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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 178, 1891 ; Flower and Lydekker,
Study of Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; Ward, Records of Big Game,
ed. 2, p. 8, 1896 ; Aoki, Annot. Zool. Japon. vol. viii, p. 341, 1913.

Cervus unieolor swinhoei, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 154, 1898,
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 7, vol. xv, p. 391, 1905 ; Ward, Records
of Big Game, ed. 5, p. 77, 1907, ed. 6, p. 64, 1910, ed. 7, p. 66,
1914 ; Bentham, Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 77, 1908.

Cervus (Rusa) swinhoei, Nitsche, Studien iiber Hirsche, p. 32, 1898.

Typical locality Formosa, to which island this race is
restricted.

Closely allied to the preceding race, from which it
appears to be distinguished by its shorter head and concave
profile, relatively longer legs, and thfj under-mentioned

IV. G



82 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

differences in colour, and the somewhat smaller size. In
winter general colour uniform reddish black-brown, with
the head and ears reddish yellow-brown, and the upper
surface of the nose having a V-shaped blackish brown mark
reaching to the eyes ; under surface nearly as dark as back,
but inner sides of thighs and the entire shanks brownish or
whitish yellow, and the bushy tail black all round. In
summer the general colour light yellowish red-brown, darker
in front than behind, and lightest on under surface. The
antlers are of the type of those of the Malay race, but
smaller ; the skull is very similar to that of the Luzon race.
Good antlers measure from 16 to 19f inches in length, with
a girth of from 3 J to 4J inches.

* * * *. Skin, immature, mounted. Formosa; col-
lected by E. Swinhoe, Esq., about 1860. Type.

Purchased (Zoological Society).

63. 5. 13. 8. Shed antlers, first year. From an animal
born in London. Same history, 1863.

68. 3. 21. 24. Skull, with antlers (1414, r), and skin.
Formosa ; collected by E. Swinhoe, Esq. Same history, 1868.

70, 2. 10. 69 (1414, b). Skull. Same locality and
collector. Purchased, 1870.

1414, c. Skull, young female. Same locality and
collector. Same history.

70. 2. 10. 70 (1414, h). Shed antlers. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

70. 2. 10. 78 (1414, i). Frontlet and antlers. Same
locality and collector. Same history.

70. 2. 10. 79-80 (1414, / and (j). Two frontlets, with
antlers. Same locality and collector. Same history.

76. 2. 4. 1. Skull and antlers. Formosa.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1876.

E. Cervus unieolor dejeani.

Eusa dejeani, Pousargues, Bull. Mus. Paris, 1896, no. 1, p. 2.
Cervus dejeani, Ward, Eecords of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 22, 1896.
Cervus unieolor dejeani, LydeJcJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 156, 1898 ;
Ward, Eecords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 65, 1910, ed. 7, p. 67, 1914.

Typical locality Sze-chuan, Western China, about 30
north latitude.



CEKVID^ 83

Type iu Paris Museum.

Stated to be very similar in form and coloration to the
Formosan race, but as large as the Indian sambar, from which
it differs by the more sombre brown colour, and the longer
and more bushy tail. In the type the antlers measure
30^ along the outer curve, and 5J inches in basal girth.

No specimen in collection.



F. Cervus unicolor mariannus.

Cervus mariannus, Desmarest, Mammalogie, vol. ii, p. 436, 1822 ;
Cuvier, Ossemens Fossiles, ed. 2, vol. iv, p. 45, pi. v, fig. 30, 1823 ;
H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 115, 1827 ;
J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 453, 1829 ; Gray, Proc. Zool.
Soc. 1850, p. 232 ; Fraser, ibid. 1864, p. 369 ; Sclater, ibid. 1870,
p. 279 ; Brooke, ibid. 1877, p. 53, 1878, p. 901 ; Ward, Records
of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 1896 (marianus).

Cervus (Rusa) mariannus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,
vol. v, p. 311, 1827.

Cervus labipes, F. Cuvier, Hist. Nat. Mamm. vol. iv, pi. 420, 1832.

Cervus (Hippelaphus) mariannus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet. -Ah.
Handl. 1844, p. 180, 1846.

Rusa mariannus, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 78, 1872,
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 150, 1873 (marianus) , partirn ;
Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 355,
1873, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 304, 1874 (marianna) ; Garrod, Proc.
Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17.

Ussa marianus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emj). Chinois, vol. ii, p. 40,
1888.

