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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 229, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 200, 1852,
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 74, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants
Brit. Mus. p. 142, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.
p. 264, 1862 ; Loclie, Expcd. Algerie, Mamm. p. 64, 1867 ; Garrod,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18 ; Sclater, List Anim. Zool. Gardens,
p. 181, 1886 ; LydekJfcr, Ward's Records of Big Game, ed. 7,
p. 74, 1914.

Cervus (Platyceros) dama, Wagner, ScJireber's Saugthiere, Suppl.
vol. iv, p. 347, 1844.

Cervus (Dactyloceros) dama, Wagner, op. cit. vol. v, p. 352, 1855.

Dama platyceros, niger, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien,
vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 553, 1874.

Dama platyceros, varius, Fitzinger, op. cit. p. 555, 1874.

Darna platyceros, albus, Fitzinger, loc. cit. 1874.

Dama dama, Lataste, Actes Soc. Linn. Bordeaux, vol. xxxix, p. 288,
1885 ; Trouessart, Faune Mamm. Europe, p. 229, 1910 ; Pocock,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 950 ; Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe,
p. 970, 1912 ; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 130, 1912.

FALLOW DEER ; DAIM.

The type species.

Typical locality Sweden (introduced).

The locality of C. mauricus, = maura, Fischer, = niger,
Fitzinger, is unknown. The names leuccethiops, = albus, and
raritis pertain to the introduced German breeds of the species.

Height at shoulder from about 3 feet to 3 feet 2 inches ;
antlers well palmated and directed largely upwards, with
the brow- and trez-tines simple, and the front edge normally
devoid of snags, which are, however, numerous on the
summit and hind margin of the palmated portion ; general
colour in summer brilliant fawn, with large whitish spots
irregularly distributed over the back, upper part of the
sides, and haunches, this spotted region being bounded
inferiorly on the sides and posteriorly on the haunches by
undefined white lines; a blackish line running down the
middle of the back and tail ; a white area, bordered above
by black on the buttocks below the tail, and the under side
of the tail, under-parts, inner surfaces of upper portions of
limbs, and inner sides of ears white or whitish ; in winter
the colour of the upper parts uniformly greyish fawn.

Owing to long domestication, the fallow deer of the
British parks frequently display great variation from this
original type of coloration, and a uniformly dark brown



44 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

breed has been long established, while white or whitish
varieties are far from uncommon.

Good antlers measure from 25 to 37 inches along the
front outer curve, with a basal girth of from 4 to 5^ inches,
and a tip-to-tip interval of from 12 to 30J inches. A bez-tine
may occasionally be developed on the antlers, and another
abnormality is the presence of an additional tine on the front
edge immediately above the third tine. The antlers make
their first appearance in the second year, when they are in
the form of simple snags, the stags being then known as
prickets. In the third year the brow- and bez-tines show
themselves, while the extremity of the beam becomes
palmated. In the succeeding year the palrnation increases,
with strongly marked serrations on the hind border ; and in
the fifth season the antlers have attained nearly their full
dimensions, although the palmation and its posterior snags
are not completely developed till the succeeding season.
The antlers are shed somewhat earlier in spring than those of
red deer.

The distributional area of the species is co-extensive with
that of the genus, exclusive of Persia. Wild fallow deer
inhabit a small area at the south-west end of the Sea of
Marmora and the whole, south coast of Asia Minor as far as
Ad ana, inclusive of the Taurus range. In western -north
Africa they are very rare and local.

693, a, I, d. Three frontlets, with antlers. England.

No history.

693, A?. Skull, female. England. No history.

43. 12. 29. 4. Skin, mounted. Italy.

Purchased (Lefebre), 1843.

46. 10. 23. 11. Skin, mounted. England.

Purchased (Baker), 1846:

50. 2. 5. 1-46. Forty-six antlers. New Forest, Hamp-
shire. Presented ly Mrs. Smyth, 1850.

50. 11. 13. 15. Skin, with antlers. England.

Purchased, 1850.

* * * *. Skin, mounted. England.

Purchased (Lcadbeater).

67. 4. 12. 234-235. Two skulls, with antlers. Conti-
nental. Lidth de Jeude Collection, purchased, 1867.



