British Museum (Natural History). Dept. of Zoology.

Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

. (page 6 of 36)
Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 6 of 36)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


internally ; tail moderately long, well-haired, but not bushy,
whitish beneath ; face-glands small ; metatarsal tuft slightly
lighter than rest of the leg. Skull moderately compressed
in front of orbits, which are not prominent. Fine antlers
measure from 20 to 23J inches in length along the outer
curve, with a basal girth of from 3 to 4J inches, and a tip-
to-tip interval of from 6| to 22^ inches.

The range extends from India to Siani and Annam, the
two races here recognised being distinguished as follows :

A. Size smaller ; coat spotted in summer C. p. porcinus.

B. Size larger ; coat uniformly coloured at all

seasons C. p. annamiticus.

A. Cervus porcinus porcinus.

Typical locality the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India.

Size relatively small ; coat spotted in summer.

The distributional area includes India, throughout the
Indo-Gangetic plain from Sind and the Punjab to Assam,
thence through Sylhet and Tenasserim to Burma. Although
it has been reported from the highlands of Central India and
Bombay, it is doubtful if the species ranges to any extent
into Peninsular India, although it may be found some



CKKVID.I-; ~>7

distance tip the larger tributaries uf the (ianges. It has
been reported from Madras, but apparently from the name
hog-deer having been misapplied to the chevrotain and
muutjac. In Ceylon it has been introduced into certain
districts.

42. 5. 3. 7. Pair of antlers. Probably India.

Purchased (Tucker), 1842.
4r>. 1. 8. 124. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal.

Present a I by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., J845.
45. 1. 8. 125. A similar specimen. Same locality.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 104. Skull, female. Same locality.

Hi 1 1 ne history,
* * * *. Two frontlets, with antlers. Probably India,

No history.

608, r. Pair of antlers. Probably India. Purchased.
t t t t- Two pairs of antlers. Probably India.

No history.
J t J J. Skin, formerly mounted. Probably India.

No history.

0. 0. 0. 0. Skin. Ceylon. Purchased (Zoological Society).
47. 5. 17. 21. Skin, formerly mounted. Probably India.

Purchased (Bartlett), 1847.
52. 2. 28. 6. Skull, with antlers. Probably India.

Purchased (Baker), 1852.

5H. 5. 6. 62. Skull, with antlers. Darjiling, Sikhim ;
collected by W. Theobald, Esc[.

Presented lij Dr. T. Oldham, 1856.
58. 5. 4. 10. Skull, with antlers. Probably India.

Transferred from the Zoological Society's Museum, 1858.
58. 6. 24. 113. Skin, female. Sikhim.

Presented ly B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1858.
58. 12. 16. 2. Skeleton, female. Ceylon.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1858.
1)5. 5. 0. 19. Skin, young, formerly mounted. Locality
unknown. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1865.

67. 5. 20. 7. Skull and antlers. Assam.

Purchased (Cutter), 1867.
70. 11. 21. 188. Skull and antlers. Burma.

Transferred from India Museum, 1879.



58 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

91. 8. 7. 40. Frontlet and antlers. Ganges Khadir, near
Meerut. 'Presented ly A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891.

91. 8. 7. 41. Frontlet and antlers. Ganges Khadir, near
Bulundshahr, Eohilkhand. Same history.

91. 8. 7. 42. Skull and antlers. Garo Hills, Assam ;
collected by G. P. Sanderson, Esq. Same history.

91. 8. 7. 43-44. Two skulls, with antlers. Sub-Himalayan
Tarai, near Maradabad ; collected by Ross Scott, Esq.

Same history.

1. 9. 7. 2. Skull and antlers, with the shed antlers of
the six preceding years (1894-1899). Panichatta, Bengal.

Presented ly E. le F. Davys, Esq., 1901.

1. 9. 7. 3. Skull and antlers. Same locality. Length
of antlers 21 f inches, basal girth 3, tip-to-tip interval
6| inches. This specimen (fig. 15) is third in Ward's 1914
list. Same history.

1. 9. 28 1. Skin, mounted. Burma.

Presented ly Major G. H. Evans, 1901.