Typical locality Guam Island, Marianne, or Ladrone,
Group.

Type in Paris Museum.

Closely allied to, and perhaps really inseparable from, the
next race. Brooke was of opinion that the Marianne deer
were originally imported from Luzon, but the evidence is
by no means conclusive. The name mariannus antedates
philippinus.

655, I. Skull, with antlers. Presumably (like the fol-
lowing specimens) from the Marianne group. Described,
with figure of antlers by Brooke, op. cit. 1877, p. 56. Total
length of skull llf inches; length of antler along outer
curve 18 inches, basal girth above burr 5 inches. No history.

655, c. Skull and antlers. No history.

G 2



84 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

53. 16. 6. 2 (655, d). Skull and antlers.

Purchased (Argent), 1853.

655, e. Pair of antlers. No history.

64. 10. 1. 2 (655, /). Pair of antlers.

Purchased (Cutter), 1864.

G. Cervus unicolor philippinus.

Cervus philippinus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv,

p. 147, 1827; J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 622, 1829;

Pucheran, Rev. Zool. Paris, 1855, p. 49, 1857, p. 481 ; Brooke,

Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 51, pi. viii, 1878, p. 901.
Cervus (Stylocerus) philippinus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom,

vol. v, p. 319, 1827.
Cervus (Hippelaphus) philippinus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak.

Handl. 1844, p. 179, 1846.
Rusa philippinus, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 63, 1850, Proc. Zool.

Soc. 1850, p. 232, Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 211, 1852;

Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ah. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixvii, pt. 1, p. 355,

1873, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 305, 1874 (philippina) ; Cabrera, Cat. Met.

Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 130, 1912 ; Hollister, Philippine Journ.

Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 40, 1912, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi,

p. 331, 1913.

Cervus mariannus, Fraser, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1866, p. 367.
Rusa mariannus, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 78, 1872,

Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 150, 1873 (marianna),

partim.
Cervus (Muntjac) philippinus, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus.

p. 94, 1872.
Cervus unicolor philippinus, Lydekker, Deer of All Lands, p. 157,

1898 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 64, 1910, ed. 7,

p. 67, 1914.

Typical locality Luzon, Philippine group.

Type in Paris Museum.

Nearly allied to C. u. swinhoei, but smaller; height at
shoulder about 28 inches ; general build stout and massive,
with the hind-quarters not specially elevated, and the form
that of a small Malay sambar ; general colour rich ruddy
brown, darkest on back and lightest on the neck; forehead
and cheeks rufous fawn ; a blackish streak strarting from
over each eye to form a median line down the face, which is
separated by a pale band of fawn from a narrow moustache-
like mark on the muzzle ; chin white ; under-parts uniformly
brown ; metatarsal gland forming a rufous spot much lighter
than the rest of the leg ; ears moderate, covered externally
with short close-set hairs ; antlers very similar to those of



CERVID.I; 85

the Malay race, massive, nearly straight, with a long brow-
tine, and the inner tine of the terminal fork markedly
shorter than the outer one. Skull rather elevated in the
nasal region, and tjie lachrymal vacuities large and triangular.

47. 3. 4. 22 (655, a). Pair of antlers, probably referable
l.o this race. Philippines.

Presented by Admiral Sir Edward Belcher, KC.B., 1847.

2. 3. 19. 2. Head of female in winter coat, mounted.
Shows the white chin very distinctly.

Presented by the Duke of Bedford, K.G., 1902

H. Cervus unicolor basilanensis.

Melanaxis basilanensis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois,

vol. ii, p. 49, 1888.
Rusa basilanensis, Hollister, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 332,

1913.

Typical (and only) locality Basilan Island, Philippines.
Apparently nearly allied to, but (according to Hollister)
distinct from, C. n. pliilipphni*.
No specimen in collection.

I. Cervus unicolor barandanus.

Ussa barandanus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii,

p. 22, 1888.
Rusa barandanus, Hollister, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 331,

1913.

Typical locality Mindoro Island, Philippines.

Insufficiently described, but, according to Hollister,
entitled to rank as a distinct form; size approximately the
same as in C. u. philippinus.

No specimen in collection.

J. Cervus unicolor francianus.

Ussa francianus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii,

p. 24, 1888.
Rusa francianus, Hollister, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 331,

1913.

Typical locality Mindanao Island, Philippines.
Apparently nearly related to C. v. pliilippinus, but at



86 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

present insufficiently described. Considerable variation
obtains in the size of the cheek-teeth.
No specimen in collection.