CKKVID.K 45

67. 4. 1.5. 236 and 241. Two skulls, female. Continental.

Same history.

88. 6. 12. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Nannan Park,
Merionethshire. Presented ly J. E. Harting, Esq., 1888.

96. 9. 24. 1. Skin, mounted. Woburn Abbey, Bedford-
shire. Presented by the Duke of Bedford, KG., 1896.

98. 10. 18. 1. Skin, mounted. Tring Park, Hertford-
shire. Presented by the Hon. Walter Rothschild, 1898.



II. DAM A MESOPOTAMIA.

Cervus (Dania) mesopotamicus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1875, p. 265,
1876, p. 298; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 56, 1910.

Dama mesopotaniica, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 18 ; Sclater,
List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 171, 1883; Lydekker, Ward's
Records of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 76, 1914.

Cervus mesopotamicus, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 914;
Fitzinger, Sitzber. If. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 62,
1879 ; Lydeklter, Horns and Hoofs, p. 311, 1893, Deer of All
Lands, p. 132, 1898, Great and Small Game of Europe, etc.
p. 244, 1901.

Cervus dama mesopotamiae, Trouessart, Caus. Sci. Soc. Zool. France,
vol. i, p. 405, 1905 ; Joleaud, Rev. Africaine, vol. iv, p. 16, 1913.

PERSIAN FALLOW DEER.

Typical locality Luristan Province of Persia.

Larger than D. dama; the colour much brighter (as
bright as in the Indian chital), with the row of elongated
whitish spots running on each side of the dark median line
of the back in the former coalescing into a continuous band,
and the black on the upper surface of the tail narrower and
confined to the root ; antlers (fig. 12) of a totally different
type, being somewhat expanded at the origin of the trez-
tine, which is large and situated close to the very short
brow-tine, but at the summit only somewhat flattened, and
breaking up at the crown and summit of the hind border
into four, five, or more snags.

93. 10. 17. 5. Head, mounted (fig. 12), and body-skin.
Luristan. Presented by Mr. ffeinicher, 1893.

95. 4. 7. 1. Single antler. Shustu, Luristan. From
Sir Victor Brooke's collection. Co-type.

Presented by tiir Douglas Brooke, Bart., 1895.



46



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



97. 11. 11. 1-2. Skull and single antler. Khuzistan,
Persia. Same collection. Co-type. Same donor, 1897.




FIG. 12. HEAD OF PERSIAN FALLOW DEER (Dama mcsopolamica).

97. 11. 11. 3. Single antler. Same locality and col-
lector. Same history.

V. Genus CERVUS.

Cervus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 10, vol. i, p. 66, 1758, ed. 12, vol. i,
p. 92, 1766 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 911 ; Blanford,
Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 534, 1891 ; Lydeklter, Deer of All
Lands, p. 61, 1896; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 940;
Miller, Cat. Mamm. West. Europe, p. 963, 1912.

The range of this, the typical, genus includes the north
temperate zones of both hemispheres, extending westward in
the Old World to the Atlantic coast of Norway, the British
Islands, and north-western Africa.



47

Large or medium-sized, or small deer, with subcylindrical
or somewhat flattened antlers, furnished with a true brow-
tine above the burr, and at least two other tines ; muzzle
with a large bare muffle ; tail medium or short ; coat more
or less uniformly coloured or spotted ; main hoofs long and
pointed, the hind pair united almost throughout their basal
length by a deep interungual membrane; no specialised
gland or deep interdigital cleft on front of fore-pasterns
nor on hind-pasterns except in the subgenera Hyelaphus and
Axis; skull, at least typically, longer and narrower than in
Dama, with smaller orbits ; cheek-teeth moderately short-
crowned and wide ; crowns of lower incisors varying some-




FIG. 13. LOWER FRONT TEETH OP RED DEER (Cervus elaphus).
From Miller, Cat. Mamm. Western Europe.

what in size, at least in typical groups (fig. 13) ; upper
canines usually present, young generally spotted. Tor other
characters, common to the allied genera, see Dama (p. 40).

