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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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yellowish white ; tip of lower jaw, border of upper lip, and
neighbourhood of nose white ; a blackish spot beneath the
angle of the mouth, and often a brownish band round the



60

muzzle. In females the streaks on the chest and the tail
are somewhat lighter-coloured.

Fine antlers measure from 33 to 37 inches along the
front curve, with a basal curve of from 4J to 51, and a

A o *

tip-to-tip interval of from 11J- to 25 J inches.

Cerrus hippelaphus, of Cuvier, although generally stated
to be a Javan form, is typified by antlers brought from
Sumatra by Diard, and the types of C. tunjue are also
Sumatra n ; but C. russa is typically Javan, while liima
paradoxa and C. rufits are based on representatives of this
deer introduced, respectively, into Mauritius and Eodriguez.
Deer of this type also occur in Borneo, where, however,
according to Brooke, they have been introduced by the
Malays.

If the Javan form be racially distinct from the Sumatran
it should be known as C. timoriensis rusa*

51. 9. 8. 10-11. Two skins, immature, formerly mounted.
Sumatra. Co-types. Presented by Sir T. Stamford Raffles,

some time previous to 1830.

* * * *. Skin, female, formerly mounted. Java.

No history .

697, o. Frontlet and antlers, provisionally referred to
this race. Locality unknown. No history.

76.11.17.1. Single antler. Mauritius; introduced;
collected by Mr. Le Soeuf.

Presented by Dr. P. L. Sclater, 1876.

5. 3. 26. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Kodriguez Island,
Mascarene group ; introduced.

Presented ly Col. H. W. L. Nine, 1905.

10. 4. 5. 158-159. Two frontlets, with antlers. Brontok,
south central Borneo ; collected by G. C. Short ridge, Esq.

Presented ly 0. Thomas, Esq., 1910.

10. 4. 6. 74-75. Two upper halves of skulls, with
antlers. Sapandjaug Is., near Kangean Is., Java Sea ; same
collector. Same history.

* Russa is an incorrect rendering of the Malay name.



70 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



VII. CERVUS (EUSA) TAVISTOCKI.

Cervus (Rusa) tavistocki, Lydekker, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7,

vol. vi, p. 205, 1900.
Rusa tavistocki, Hollister, Philippine Journ. Sci., sect. D, vol. vii,

p. 40, 1912.

Typical locality not definitely known, but probably one
of the islands of the Philippine group.

If this deer be a valid species, or race, and not a " sport "
or hybrid, it may be the same as one of those named by
Heude in the list on page 89.

Apparently related to C. (R.) timoriensis, but with
flattened and somewhat palmated antlers, which, when fully
developed, show at least six points on each side ; shoulder-
height about 30 inches.

As regards their special characters, the antlers are more
or less flattened throughout and display a marked tendency
to palmation. The brow-tine is much flattened, with a sharp
posterior edge, and on the right side is distinctly bifurcate,
although only imperfectly so on the left ; the outer tine of
the terminal fork is likewise much flattened, sharp-edged
behind, and trifurcate, but the inner tine on the right side is
conical and simple, although showing a tendency to branch
on the left side ; the number of points on each antler is
thus six.

0. 6. 8. 2. Skin, mounted. Type. The stag to which
this skin belonged was living, together with two or three
other similar deer, in the park at Woburn Abbey for about
two years. Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1900.

VIII. CERVUS (RUSA) UNICOLOR.

Cervus axis unicolor, Kerr, Linn's Anim. Kingdom, p. 306, 1792.

Cervus axis major, Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 306, 1792 ; based
on Pennant's " Greater Axis."

Cervus unicolor, Bechstein, Allgemein. Uebersicht vierfiiss. Thiere,
vol. i, p. 112, 1799 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. iv, p. 108, 1827 ; Lesson, Nouv. Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm.
p. 171, 1842 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 543, 1891 ;
LydeJcker. Horns and Hoofs, p. 293, 1893, Deer of All Lands,
p. 144, pis. x and xi, 1898, Great and Small Game of India, etc.
p.' 206, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 223, 1907 ; Ward,
Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 3, 1896; Aolci, Annot. Zool.
Japon. vol. viii, p. 341, 1913,



CERVID.E 1

Cervus albicornis, Bechstein, Allgemein. Uebersicht vierfiiss. Thiere,
vol. i, p. 112, 1799.

