, forehead, and cheeks
bright orange-chestnut ; inner sides of thighs and sides and
lower surface of tail white ; upper surface of tail and a
stripe extending thence on to rump black.

91. 3. 4. 1. Skin, mounted, and skeleton. Ningpo,
Southern China ; collected by A. Michie, Esq., who presented
the animal, when alive, to the Zoological Society. Type.

Purchased, 1891.



34 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



III. Genus ELAPHODUS.

Elaphodus, Milne- Edwards, Arch. Mas. Paris, vol. vii, p. 93, 1871,
Eech. Mamm. p. 353, 1874; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876,
p. 757 ; Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 899 ; Riltimeyer, Abh. schweiz.pal.
Ges. vol. viii, p. 28, 1881 ; LydekJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 212,
1898 ; Pococlc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 955.

Lophotragus, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 452.

Nearly allied to Muntiacus, but the antlers so small that
they scarcely project from the long tuft of hair on the crown
of the head, and their long supporting pedicles diverging
inferiorly, and not sending down long rib-like ridges on to
f rentals ; no frontal glands ; upper canines not everted at
tips ; hair coarse and pithy ; ears broad, rounded, and thickly
haired ; tail moderately long ; lateral hoofs present. The
young are spotted along the middle line of the back. Tarsal
bones as in Muntiacus.

The genus, which is evidently less specialised than
Muntiacus, is restricted to China.



ELAPHODUS CEPHALOPHUS.

Elaphodus cephalophus, Milne- Edwards, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vii,
p. 93, 1871, Rech. Mamm. p. 353, pis. Ixv-lxvii, 1874; Garrod,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 757; Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 899;
LydeJcker, Horns an:d Hoofs, p. 313, 1893, Deer of All Lands,
p. 213, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. ii, p. 166 ; Pococlc, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 955 ; Allen, Bull. Mus. Harvard Coll. vol. xl,
p. 203, 1912.

The type and only species.

Typical locality Sze-chuan, Western China.

Type in Paris Museum.

Size approximately the same as in the Indian Muntjac,
the shoulder-height being from about 22 to 23 inches.
General colour typically deep chocolate-brown, the hairs on
head and neck having a narrow white ring near the tip
which is wanting in those of the body behind the shoulder,
hair of crest forming a nearly black horse-shoe on forehead,
bordered by a grey line above each eye ; ears whitish
internally, with a larger or smaller amount of pure white on



('EKV1D.K



35



both surfaces of the tips ; under surface and sides of tail,
and inner sides of buttocks and thighs white.
The races are distinguishable as follows :

A. Skull longer and narrower.

a. White area on ear-tips smaller.

a'. Size larger; much white on tail E. c. cephalophus.

b'. Size smaller; less white on tail E. c. michianus.

1). White area on ear-tips larger E. c. focier&is.

u. Skull shorter and broader, with differently

shaped lachrymal pits E. c. ichangensia.




FIG. 6. HEAD or NINGPO TUFTED DEER

(Elaphodus cephalophus michianus).

From Garrod, Proc. Zool. fSoc. 1876.



A. Elaphodus cephalophus cephalophus.

Typical locality Sze-chuau.

Size large ; general colour chocolate-brown, with the tail
mainly white above ; skull elongated, with long nasals, and
the long axis of the lachrymal pits (which form irregular
ovals) nearly coincident with that of orbits. Basicranial
length in subadult male 7 inches, in adult female 7J inches ;

D 2



36 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

length of nasals in former 2^, in latter 2 T 8 ^ inches ; length
of upper tooth-row in former 2, in latter 2^ inches.

92. 7. 31. 1. Skull and skin, female. Eastern Tibet,
near Sze-chuan border, at an elevation of 15,000 feet;
collected by Dr. W. G. Thorold. The cheek-teeth are well
worn ; the infraorbital bar of the skull is deep, as in fig. 7.

Purchased, 1892.

11. 9. 8. 44. Skull, with antlers, and skin, subadult.
Wen-chwan-hsien, Si-ho Valley, western Sze-chuan ; collected
by M. Pi Anderson, Esq. The milk-molars are still in
use, and the last molar is not fully protruded. The
infraorbital bar of the skull is relatively narrow, thereby
indicating that the relative depth of this element is of no
taxonomic importance.

Presented ly the Duke, of Bedford, K.G., 1911.

B. Elaphodus cephalophus michianus.

Lophotragus michianus, Stuinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 452;

Garrod, ibid. 1876, p. 757, pi. Ixxvi.
Elaphodus michianus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 900 ; Styan,

ibid. 1886, 268 ; LydeMer, Horns and Hoofs, p. 313, 1893, Deer

of All Lands, p. 214, pi. xvii, fig. 1, 1898, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904,

vol. ii, p. 166,
Elaphodus cephalophus michianus, PococJc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910,

p. 956.

Type of Lophotragus.

Typical locality near Nmgpo, Che-kiang, Eastern China.