Considerable diversity of view obtains with regard to the
limits of the genus ; Brooke and Blanford included in it
the sikine, rucervine, rusine, and axine groups, together with
Dama, while Miller restricts it to the typical elaphine group.
Pocock, on the other hand, includes the sikine and rucervine,
but excludes the rusine and axine groups, as well as Dama.
In the present volume all these groups, except Dama, are
included. The genus, in this sense, has a range in the Old
World nearly co-extensive with that of the family ; but in
the New World does not desceod south of Mexico.



48 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

It may be divided into the following subgenera :

A. A specialised gland, forming a moderately deep cleft

on front of hind-pasterns; upper canines often
wanting. Antlers 3-tined ; tail long.

a. Build taller and size larger; gland-cleft on hind-

pasterns without long hairs ; upper canines present

or absent ; coat spotted at all seasons Axis.

b. Build lower and size smaller ; gland-cleft on hind-

pasterns lined with long hairs ; upper canines

wanting ; coat spotted only in summer, or uniform Hyelaphus.

B. Typically no specialised gland or deep cleft on front of

hind-pasterns ; upper canines usually present.

a. Muffle extending some distance below nostrils;

antlers normally 3-tined ; tail relatively long and
bushy; coat usually uniform (spotted in C.
alfredi) Rusa.

b. Muffle extending but slightly below nostrils.

a'. Tail longer; coat fully spotted, at least in

winter ; antlers usually 4-tined, without a bez Sika.
b' . Tail short ; coat wholly or mainly unspotted.
a". Antlers lacking bez and third tines, typically
forked dichotomously, with at least 4 tines ;

no light rump-patch : Rucervus.

b". Antlers usually 5-tined, including a bez; a

light rump-patch or area on back of hams... Cervus.



1. SlTBGENUS AXIS.

Axis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v, p. 312, 1827 ;

Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 79, 1872 ; Riitimeyer, Abh.

schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 44, 1881 ; PococTc, Proc. Zool. Soc.

1910, pp. 948 and 971.
Melanaxis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, p. 47, 1888.

Eepresented by a medium-sized species, with long,
3-tined antlers, in which the brow-tine forms a right angle
with the beam, and a gland on the front of the hind-pasterns
contained in a moderately deep cleft, which is not lined with
long hairs ; metatarsal gland bare and overlapped by a row
of marginal hairs ; coat short and spotted at all seasons, not
forming a mane on neck ; ears and face-glands moderate ;
muffle extending some distance below nostrils ; tail long and
slender ; upper canines generally wanting ; auditory bullse
moderate.

In the presence of a gland-bearing cleft on the front of
the hind-pasterns (to say nothing of the spotted coat and the
general absence of upper canines) this subgenus resembles



49

J)niK, from which, however, it differs in the characters oi the
antlers, the absence of clefts on the front-pasterns, and the
fuller union of the hind-hoofs by means of an interlingual
web.

The range is restricted to Peninsular India and Ceylon.

I. CERVUS (AXIS) AXIS.

Cervus axis, Erxleben, Syst. Regn. Anim. p. 312, 1777 ; F. Cuvier,
Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pis. 102 and 103, 1819; H. Smith,
Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 117, 1827 ; /. B. Fischer,
Synop. Mamm. p. 451, 1829; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim.,
Mamm. p. 172, 1842 ; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Brooke,
ibid. 1878, p. 906 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus.
R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 203, 1884 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm.
Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 181, 1891; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India,
Mamm. p. 546, 1891 ; LydekJcer, Horns and Hoofs, p. 289, 1893,
Deer of All Lands, p. 179, pi. xiii, 1898, Great and Small Game
of India, etc. p. 220, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 233,
1907; Nitsche, Studien ilber Hirsche, p. 94, 1898; Bentham,
Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 80, 1908 ; Ward, Records
of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 68, 1910.

Cervus (Axis) axis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v,
p. 312, 1827; LydeMer, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mus. p. 38,
1913, Ward's Records of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 70, 1914.

Cervus nudipalpebra, Ogilby, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, p. 136.