Cervus niger, Blainville, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1816, p. 76, vide Blyth,
Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 449, 1842 ; J. B. Fischer,
Synop. Mamm. p. 453, 1829.

Cervus aristotelis, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 3, vol. iv, p. 503,
1825; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 110,
1827 ; /. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 452, 1829 ; Lesson, Nouv.
Tabl. Regne Anim., Mamm. p. 171, 1842; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc.
Bengal, vol. xi, p. 449, 1842 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii,
p. 350, 1871 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 901 ; Flower and
Garson, Cat. Osteol. Mus. E. Coll. Surg. pt. ii, p. 289, 1884 ;
Lydekker, Cat. Foss. Mamm. Brit. Mus. pt. ii, p. 103, 1885 ;
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 176, 1891;
Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; Bentham,
Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 72, 1908.

Cervus leschenaultii, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 3, p. 506, 1825.

Cervus hippelaphus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv,
p. 105, 1827 ; Jardine, Naturalist's Libr., Mamm. vol. iii, p. 169,
pi. xi, 1835 ; Elliot, Madras Journ. vol. x, p. 220, 1839 ; Blyth,
Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xi, p. 449, 1842, vol. xx, p. 174,
1852, partim ; ncc C. elaphus hippelaphus, Kerr, nee C. hippe-
laphus, Cuvier.

Cervus (Kusa) hippelaphus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. v, p. 309, 1827, partim ; Nitsche, Studien ilber Hirschc,
p. 32, 1898.

Cervus (Rusa) unicolor, H. Smith, op. cit. p. 310, 1827 ; Ward,
Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 59, 1910, ed. 7, p. 61, 1914;
Lydekker, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mu$. p. 36, 1913.

Cervus (Rusa) aristotelis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. v, p. 310, 1827.

Cervus jarai, Hodgson, Gleanings in Science, vol. iii, p. 321, 1831.

Cervus heterocerus, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. x,
p. 721, 1841, nomen nudum.

Cervus jarya, nepalensis, and heterocerus, Hodgson, op. cit. p. 914,
1841, nomina nuda.

Rusa aristotelis, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 179, 1843, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 230, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 205, 1852,
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 76, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants
Brit. Mus. p. 145, 1873 ; Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.
p. 260, 1862 ; Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 256, 1867 ; Fitzinger,
Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 279, 1874; Garrod,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Sterndale, Mamm. India, p. 504,
1884; Percy, Big Game Shooting (Badminton Libr.}, vol. ii,
p. 257, 1894.

Axis pennantii, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 180, 1843.

Rusa hippelaphus, Gray, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mas. p. 148,
1873, partim.

Cervus (Hippelaphus) aristotelis, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak.
Handl. 1844, p. 178, 1846.

Cervus (Hippelaphus) niger, Sundevall, op. cit. p. 183, 1846.

Cervus (Hippelaphus) leschenaulti, Sundevall, loc. cit. 1846.

Cervus (Hippelaphus) unicolor, Sundevall, loc. cit. 1846.



72 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Eusa aristotelis nigra, Fitzinger, Sitzber. fc. Alt. Wiss. Wicn, vol. Ixx,

pt. 1, p. 284, 1874.

Kusa aristotelis leschenaulti, Fitzinger. op. cit. p. 286, 1874.
Rusa aristotelis unicolor, Fitzinger, op. cit. p. 287, 1874.




FIG. 17. SKULL AND ANTLERS OF SAMBAR (Cervus [Rusa] unicolor}.

Rusa aristotelis heteroceros, Fitzinger, op. cit. p. 289, 1874.

Kusa equina pennanfcii, Fitzinger, op. cit. p. 226, 1874.

Rusa unicolor, PococJc, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 946; Wrougkton,

Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. xxi, p. 1193, 1912 ; Dods-

worth, ibid. vol. xxii, p. 748, 1914.



CKK VI I>.K 73

SAMBAR (Marathi and Dckhani) ; JARAO (Nepali) ; KUSA (Malay).

Typical locality Ceylon.