Smaller than the last, and rather lighter in colour, with
less white on the tail, of which nearly the whole upper
surface is frequently dark ; skull (fig. 7) of the same general
type, with somewhat shorter nasals, and the lachrymal pits
forming narrower but large irregular ovals, in which the
longer axis is not far removed from that of the orbits. Basal
length of skull about 6 J inches ; length of nasals 2 ; length
of upper series of cheek-teeth 2-J inches.

This race inhabits reed-brakes in the water- courses of the
Ningpo district.

78. 11. 14. 3 (1699, a). Skeleton, mounted. Mngpo ;
collected by A. H. Everett, Esq. Skull shown in fig. 7.

Purchased (Gerrard), 1878.



78. 11. 14. 4 (1699, b). Skull and skin (formerly
mounted), immature. Same locality and collector.

Same history.

78. 11. 14. f> (1699, c). Skeleton, mounted, and skin,
female. Same locality and collector. flame history.

86. 10. 28. 7. Skin, mounted. 100 miles S.W. of
Ningpo; collected ]>y F. W. Styan, Esq. Purchased, 1886.

86. 10.- 28. <S. Skin, female, mounted. Same locality
and collector. flame history.

86. 10. 28. 9. Skin, young, mounted. Same locality
and collector. flame history.




FIG. 7. SIDE VIEW OF SKULL OF NINGPO TUFTED DEER
(Elaphodus cephalophus michianus) ; pr. v. lachrymal pit.

From Lydekker, Proc. Zcol. Soc. 1904.

1. 3. 2. 13. Skull and skin, immature. Ningpo. Milk-
molars still in use. Presented by F. W. Styan, Esq., 1901.

1 . 3. 2. 14. Skull and skin, female. Same locality.

Same history.

1. 3. 2. 15. Skull, imperfect, and skin, immature female.
Same locality. Same histor;/.

1. 3. 2. 1 6. Skull and skin, young. Same locality.

Same history.

2. 6. 10. 60. Skull and skin, immature. Che-kiang,
China. The milk-molars are still in use, and the last upper
molar is not yet protruded. Same donor, 1902.



CATALOGUE Otf UNGULATES



Jr.





FIG. 8. FRONT VIEW OP SKULLS OF NINGPO (A), AND ICHANG TUFTED
DEER (B) (Elaphodus cephalophus michianus and E. c. ichangensis).
fr. frontal ; na. nasals.

From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904.



C. Elaphodus cephalophus fociensis.

Elaphodus michianus fociensis, Lydelcker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904,
vol. iv, p. 169.

Typical locality Fing-ling, Fo-kien, South-east China.

Rather larger than E. c. michianus and apparently a little
darker, with much more white on both sides of upper part of
ears ; tail unknown ; skull (female) with less elevation of
hind frontal region, and a greater expansion and flattening
of the platform formed by the base of the lachrymal and the
anterior zygomatic root. Basal skull-length 6f inches;



CERVID^E



length of nasals 2J, length of upper series of cheek-teeth
inches.



98. 3. 7. 18. Skull and skin, female. Ting-ling, Fo-kien.
Type. Presented by 0. B. Eickelt, Esq., 1898.

D. Elaphodus cephalophus iehangensis.

Elaphodus ichangensis, Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904, vol. ii, p. 169
Abstr, P.Z.S. 1904, p. 10.

Typical locality Ichang, Hu-pe, Central China.
Apparently of the same approximate size as E. c.
michianus, but with a shorter and broader type of skull, in




FIG. 9. SIDE VIEW OP SKULL OF ICHANG TUFTED DEER (Elaphodus

cephalophus ichangensis), pr. mx. premaxilla ; pr. v. lachrymal pit.

From Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1904.

which the basal length is only 6| inches, against 7J inches
in the typical race ; nasals (fig. 8, B) relatively short, and the
lachrymal pits (fig. 9) forming more regular, smaller, and
deeper ovals, of which the longer axis is more oblique to that
of the orbits than in any of the other races ; * general colour
dark brown, passing into blackish on the limbs ; tail wholly
white at tip, with only the basal two-thirds of the upper
surface dark. Length of nasals 2 inches ; length of upper
series of cheek-teeth 2-^- inches.

* Certain other cranial characters given in the original description
appear to be dependent on age.



40 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Although this form appears to be the most distinct of all
the local forms from the typical E. cephalophus, it is perhaps
best regarded as a race rather than a species. Unlike E. c.
michianus, it is a mountain animal.

1. 3. 2. 17. Skull (fig. 8, B, and fig. 9), and skin. Ichang.
Type. The molars are rather more worn than in E. c.
cephalophus, No. 11. 9. 8. 44.

Presented by F. W. Styan, Esq., 1901.

IV. Genus DAM A.

Dama, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 84, vol. v,
p. 306, 1827 ; LydelcJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 125, 1898 ; PococJc,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 950 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe,
p. 970, 1912.