Axis maculatus,* Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, pp. vi
and 167, f pi. xiii, 1835 ; Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 178,

1843, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1847, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850,
p. 233, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 212, 1852, Cat. Ruminants
Brit. Mus. p. 80, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 152,
1873 (maculata) ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.
p. 262, 1862 ; Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 260, 1867 ; Fit zing er,
Sitzber. Jc. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. i, p. 264, 1874;
Sterndale, Mamm. India, p. 506, 1884 ; Percy, Big Game
Shooting (Badminton Libr.}, vol. ii, p. 264, 1894.

Axis major and minor, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. x,

p. 941, 1841.
Cervus (Hippelaphus) axis, Sundevall, K. Svenslta Vet.-Ali. Handl.

1844, p. 180, 1846.

Hyelaphus maculatus, Fitzinger, Sitzber. It. Ak. Wiss. Wien,

vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 259, 1874.

Axis nudipalpebra, Fitzinger, op. cit. p. 270, 1874.
Axis (Axis) axis, Pococit, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 948.
Axis axis, Wroughton, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxi,

p. 1193, 1912; Cabrera, Cat. Met. Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 130,

1912; Dodsworth, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxii,

p. 748, 1914.

* Or maculata.

f Misprinted aculattts in text.

IV. E



50 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

CHITAL or CHITRA; SPOTTED DEER.

Typical locality the plains of Peninsular India, to which
country and Ceylon the species is restricted.

Size medium, the shoulder-height ranging from about
36 to 38 inches ; build light and slender, with the legs long ;




FIG. 14. SKULL AND ANTLERS OF CHITAL (Cervus [Axis] axis).

general colour bright rufous fawn, spotted all over the body
with white at all seasons ; a dark stripe from the nape to the
extremity of the tail, bordered along the back by one or two
rows of white spots ; the spots low down on the flanks some-
times blending into a line; chin, upper portion of throat,



CERVID.E 51

insides of ears, under-parts, inner surfaces of limbs, and under
side of the tail white ; head uniformly brownish, darker on
the face ; antlers (fig. 14) supported on short pedicles, long,
slender, and moderately rugose ; the brow- tine long and
making nearly a right angle with the beam ; the front, or
outer, tine of the terminal fork much longer than the hind, or
inner, one, and forming the continuation of the beam, from the
inner side of which the hind-tine arises ; space enclosed by
the two antlers more or less distinctly lyrate ; irregular snags
near the base of the brow-tine frequently developed; ears
moderate ; tail long, pointed, and evenly haired throughout ;
face-glands not excessively large ; neck and throat smooth.

A dark phase (G. nudipalpebra) is occasionally met with,
and shows scarcely any indications of spotting, but it has no
claim to rank as a subspecies. The largest individuals occur
in northern and central India, where the height of the stags
commonly reaches to between 36 and 38 inches ; in southern
India the height is less, usually varying from 30 to 34 inches,
although 36 has been recorded. It was to this small south
Indian form that the name of Axis minor was applied. Fine
antlers measure from 35 to 39 inches along the outer curve,
with a basal girth of from 3 to 4| inches, and a tip-to-tip
interval of from 12f to 25J inches.

The following two races are recognised :

A. Antlers stouter ; spots larger ; forehead usually

with dark chevron and a few white spots C. a. axis.

B. Antlers lighter ; spots smaller ; forehead uniformly

brown C. a. ceylonensis.

A. Cervus axis axis.

Typical locality Peninsular India.

Characters as above.

677, a. Skin, female, formerly mounted. India.

No history.

693, i. Head, melanistic, mounted. Ganges Khadir.
From an animal formerly in the Tower Menagerie, and pre-
sented by H.M. King William IV. to the Zoological Society.
Type of Cervus nudipalpebra. Purchased (Zoological Society).

697, -, I, c, j, k. Five frontlets, with antlers. Probably
India. No history.

E 2



52 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

* * * *. Pair of antlers, young. Probably India.

No history.
45. 1. 8. 119 (697, 17). Skull and antlers. Nepal.

Presented ly B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1845.

45. 1. 8. 120-121 (697, e and /). Two frontlets, with

antlers. Nepal. Same history.

45. 1. 8. 195. Skull, female. Nepal. Same history.

48. 8. 14. 17. Skin, two-year-old buck. Sub-Himalayan

Tarai near Mussurie. Purchased (Stevens), 1848.