1. 9. 28. 2. Skull and antlers. Burma. Same history.

12. 10. 31. 13. Frontlet and antlers. Ganges Khadir,
near Bulundshahr. Length of antlers 19 J inches, basal
girth 3J, tip-to-tip interval 9J inches.

Bequeathed ly A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912.

B. Cervus porcinus annamiticus.

Hyelaphus annamiticus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Ckinois,

vol. ii, p. 50, 1888.
Cervus porcinus hecki, Lydekker, Field, vol. cxi, p. 583, 1908 ; Ward,

Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 70, 1910, ed. 7, p. 72, 1914.

Typical locality Annam, but the range also including
Siam.

As represented by the Siamese form (typified by a stag
living in the Berlin Zoological Gardens about 1899, and
figured in Heck's Lebende Bilder aus dem Reiche der Tiere,
pi. 69, 1899), this race is rather larger than the typical one,
from which it also differs by the absence of spots in the
summer coat a feature which may be common to all hog-
deer from the countries east of the Bay of Bengal.

61. 4. 12. 19. Pair of antlers. Cambodia; collected by
Monsieur Mouhot. Purchased, 1861.



59



III. CEEVUS (HYELAPHUS) CALAMIANENSIS.

Hyclaphus calamianensis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois,

vol. ii, p. 49, 1888.
Ccrvus culionensis, Elliot, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. i, p. 157, 1897 ;

LydekJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 173, 1898 ; Ward, Records of

Big Game, ed. 6, p. 70, 1910.
Cervus (Hyelaphus) calamianensis, Lydekkcr, Field, vol. cv, p. 505,

1905.

Ccrvus calamianensis, Ward, liccords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 70, 1910.
Ensa culionensis, Hollistcr, Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii,

p. 40, 1912.
Kusa calamianensis, Hollistcr, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 339,

1913.

Typical, and only, locality the island of Calamianes, or
Culion, on the western side of the Philippine group to the
north of Palawan.

As represented by the under-mentioned specimen, this
species is clearly a Hyelaplms and not a Rusa, ; and as the
so-called C. culionensis (which is considered by Hollister to
be inseparable from the present species) has the large
auditory bullse and long antler-pedicles of Hyelaphus, there
is good reason for referring it to that subgenus.

As represented by the under-mentioned specimen, this
deer is distinguished from the type species by the shorter
and more stunted face, shorter and more rounded ears, and
the following details in colouring : the white on the under
side of the lower jaw, instead of being restricted to the chin,
extends backwards to form a largish patch on the throat ; the
fore part of this throat-patch being separated from the jaw-
patch by a narrow bar of fawn ; there is a white moustache-
mark, and more white on the insides of their ears and at
their roots than in the typical hog-deer ; the legs are a
darker brown, and the back is bright golden brown, passing
into orange on the buttocks.

Elliot described C. culionensis as a small deer with the
hind-quarters elevated, the head slender, the nose rather long
and pointed, the hair somewhat coarse and stiff, especially
<m the flanks, where it is longest, the ears relatively long,
slightly rounded, and thickly haired externally, and the tail
rather bushy. As the antlers of the type were in velvet
and not fully developed, their characters could not be given.



60 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

The general colour is uniform cigar-brown, with a tinge of
ochery, but a black stripe of about an inch in width runs
from the shoulders to the root of the tail, the latter being-
brown above and white beneath ; the under lip and chin are
yellowish white, the chest, shoulders, and much of the under-
parts purplish brown, with long white hairs intermingled,
but the abdomen and inside of the thighs are white, and the
legs blackish brown, with a long narrowish white stripe on
the front of the hind-pair.

The deer to which the under-mentioned head and skin
pertained, while living in the Duke of Bedford's park at
Woburn, was regarded as a hog-deer. It resembled the
Indian hog-deer in the general character of the antlers
(somewhat malformed), in the colour and nature of the coat,
in the character of the tail, and in the structure of the skull,
more especially in the comparative shallowness of the pits
for the face-glands and the shape of the upper end of the
nasal bones. In all these respects the specimen differs from
the sambar group.