Platyceros, Wagner, Sclireber's Sdugthiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 347,
1844.

Dactyloceros, Wagner, op. cit. vol. v, p. 352, 1855.

Machlis, Zittel (ex Kemp?), Handbuch Palceont. vol. iv, p. 402, 1893.

Palmatus (= " Palmati," Giebel, Sdugethiere, ed. 2, p. 351, 1859),
in LydeJcJcer's Deer of All Lands, p. 125, 1828 ; Elliot, Cat.
Mamm. Field Mus. (Zool. Pub. Field Mus. vol. viii) p. 44, 1907.

In this and the two following genera the structure of
the remnant of the lateral rnetacarpals is the same as in
Muntiacus and Elaplwdus (plesiometacarpalian type), but
the antlers, which diverge from the middle line of the skull
at angles of about 45 degrees, are large, with a true basal
tine, and are supported on relatively short pedicles, which do
not form ridges on the frontals, the upper canines of the
stags, when present, are not tusk-like, the lachrymal vacuities
of the skull are larger than in the preceding group, the
phalanges of the lateral digits are retained (instead of being
aborted), and the outer cuneiform bone of the tarsus is not
fused with the naviculo-cuboid, as it is in Muntiacus and
Elaplwdus. Face-glands are present ; in the skull the vomer
is low behind, and does not divide the posterior nostrils ; and
there is a large muffle. Dama includes : Medium-sized
deer, in which the antlers are normally without a second
(bez) tine, but with a third (trez) tine, above which the beam
is distinctly, although narrowly, palmated, with snags on the
hind-border ; coat spotted in summer, uniformly coloured in
winter, with a black-bordered white area on the buttocks, in



41



the region of the rather long tail ; head short and broad, with
somewhat small but deep face-glands, and the bare part of
the muzzle much as in Ccrvus (infra) \ head short and
broad ; hind-hoofs united only at the " heels " * by a close
fold of skin, with the foot-gland forming a long and deep
hair-lined interdigital cleft (as in Muntiacus), and a
moderately deep cleft on front of fore-pasterns ; upper
canines wanting (fig. 10), cheek-teeth very short-crowned





FIG. 10. PALATAL ASPECT OF
SKULL OF FALLOW DEER (Dama
dama). % nat size.

From Miller, Cat. Mamrn. Western
Europe.



FIG. 11. LOWER FRONT TEETH OF
FALLOW DEER (Dama dama).
nat. size.

From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western
Ewope.



and broad, and a marked difference in the size of the crowns
of the three pairs of lower incisors (fig. 11) ; orbits relatively
large ; young spotted. Other characters as in Cervus,
infra, p. 40.

The original distributional area appears to have been
restricted to the Mediterranean countries and Persia ; but
the typical species has been introduced into Western and
Central Europe, where it exists in a semi-domesticated



For explanation of this term see vol. ii, p. 172.



42 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

condition as far north as the British Islands and the south of
Sweden.

Fallow deer were regarded by Garrod as near akin to the
Sika group of Cervus ; but Pocock points out that they differ
from all other deer, with the exception of the muntjak group,
by the deep clefts between the hoofs, and are therefore
entitled to form a generic group by themselves.

I. DAMA DAMA.

Cervus dama, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 67, 1758, ed. 12, vol. i,
p. 93, 1766; Kerr, Linn.' 8 Anim. Kingdom, p. 298, 1793;
F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pis. 104-106, 1811 ; Cuvier,
Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 29, 1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith's
Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 84, 1827 ; Fischer, Synop. Mamm.
p. 448, 1829 ; Jenyns, Brit. Vert. Anim. p. 38, 1835 ; Bell, Brit.
Quadrupeds, p. 402, 1837, ed. 2, p. 358, 1874 ; Keyserling and
Blasius, Wirbelth. Europ. p. 26, 1840; Lesson, Nouv. Tall.
Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 169, 1842; Owen, Brit. Foss. Mamm.
and Birds, p. 483, 1846; Blasius. Sdugeth. Deutschl. p. 453,
1857 ; Giebel, Sdugethiere, ed. 2, p. 351, 1859 ; Sclater, Nature,
vol. xi, p. 71, 1874 ; Brooke, ibid. vol. xi, p. 210, 1875, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1878, p. 913 ; Dawkins, Nature, vol. xi, pp. 112 and 226,
1875 ; Busk, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. x, p. 114, 1877 ; Danford and
Alston, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 276, 1880, p, 54 ; Flower and
Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. E. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 299, 1884 ;
Woodward and Sherborn, Cat. Brit. Foss. Vert. p. 330, 1890 ;
Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 323, 1891 ; Lydek-
ker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 311, 1893, British Mammals, p. 246,
1895, Deer of All Lands, p. 127, 1898, Great and Small Game of
Europe, etc. p. 241, 1901; Fowler, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1894, p. 485 ;
Millais, Mamm. Gt. Britain, vol. iii, p. 137, 1906 ; Elliot, Cat.
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43

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