50. 1. 11. 20 (697, 0- Frontlet and antlers. Probably
India. Purchased (Argent\ 1850.

51. 2. 17. 4. Skin, young, mounted. Probably from an
animal bred in London. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1851.

51. 11. 10. 7 (697, q). Skeleton. Menagerie specimen.

Same history.
55. 12. 26. 158. Skull, female. Probably India.

Transferred from the Zoological Society's Mus'eum, 1855.

57. 2. 24. 11. Skeleton. Menagerie specimen.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1857.

58. 6. 24. 16. Skull and antlers. Sikhim.

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1858.

58. 6. 24. 18. Skin, young. Sikhim. Same history.

59. 2. 3. 7. Skin, young, mounted.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1859.

59. 9. 6. 104 (697, t). Skull, immature. Probably India ;

Dr. A. Giinther's collection. Purchased, 1859.

67. 4. 12. 240 (697, y). Skull and antlers. Probably

India. Lidth de Jeude Collection, purchased, 1867.

79. 11. 21. 242. Skin, young. Kumaon; collected by

Gen. Sir E, Strachey, K.C.B.

Transferred from India Museum, 1879.

79. 11. 21. 488 (697, u). Skull, with diseased antlers.

Probably India. Same history.

89. 11. 20. 7-8 (697, w, x). Two frontlets, with antlers.

Khatcote Jungle, Central Provinces.

Presented ly Col. J. Evans, 1889.
91. 8. 7. 31-32. Two skulls and antlers. Dehra Dun.

Presented ly A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891.
91. 8. 7. 33-36. Four pairs of antlers. Same locality.

Same history.



CEKviD.r. 53

!1. 8. 7. 37. Skull and antlers. Bengal Sanderbans.

Same history.

91. 8. 7. 38-39. Two skulls, with antlers. Bohilkhand ;
collected by Eoss Scott. Esq. Same history.

98. 8. 8. 1. Skin, mounted. India.

Presented by the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1898.

2. 9. 15. 1. Skin, albino female, mounted. Brinja, Oudh.

Presented ly Mrs. Bcllew, 1902.

3. 1. 10. 1. Skin, i'emale. Near Klandapur, S. Kanara.

Presented by H. A. Latham, Esq., 1903.

12. 10. 31. 11. Skull and antlers (fig. 13). Dehra Dun.
Length of one antler 38J, of other 36f inches.

Bequeathed ly A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912.

12. 10. 31. 12. Skull and antlers. Basim district, Berar.
Length of antlers 37 J inches, basal girth 4J, tip-to-tip
interval 24 J inches. Same history.

12. 10. 31. 13. Frontlet and antlers. Bulundshahr,
Gauges Khadir, Kohilkhand ; collected by Mr. Hume. This
specimen stands No. 14 in Ward's 1910 list ; length of
antlers 19J, girth 3J, tip-to-tip 9J inches. Same history.

B. Cervus axis ceylonensis.

Axis inaculata ceylonensis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. Jc. Ak. Wiss. Wien,

vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 269, Ib74.*
Cervus (Rusa) axis zeylanicus, Lydekker, Field, vol. iv, p. 947, 1905,

Ward's Records of Big Game, ed. 7, p. 70, 1914. .

Typical (and only) locality Ceylon ; typified by II. Smith's
" Ceylon variety."*

Antlers lighter and more slender than in typical race ;
ground-colour yellower and purer fawn ; spots smaller, and
absent on the uniformly brown forehead, which has no dark
horseshoe-mark.

5. 5. 18. 1. Head, mounted. Ceylon ; collected by
Lieut.-Col. F. W. Begbie. Co-type of C. zeylanicus.

Presented ly Walter Reynolds, Esq., 1905.

5. 5. 19. 1. Body-skin. Ceylon. Co-type of C. zey-
lanicus. Presented ly Lieut -Col. F. W. Beglie, 1905.

* Cervus axis ceylonensis, H. Smith, in the present writer's
Deer of All Lands, p. 179, is a misquotation.



54 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

2. SUBGENUS HYELAPHUS.

Hyelaphus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl. 1844, p. 181,
1846; Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 215, 1852, Cat.
Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 79, 1872.