Size typically large ; hair coarse and shaggy, the hairs on
the back not distinctly banded with differently coloured
rings ; general colour some shade of dark umber-brown, with
chestnut or whitish on the inner side of the buttocks, and
often on the tinder-parts ; chin generally white ; young
either more or less uniformly coloured, or faintly spotted on
the hind-quarters ; antlers (fig. 17) large, stout, and rugose,
with the brow-tine generally long and making an acute angle
with the beam, and the front, or outer tine of the terminal
fork forming the continuation of the line of the beam when
there is any inequality in the length of the two tines ; the
space enclosed by the antlers of opposite sides more or less
V- or U-shaped, but the tips of the antlers frequently
inclined inwards ; pedicles of antlers short.

Different views are entertained as to whether the various
modifications of the sambar type indicate distinct species, or
races of one variable species. All the forms in which the
front, or outer, tine of the terminal fork of the antlers forms
the continuation of the line of the beam, where there is any
inequality in the length of the two, are here regarded
as races of a single species ; but those in which the back, or
inner, tine is situated in the direct line of the beam are
considered to represent a second species. Whether all the
local modifications of the first type are truly indigenous, and
therefore entitled to rank as subspecies, is doubtful.

The distributional area includes the undulating, or hilly
wooded districts of a large portion of the Oriental region,
namely India, Ceylon, Assam, Burma, the Malay Peninsula,
Borneo, Siam, Hainan, Formosa, and the Philippines, and
extends northwards to Sze-chuan.

The following is a provisional " key " to the better known
local races of this variable species :

A. Face longer ; shanks dark.

a. Size very large, shoulder-height reaching 54
inches ; terminal tines of antlers subequal,
or front one the shorter C. K. mticolor.

1). Size nearly equal to that of preceding ; hind

terminal tine the shorter C. it.



7.4 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

B. Face shorter ; shanks light.

a. Size nearly as large as in typical race C. u. dejeani.

b. Size smaller C. u. swinhoei.

c. Size still smaller ; shoulder-height not exceed-

ing about 28 inches.

a'. Size larger (28 inches) ; conspicuous mous-
tache-markings ; chin white C. u, philippinus

(and mariannus} .

b'. Size smaller, not exceeding 26 inches.
a". Limbs and under-parts darker.

a 3 . Shoulder-height 24 to 26 inches ; no
moustache-markings ; skull and teeth

larger C. u. nigricans.

6 3 . Shoulder-height about 25 inches ; con-
spicuous moustache-markings ; skull

and teeth smaller, C. u. nigellus.

b". Limbs and under-parts lighter C. u. boninensis.

A. Cervus unieolor unicolor.

Cervus unicolor typicus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 146, pi. x,
1898, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 224, 1907 ; Ward, Records
of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 60, 1910, ed. 7, p. 62, 1914.

Cervus unicolor unicolor, Lydekker, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mus.
p. 37, 1913.

Typical locality Ceylon ; the range including India, and.
probably extending eastwards as far as the Assam valley,
where this race may be separated by the Bramaputra from
the next, with which, however, it may locally intergrade.
Ceylon sambar are smaller than the mainland form.

Size very large, the height at the shoulder reaching at
least 5 feet 4 inches ; antlers (fig. 17) long, with the two
tines of the terminal fork generally of approximately equal
length, but if unequal, the front one usually the shorter, and
the hind one rising from the posterior surface of the beam
and not forming the continuation of the axis of the latter ;
general colour almost uniformly dark umber-brown, tending
to grey or yellowish in some individuals ; under-parts little
paler than the back, but chin, inner portion of buttocks,
lower surface of tail, and inner sides of upper part of limbs
more or less distinctly chestnut ; females paler ; young
reddish, apparently with a black tail and dorsal band, but
spots wanting ; ears very broad, equal to about half the length
of the head ; the latter relatively long, with a nearly straight
profile ; tail moderately bushy, and longer than ear. Fine



CEKVID/E



75



antlers measure from 43 to 50 inches along the outer curve,
with a basal girth of from 5 to 9|, and a tip-to-tip interval
of from 8 to 49 inches. The presence of an additional
(fourth) tine is very rare.

699, a. Single antler. From a stag in the menagerie at
Exeter Change. No history.

699*. Two single antlers. No history.

097, g. Skull and antlers. Locality unknown.

No history.
697, h. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.