5. 3. 19. 1. Head, mounted, body-skin, and skull,
immature. Philippines, probably Calamianes. In the skull
the milk-molars are still retained and canines are wanting.
Presented by the Duke of Bedford, KG., 1905.

3. SUBGENUS RUSA.

Eusa, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 108, 1827 ;

Gray, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 205, 1852; Brooke, Proc.

Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 900; Eiitimeyer, Abk. scliweiz. pal. Ges.

vol. viii, p. 45, 1881 ; LydeJcker, Deer of All Lands, p. 141, 1898 ;

PococJc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 946.

Hippelaphus, Sundevall,K. SvensJca Vet.-Ak.Handl. 1844, p. 176, 1846.
Ussa (Oussa), Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, p. 20, 1888.
Sambar, Heude, op. cit. pp. 20 and 41, 1888.

Large, medium-sized, or small deer, with rounded,
normally three-tined antlers, in which the brow-tine forms
an acute angle with the beam, and typically no glandular
cleft on front of hind-pasterns; coat generally uniformly
coloured, shaggy, and forming a mane on neck and throat ;
ears large ; face-glands completely evertile ; muffle extending
some distance below nostrils ; tail relatively long and bushy ;



CKliVID.K C. 1

upper molars high-crowned, with small additional column on
inner side. Young uniformly coloured or spotted. In old
animals the nasals develop a plate at the upper expanded
portion which tends to grow over the lachrymal vacuity of
the same side; in some of the smaller forms notably the
Philippine the vacuity is reduced to a mere slit.

The distributional area includes the greater part of the
Oriental region, extending northwards into Sze-chuan.

The species here recognised may be distinguished as
follows :

A. Antler-pedicles and auditory bullae normal.
A'. Coat uniformly coloured.

A". Antlers rounded and, normally, 3-tined.

a. Size large to small ; dorsal hairs not

amiulated ; antlers stout and rugose,
with the hind terminal tine, when it
and its fellow are unequal, the longer
and forming the continuation of the
beam ; intercornual space V- or
U-shaped C. (R.) unicolor.

b. Size large to medium; dorsal hairs

anuulated ; antlers thinner and less
rugose, with the hind terminal tine
the longer, and forming the continua-
tion of the beam ; intercornual space

lyrate C. (B.) timoriensis.

B". Antlers flattened and many-tined.

Size medium C. (R.) tavistocki.*

B '. Coat spotted.

Size medium C. (R.) alfredi.

B. Antler - pedicles longer and auditory bullae

larger.

Size small C. (R.) Jcithli.



IV. CERVUS (BUSAp]) KUHLI.

Cervus kuhlii,f Miiller and ScJilegel, Verli. Nat. Gescliied. Nederland.

Zool. p. 223, 1844; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 902;

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 11, 1896 ; Lydelcker,

Deer of All Lands, p. 174, 1898.
Cervus (Hippelaphus) kuhlii, Sundevall, K. Svcnska Vet.-Ak. Handl.

1844, p. 179, 1846.
Eusa kuhlii,f Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 68, 1847, Cat.

Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 79, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit.



* Provisionally ranked as a species,
t Modified by later writers to Itulili.



62 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Mus. p. 150, 1878 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. If. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol.
Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 355, 1873, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 300, 1874 ; Garrod,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xl,
p. 70, 1911.

Cervus (Hyelaphus) kuhli, Ward, .Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 71,
1910, ed. 7, p. 73, 1914.

Typical (and only) locality the Bavian, or Bawean, Islands,
between Borneo and Java.

Type in Ley den Museum.

A small deer, differing from all the following species by
the longer antler-pedicles and the larger auditory bullae
characters affiliating it to Hyelaphus, with which it apparently
agrees in the presence of a glandular cleft in the hind-
pasterns.

Height at shoulder about 27 inches ; build light and
tall ; face comparatively short ; coat moderately coarse and
long, with the hairs on the back ringed; general colour
uniform brown, without a dark stripe on the back, and
the under-parts rather darker ; young uniformly coloured ;
antlers not much longer than the head, supported on relatively
long pedicles; their general form similar to those of the
Malay sambar, but thinner and less rugose, with the brow-
tine very short; ears small and pointed, thickly haired
externally ; tail moderately long and bushy ; face-glands
small ; metatarsal glands only slightly lighter than rest of
legs ; no mane on neck.