Closely allied, at least in its typical form, to the preceding
subgenus (Axis), but the build lower and stouter, the pedicles
of the antlers longer, the face-glands shallower, and the walls
of the glandular clefts on the fronts of the hind-pasterns
clothed with long hairs, which project beyond the margins.
Auditory bullte very large ; coat either spotted in summer or
uniformly coloured at all seasons, darker, at least typically,
on under-parts than on back.

In the long antler-pedicles and large auditory bullae the
group shows near affinity to the rusine C. Iculili.

The range extends from India through Burma and
Tenasserim to Siam, Annam, and the western Philippines.

The species are distinguishable as follows :

A. Coat typically spotted in summer; face longer... C. porcinus.

B. Coat uniformly coloured at all seasons ; face

shorter C. cala mianensis.



II. CEEVUS (HYELAPHUS) POECINUS.

Cervus porcinus, Zimmermann, Spec. Zool. Gcogr. p. 552, 1777 ;

F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iii, pis. 330-832, 1824;

H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 197, 1827 ;

J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 454, 1829 ; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl.

Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 172, 1842; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc.

1877, p. 17 ; Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 902 ; Flower and Garson, Cat.

Osteol. Mus. R. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 290, 1884 ; Lydekker, Gat.

Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 104, 1885, Horns and Hoofs,

p. 301, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 175, 1898, Great and Small

Game of India, etc. p. 217, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc.

p. 241, 1907; Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 320,

1901 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 178, 1891 ;

Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 549, 1891; Ward,

Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 10, 1896; Evans, Journ. Bombay

Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xiv, p. 310, 1902 ; Bentham, Asiatic Horns

and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 82, 1908.
Cervus pumilio, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 120,

1827 ; /. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 621, 1829.
Cervus (Axis) porcinus, H. Smith, op. cit. vol. v, p. 312, 1827.
Cervus (Axis) pumilio, H. Smith, op. cit. p. 313, 1827.
Axis porcinus, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 169,

pi. xiv, 1835 ; Jerclon, Mamm. India, p. 262, 1867 ; Sterndale,



CEKVID^E



55



Miinun. IinJin, p. 508, 1884; Percy, Jig Gumr Shooting (Bad-
minton Libr.), vol. ii, p. 261, 1894; Dodsworth, Jo urn. Bombay
Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxii, p. 748, 1914.

Cervus (Hyelaphus) porcinus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak. Handl.
1844, p. 181, 1846 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 70,
1910, ed. 7, p. 72, 1914; LydeJckcr, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit.
Mus. p. 38, 1913.




FIG. 15. SKULL AND ANTLERS OF HOG-DEER
(Cervus [Hyelaphus] poixinus).



Hyelaphus porcinus, Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 67, 1847, Proc.
Zool Soc. 1850, p. 233, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 215, 1852,
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 72, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants
Brit. Mus. p. 150, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.
p. 262, 1862.

Axis oryzus, Kelaart, Prodromus Faun. Zcylan. p. 83, 1852.

Hyelaphus porcinus pumilio, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien,
vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 258, 1874.

Cervus minor, Sclater, List Anim. Zool. Gardens, p. 169, 1883 ; nee
Axis minor, Hodgson, 1841.

Axis (Hyelaphus) porcinus, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 950.



56 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

PARA; HOG-DEER.

Typical locality the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India.

Height at shoulder ranging from about 25 to 29 inches ;
build heavy and low, with the legs short ; face comparatively
short ; hairs on the back not ringed, but with pale tips ;
general colour in winter rufous or yellowish brown, with a
somewhat speckled appearance owing to the pale tips of the
hairs, under-parts much darker than back ; in summer upper-
parts typically paler and more or less spotted in the early
part of the season with pale brown or white, the spots some-
times limited to one or two rows on each side of a dark
stripe down the middle of the back ; young fully spotted fcr
about the first six months ; antlers (fig. 15) supported on
long pedicles, with the hind, or inner, tine of the terminal
fork the shorter, and the brow-tine relatively stout and long,
being considerably longer than the head in fully adult
individuals ; ears rather large, well haired externally, white



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