No history.
697, in. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.

No history.

697, u. Frontlet and antlers. Type of Pennant's " Greater
Axis/' C. axis major, and C. albicornis. Ceylon (?).

No history.
G97, v. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.

No history.
699, a. Skin, formerly mounted. Nepal.

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

699, v. Frontlet and antlers. Outer Himalaya ; collected
by the Eev. E. Everest (after whom Mount Everest is
named). Purchased.

43. 1. 26. 16. Skull and antlers. Nepal.

Presented by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1843.
43. 1. 12. 107. Immature skull, female. Nepal.

Same history.

45. 1. 8. 106 (699, k 2 ). Skull and antlers. Nepal. Type
of 0. heterocerus ; figured by Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc.
Bengal, vol. x. Same donor, 1845.

45. 1. 8. 107 (699, x). Frontlet and antlers. Nepal.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 109. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 110. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 111. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 114. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal.

Same history.



76 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

45. 1. 8. 115 (699, >-). Skull and antlers. Nepal.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 116. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal.

Same history*
45. 1. 8 117. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 118. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 198 (699, /). Skull and antlers: Nepal.

Same history.

45. 1. 8. 199 (699, m). Skull, female. Same history.

45. 1. 8. 201. Frontlet and antlers, young. Nepal.

Same history.

699, y. Frontlet and antlers. Nepal. Same donor.

699, I' 2 . Skeleton. Nepal. Same donor.

* *. Single antler. Nepal. Same donor.

699, u 2 . Single antler. Himalaya. Same history.

45. 12. 27. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.

Purchased (Argent), 1845.

47. 7. 23. 30 (699, m 2 ). Skeleton and antlers. India ;
collected by Mr. Bartlett. Purchased, 1847.

699, 3 2 . Skeleton and antlers. India.

Purchased (Zoological Society).

52. 10. 5. 5. Skull and antlers. Locality unknown.

Purchased (Argent), 1852.

53. 8. 22. 1. Skin, mounted, and skull (53. 8. 22. 2 =
699, q 2 ). Ceylon. Topo-type.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1853.
58. 6. 24. 19. Skin, immature. Sikhini.

Presented ly B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1858.
58. 6. 24. 20. Skull, with antlers, and skin, immature.
Sikhim. Same history.

58. 6. 24. 21. Skull, immature female. Sikhim.

Same history.
58. 6. 24. 174. Frontlet and antlers. Sikhim.

Same history.
58. 6. 24. 175. Frontlet and single antler. Sikhim.

Same history.
699, /. Frontlet and antlers. India (?).

Presented by Mrs. Wright.



77

699, j' 2 . Frontlet and antlers. India (?). No history.

i i')'.), b. Antlers. India (?). No history.

* * * *. Skull and antlers. India (?). No history.

* * * *. Six frontlets, with antlers. India (?).

No history.

* -* * *^ Four shed antlers. India (?). No history.
0:1. 5. 13. G-7. Two pairs of shed antlers. India (?).

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1863.

68. 12. 29. 8 (699, if). Skeleton and antlers. India (?).

Same history, 1868.

79. 11. 21. 184. Skull and antlers. Nepal; collected by
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Transferred from India Museum, 1879.

79. 11. 21. 443. Frontlet and antlers. India, probably
the Saharunpur district; collected by Dr. Hugh Falconer,
sometime Superintendent of the Saharunpur Botanical
Gardens. Length of antlers 45 J inches. Same history.

79. 11. 21. 444. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

79.11.21.446. Skull and antlers. Nepal; collected
by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Same history.

79. 11. 21. 448. Skull and antlers. India (?).

Same history.

79.11.21.449. Frontlet and antlers. Dekhan ; col-
lected by Col. W. H. Sykes, about 1840. Same history.

79. 11. 21. 451. Pair of antlers. Godaveri Valley.

Same history.

79. 11. 21. 452. Antlers. India (?). Same history.

79. 11. 21. 452*. Antlers. India (?). Same history.

88. 3. 20. 26. Skull and antlers. India.

Presented by R. LydeJcker, Esq., 1888.

89. 11. 20. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Khatcote Jungle,
near Mhow. Presented by Col. J. Evans, 1889.

89. 11. 20. 4-5. Two frontlets, with antlers. Ghats,
west of Simrol. Same history.