* * * *. Skin, mounted, and limb-bones. Bavian
Islands. Co-type. By exchange with the Leyden Museum.

46. 2. 16. 1. Skin, immature, formerly mounted. Java,
probably imported from the Bavian Islands.

Purchased (Franks, ly whom this specimen was obtained
from the Leyden Museum), 1846.

71. 3. 3. 4. Skin, female. Bavian Islands.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1871.



V. CEEVUS (EUSA) ALFBEDI.

Cervus alfredi, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 381 ; Brooke, ibid.

1877, p. 59, 1878, p. 902; Garrod, ibid. 1877, p. 4 ; Meyer, ibid.

1879, p. 666; LydeTcker, Deer of All Lands, p. 172, 1898.
Axis alfredi, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 80, 1872.



63

Rusa alfredi, Gar rod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Hollister,
Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 40, 1912.

Melanaxis alfredi, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii,
p. 47, 1888.

Typical, and only, locality Philippines ; the type specimen
having been received from Manila. The distributional area
is stated to include the islands of Cebu, Guimaras, Leyte,
Masbate, Negros, Panay, and Samar, on the eastern side of
the group.

Size relatively small, the height at the shoulder being
about 28 inches ; build long and low ; face rather long ; coat
less coarse and shaggy than in any of the following forms ;
general colour dark blackish brown, frequently with a deep
black line along the middle of the back, and marked with
a number of whitish spots, forming a regular row on each
side of the back, but less regularly distributed elsewhere ;
under-parts, chin, lower lip, inner -surface of buttocks and
of upper portion of legs, as well as fronts of thighs, white ;
young spotted. Antlers supported on short pedicles,
apparently of the general type of those of the Malay sambar,
but relatively smaller, and with a shorter brow-tine; ears
short and rounded, about one-third the length of the head,
almost naked behind ; face-glands moderately large ; no mane
on neck ; tail rather short and thinly haired, with some
white on lower surface ; hind-pasterns apparently with a
glandular cleft.

76. 2. 30. 1. Skin, mounted, and skeleton (1681, a).
Philippines. Type. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1876.

76. 2. 30. 2. Skin, young. Born in London, Zoological
Gardens ; the offspring of Nos. 76. 2. 30. 1 and 79. 3. 20. 1.

Same history.

79. 3. 20. 1. Skin, female, mounted. Philippines.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1879.

VI. CERVUS (RUSA) TIMOKIENSIS.

Cervus timoriensis, Blainville, Journ. Phys. 1822, p. 267 ; F. Cuvier,

Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iv, pi. 361, 1824; Brooke, Proc. Zool.

Soc. 1878, p. 903.
Cervus peronii, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 3, vol. iv, p. 46, 1825 ;

H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 114, 1827 ;

J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 453, 1829.



64 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Cervus (Rusa) peronii, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v,

p. 311, 1827.
Axis peronii, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 165,

pi. xii, 1835.
Cervus russa timoriensis, Milller and Schlegel, Verli. Nat. Geschied.

Nederland. Zool. pp. 212 and 220, 1844.
Cervus (Hippelaphus) peronii, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak.

Handl 1844, p. 179, 1846.
Rusa peronii, Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 165,

pi. xii, 1835 ; Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 63, 1850, Cat.

Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 211, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 78, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 150, 1873;

Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. MILS. p. 261, 1862; Fitzinger,

Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 355, 1873,

vol. Ixx, pt. 1, 317, 1874 ; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17.
Hippelaphus timoriensis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois,

vol. iii, p. 51, 1896.
Cervus hippelaphus timoriensis, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands,

p. 170, 1898.

RUSA.

Typical locality Timor.

Type in Paris Museum.