89. 11. 20. 6. Frontlet and antlers. Dehra Dun.

Same history.
91. 8. 7. 16. Frontlet and antlers. Dehra Dun.

Presented by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891.

91. 8. 7. 17-18. Two frontlets, with antlers. Oudh

Tarai. S'tmc historij.



78 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

71. 8. 7. 19-24. Six shed antlers. Chanda, Central
Provinces, India. Same history.

2. 10. 2. 1. Skin, mounted. India.

Presented ly the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1902.

7. 10. 27. 2. Skull and antlers. Central India. Length
of antlers 44J inches.

Presented by Mrs. J. G. Anderson, 1907.

7. 10. 27. 3. Skull and antlers. Same locality. Length
of antlers 42 J inches. Same history.

12. 10. 31. 9. Skull and antlers (fig. 17). Chanda,
Central Provinces. Length of antlers on outer curve 46 J,
girth 6$, tip-to-tip interval 24J, widest inside span 30^
inches. Bequeathed by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912.

B. Cervus unicolor equinus.

Cervus equinus, Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 45, pi. v,
figs. 37 and 38, 1823 ; H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. iv, p. 112, 1827 ; S. Mutter, Verh. Nat. Geschied. Nederland.
pis. xlii and xlv, 1840-44; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 3878, p. 901 ;
Gilnther, ibid. 1880, p. 452 ; Flower and Garson, Cat. Osteol.
Mus. R. Coll. Surg. p. ii, p. 290, 1884 ; Flower and Lydekker,
Study of Mammals, p. 320, 1891; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs,
p. 297, 1893 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 7, 1896.

Cervus malaccensis, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. i, pi. x, 1824 ;
J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 451, 1829.

Cervus (Rusa) equinus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. v,
p. 311, 1827.

Eusa equina, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 179, 1843, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1850, p. 231, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 210, 1852 (equinus),
Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 77, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants
Brit. Mus. p. 149, 1873 ; Gerrard. Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus.
p. 261, 1862 ; Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 260, 1867 ; Fitzinger,
Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 290, 1874 ; Garrod,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17.

Cervus (Hippelaphus) equinus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet. -Ah. Handl.
1844, p. 178, 1846.

Cervulus cambojensis, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 138.

Eucervus cambojensis, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 76, 1872,
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 145, 1873, partim.

Eusa equina malaccensis, Fitzinger, Sitzler. k. Alt. Wiss Wien,

vol. Ixx, pt. i, p. 294, 1874.
Eussa equina, Jentink and Bilttikofer, Notes Leyden Mas. vol. xix,

p. 63, 1897.
Cervus unicolor equinus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 150, pi. xi,

1898, Great and Small Game of India, etc. p. 215, 1900, Game



CERVID^E 79

Animals of India, etc. p. 232, 1907, Cat, Hume Bequest Brit.
Mus. p. 38, 1913 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 63, 1910,
ed. 7, p. 65, 1914; Gairdner, J. Slam. Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. i,
p. 117, 1914.

Rusa unicolor equinus, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xxii,
p. 467, 1906.

Typical locality Sumatra.

Co-types (figured by Cuvier, op. cit) apparently not in
Paris Museum.

Nearly as large as Indian representatives of the typical
race, but the antlers generally shorter and thicker, with the
hind, or inner, tine of the terminal fork much shorter than
the front or outer one, and rising as a spur from the inner
hind margin of the beam, of which the hind tine forms the
direct continuation, and the brow-tine in most cases rela-
tively longer ; general colour darker, approaching black or
slaty grey in old stags ; usually a light ring round the eye ;
ears rather smaller, with distinct white margins ; legs
frequently light-coloured ; tail more bushy ; face compara-
tively long and straight ; new-born young, at least frequently,
faintly spotted on hind-quarters, with the general colour
foxy red, and the tail and a line down the back blackish or
black. Good antlers measure from about 16 to 30 inches
along the outer curve, with a basal girth of from 4 to 7
inches, and a tip-to-tip interval of from 5J to 24J inches.

The range is provisionally taken to include most of the
large sambar of all the Malay countries, with the exception
of Java, and also to comprise those of Assam and Kachar,
where these deer are known to produce spotted young, and
also of Hainan. It is, however, quite probable that there
may be a number of local races. If this prove to be the
case, the name malaccensis is available for the Malay, and
camoojensis for the Cambodian form.

61. 4. 12. 18 (1463, g). Frontlet and antlers, immature.
Cambodia ; collected by Monsieur Mouhot. Type of Cervulus
cambojensis. Purchased, 1861.

62. 8. 18. 22. Pair of antlers. Laos Mountains, Cam-
bodia; same collector. Purchased, 1862.

67. 5. 20. 3-4 (1781, y-r). Two frontlets, with antlers.

Assam. Purchased (Cutter), 1867.

67. 5. 20. 6. Skull and antlers. Assam. Same history.



80 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

67. 7. 8. 24 (1781, I). Skull, with antlers, and skin.
Locality unknown. Purchased (Zoological Society), 1867.

68. 3. 21. 5. Skin. Locality unknown.

Same history, 1868.

70. 2. 10. 30. Skin, imperfect. Hainan; collected by
E. Swinhoe, Esq. Purchased, 1870.

70. 2. 10. 31. Skin, female, imperfect. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

81. 6. 30. 6. Pair of shed antlers. Cochin China ;
collected by Monsieur Boucard. Purchased, 1881.

81. 6. 30. 7-8. Two frontlets, with antlers. Same
locality and collector. Same history.

84. 4. 14. 3. Skeleton, female. Garo Hills, Assam ;
collected by G. P. Sanderson, Esq. Purchased, 1884.

91. 8. 7. 25-30. Six frontlets, with antlers. Same
locality and collector. Purchased, 1891.

94. 9. 20. 1. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.
Presented ly Capt. Stewart, 1894.

12. 10. 31. 10. Skull and antlers. Garo Hills; collected
by G. P. Sanderson, Esq.

Bequeathed by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912.



C. Cervus unicolor brookei.

Cervus brookei, Hose, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. xii, p. 206,

1893.
Eusa brookei, Lyon, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xxxi, p. 584, 1906,

vol. xxxiii, p. 550, 1907, vol. xl, p. 67, 1901.

Typical locality Mount Dulit, Sarawak.

According to Lyon, smaller than Malay Sainbar (appa-
rently regarded as typical C. equinus):

The range is taken to include Billiton, Pagi, and Nias
Islands.

79. 1. 27. 2. Skull, female. Sarawak, North Borneo;
collected by A. H. Everett, Esq. Purchased, 1879.

79. 5. 3. 18-19. Two skulls, with antlers. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

79. 5. 3. 20. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality and
collector. Same history.



81

SO. G. 1.6. 1-3. Three frontlets, with antlers. Itejang
Valley, North Borneo; collected by H. B. Low, Esq.

I'ln-i'/HtMil, 1880.

80. 6. 16. 4-6. Three similar specimens. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

80. 6. 16. 7-8. Two similar specimens. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

86. 12. 20. 9. Skull, with antlers. Sandakan, British
North Borneo ; collected by W. B. Pryer, Esq.

Purdutwd, 1886.

ST. 2. 10. 9-11. Three frontlets, with antlers. liajang
Valley, North Borneo ; collected by H. B. Low, Esq.

Purchased, 1887.

92. 9. 4. 3. Skin, young in spotted coat. Mount Dulit,
eastern Sarawak. Type. Presented by Dr. C. Hose, 1892.

95. 5. 7. 4. Skin, young in spotted coat. Miri Valley,
Baram, northern Borneo. Noticed in Deer of all Lands, loc.
cit. Same donor, 1895.

1. 7. 29. 1. Abnormal antlers. Sarawak. There are
many more tines than usual, most of which are much
pal mated. Same donor, 1901.

D. Cervus unieolor swinhoei.

Eusa swinhoii, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1862, p. 152, Trans. Zool.
Soc. vol. viii, p. 331, 1871 ; Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 644;
Gray, Cat. Ruminant* Brit. Mus. p. 77, 1872, Hand-List Rumi-
nants Brit. Mas. p. 149, 1873 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss.
Wien, vol. Ixx, pt. 2, p. 298, 1874 (swinhoei) ; Garrod, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17.

Cervus swinhoii, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 901 ; W. L. Sclater,



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