In its larger phase, a deer with the general form, coat,
and colouring of a sambar, but the ears smaller, the tail thin,
the hairs on the back banded with differently-coloured rings,
and the sides of the upper lip, chin, under-parts, and inner
sides of the thighs and buttocks more or less distinctly
whitish ; size medium ; antlers comparatively slender and
only moderately rugose, with the brow-tine of medium or
short length, and making a large acute angle with the beam ;
the hind, or inner tine of the terminal fork much longer
than the front, or outer, one, and forming the continuation
of the beam, from the front, or front-outer surface of which
the front tine arises as an offshoot ; the two antlers enclosing
a more or less distinctly lyrate space. Young uniformly
coloured ; hind-pasterns apparently with a glandular cleft.

The three recognised races may be distinguished as
follows :

A. Size smaller.

a. Neck distinctly maned C. t. timoriensis.

b. Neck maneless C. t. moluccensis.

B. Size larger C.t.tunjuc.



65



A. Cervus timoriensis timoriensis.

Cervus hippelaphus timoricnsis, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands,
p. 170, 1898; Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 873, 1899; Ward,
Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p, 67, 1910, ed. 7, p. 67, 1914.

Typical locality Timor; the range also including the
islands of Semao and Kambing, which, with Timor, form the
continuation of the Sumatra- Java line.

Type in Paris Museum.

A relatively small deer, of the same approximate size as
the next race, but distinguished by the thicker hair on the
neck, the more distinctly tufted tail, certain differences in
coloration, especially on the face and rump, and the wider
antlers ; forehead grey ; face, neck, upper part of flanks, and
greater portion of the chest dark blackish brown, the brown
of the chest forming a streak between the legs ; middle of
back almost black ; under- parts, inner surfaces of thighs,
and a band above the hoofs brownish or ochery yellow,
passing into dirty white on the hind portion of the abdomen ;
lips and inner surfaces of ears white, as are also the inner
surfaces of the buttocks ; tail-tuft dark blackish brown ; in
the males a whitish streak runs from above each eye across
the cheek to the side of the neck ; antler-measurements are
not recorded.

67. 1. 30. 2. Skin, female, formerly mounted. Timor.
From an animal presented to the Zoological Society by
Capt. L. Brayley. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1867.

B. Cervus timoriensis molueeensis.

Cervus molueeensis, Quoy and Gaimard, Voyage Astrolabe, Zool.

vol. i, p. 133, pi. xxiv, 1830 ; Eydoux and Gervais, Mag. Zool.

vol. vi, p. 26, 1836, Voyage Favorite, Mamm. p. 26, 1839 ;

Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 904 ; LydeJcker, Horns and

Hoofs, p. 299, 1893; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2,

p. 12, 1896.
Cervus russa molueeensis, Miiller and Schlegel, Verli. Nat. Geschied.

Nederland. Zool. pp. 212 and 220, 1844.
Cervus (Hippelaphus) molueeensis, Sundevall, K. Svenslca Vet.-Ak.

Handl. 1844, p. 179, 1846.
Piusa molueeensis, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 62, 1850, Cat.

Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 209, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 77, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 149, 1873,
IV. F



66 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

partim ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1,

p. 354, 1873, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 320, 1874 ; Garrod, Proc. Zool.

Soc. 1877, p. 17.
Hippelaphus moluccensis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois,

vol. iii, p. 94, 1896.
Cervus hippelaphus moluccensis, LydekTter, Deer of All Lands,

p. 166, pi. xii, 1898; Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 879, 1899;

Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 67, 1910, ed. 7, p. 67, 1914,

Typical locality the Molucca group (Amboina, Boru, and
Batchian) ; the range also including Celebes.

Stated to differ from the Javan form of the next race by
its inferior size, and especially the want of a distinct mane on
the neck of the males, and the absence of a distinct terminal
tuft to the tail ; as a rule, the antlers are relatively small,
the build is low and stout, and the head large and thick.
In two exceptionally fine pairs of antlers the dimensions are
as follows : length along outer curve 36 J and 27 J inches ;
basal girth 4J and 4 inches; tip-to-tip interval 18J and
14J inches.

Like the preceding race, the Moluccan rusa may have
been introduced into its present habitat by the Malays.

697, k. Frontlet and antlers, provisionally referred to
this race. Locality unknown. No history.

61. 12. 11. 27. Skull (1427, d), with antlers, and head-
skin (61. 12. 11. 28). Batchian; collected by Dr. A. E,
Wallace, O.M. Purchased, 1861.

65. 12. 8. 30 (1427, c). Skeleton, immature. Probably
from the Moluccas. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1861.

67. 4. 12. 243. Skull, with antlers, immature. Probably
from the Moluccas.

Lidth de Jeude Collection, purchased, 1867.

84. 4. 24. 6. Skull, immature, with antlers. Amboina.

Presented ly Dr. H. 0. Forbes, 1884.
1 84. 4. 24. 7. Skull, young. Boru. Same history.

97. 4. 3. 2. Skin, mounted. Moluccas.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1897.

C. Cervus timoriensis tunjuc.

Cervus hippelaphus, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pi. 108,
1819 ; Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 40, pi. v, figs.
31-34, 1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 105,
1827 ; J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 451, 1829 ; Pucheran,



CERVID.E 67

Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 402, 1852 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc.
1878, p. 905 ; Forbes, Naturalist's Wanderings in E. Archipelago,
p. 31, 1885; Wallace, Malay Archipelago, ed. 3, p. 300, 1890;
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 179, 1891;
Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 297, 1893, Deer of All Lands,
p. 162, 1898 ; Bentham, Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus.
p. 78, 1908 ; nee Cervus elaphus hippelaphus, Kerr, 1792.

Cervus (Rusa) hippelaphus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. v, p. 309, 1827.

Cervus tunjuc, Vigors and Horsfield in Lady Raffles' s Memoir of Sir
Stamford Raffles, p. 645, 1830 ; Blyth, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat.
Soc. Bengal, p. 151, 1863.

Rusa hippelaphus, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 179, 1843, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 231, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 209, 1852,
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 77, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants
Brit. Mus. p. 148, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.
p. 261, 1862, partim ; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17.

Cervus russa, Milller and Schlegel, Verh. Nat. Geschied. Nederland.
Zool. p. 217, pi. xliv, 1844.

Cervus (Hippelaphus) hippelaphus, Sundevall, K. Svenska, Vet.-Ak.

Handl. 1844, p. 178, 1846.

Rusa paradoxa, Brehm, Zool. Garten, 1864, p. 11.
Cervus rufus, Blyth, quoted by Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 77, 1872.
Cervus hippelaphus typicus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 164,

1898 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 67, 1910, ed. 7,

p. 67, 1914.
Cervus (Rusa) hippelaphus, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,

p. 66, 1910, ed. 7, p. 66, 1914.

SUMATRAN and JAVAN RUSA.

Typical locality Sumatra.

Smaller than the Indian sarnbar, and of the approximate
size of a red deer ; head of moderate length, with the facial
profile nearly straight; throat and neck of males with a
well-developed mane; ears broad, and less than half the
length of the head; tail only slightly longer than ears,
thinner than in the Malay sambar, and ending in a tuft of
thick coarse hairs ; general colour in summer dark grizzled,
ochery brown with a tinge of red, darker on the hind-
quarters and thighs than elsewhere ; front of neck, chest,
and under-parts varying from dirty white to brownish grey,
and a dark reddish brown longitudinal streak on front of
chest ; flanks shot with rusty brown, and frequently with a
patch of that colour ; inner sides of legs, shanks, and inner
sides of buttocks dirty whitish ; chin, lips, and under surface

F 2



68



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



of lower jaw whitish, with a brownish spot on the lower lip
at angle of mouth ; inner surfaces of ears whitish ; tail
yellowish brown above and dirty white beneath, at or near
the tip uniformly blackish brown. In winter general colour




FIG. 16. FRONTLET AND ANTLERS OF JAVAN RUSA

(Cervus \Eusa] timoriensis tunjuc).
From a specimen in the collection of Sir E. G. Loder, Bart.

more greyish brown ; under-parts and inner surfaces of the
upper portion of fore-legs, thighs, and buttocks dirty



Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) → online text (page 6 of 36)