K. Cervus unieolor nigrieans.

Cervus nigricans, Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 57.

Ussa nigricans, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii, pt. 1,

p. 31, 1888.
Cervus steerii, Elliot, Field Mus. Zool. Pub. vol. i, p. 72, 1896,

p. 157, 1897.

Cervus (Rusa) nigricans, Nitsche, Studien iiber Hirsche, p. 32, 1898.
Cervus unieolor nigricans, LydeJeker, Deer of All Lands, p. 158,

1898 ; Ward, Becords of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 65, 1910, ed. 7,

p. 65, 1914.
Rusa nigricans, Hollister, Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii,

p. 40, 1912, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xli, p. 339, 1913.
Rusa steerei, Hollister, Philippine Journ. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, p. 40,

1912.

Typical locality " an unknown island in the Philippines,"
which is Basilan, the typical locality of Cervus steerii.

Smaller than C. u. pliilippinus, the height at the shoulder
being about 24 to 26 inches ; general build more slender,
with the hind-quarters much higher than the withers ;
general colour blackish brown, slightly tinged with rufous,
becoming almost black on the face, neck, and shoulders;
no moustache-like markings on muzzle; chin, under-parts,
and inner surfaces of thighs varying from dirty white to
whitish brown, the white showing most on the front of the
thighs ; metatarsal gland generally indistinct ; ears oval,'
relatively small, and almost naked externally ; antlers
moderately stout, somewhat curved forwards, with a short
brow-tine, and the hind tine of the terminal fork not much
shorter than the front one. Skull much depressed in the
nasal region, with the nasal bones in fully adult individuals
so expanded as almost or completely to obliterate the
lachrymal vacuities. Basal length of skull in a Basilan
specimen 8 inches ; length of antlers on outer curve
13 J inches.

This race was named on the evidence of the under-
mentioned skull and skin of a female from an unknown
island in the Philippines, in which the lower portions of the
legs are perhaps rather lighter than in other examples, and



CERVID^E 87

the metatarsal gland is indistinctly visible as a light patch.
In 1890 the Museum received the Basilan specimen,
No. 90. 7. 25. 3, which from the comparatively small size
of the antlers, is probably immature ; and the only noticable
difference between this specimen which is undoubtedly the
same as C. steerii and the type is that in the former the
front and outer side of the lower portion of the legs is
slightly darker, and shows no distinct light gland-patch.
As mounted, it measures 25J inches at the shoulder, and
27 inches at the rump. In its relatively high rump it
accords with Brooke's " crouching aguti-like carriage " of the
type ; and from comparison with the latter, there can be
little or no doubt that both belong to the same race, the
nearly naked ears being a conspicuous feature in common.

85. 4. 22. 1. Skull and skin, female. Philippines,
probably Basilan. Type. The animal was living in the
London Zoological Gardens in 1870 ; and on its death the
present specimens passed into the collection of Sir Victor
Brooke, Bart. Presented ly Sir Doiiylas Brooke, Bart., 1885.
85. 4. 22. 3. Skull and antlers. Basilan ; collected by
A. H. Everett, Esq. Purchased, 1885.

85. 4. 22. 4. A similar specimen. Same locality and
collector. Same history.

15. 4. 22. 5. Another similar specimen. Same locality
and collector. Same history.

90. 7. 25. 3. Skin, subadult, mounted. Basilan ; col-
lected by E. L. Mosely, Esq. Purchased, 1890.

L. Cervus unicolor nig-ellus.

Rusa nigellus, Hollister, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlvi, p. 332, 1913.

Typical locality Mount Malindang, at a height of
8,000 feet, Mindanao Island, Philippines.

Type in U.S. National Museum.

Much smaller than the common Mindanao C. u. fran-
cianus, and apparently nearly related to C. u. nigricans, but
with smaller skull and cheek-teeth and conspicuous face-
markings. General colour dark blackish brown, with two
transverse golden brown bands on face, one a little above
muffle and the other across forehead ; lower lip whitish ;



88 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

chin blackish ; nape and backs of ears black ; inner sides of
ears buffish white ; imder-parts nearly black in middle line,
passing into ochery buff between limbs ; fore-legs with a
narrow ochery stripe down inner side. Antler-pedicles very
long ; length of upper row of cheek-teeth 66 mm.
No specimen in collection.

M, Cervus unicolor boninensis.

Cervus (Rusa) unicolor boninensis, Lydekker, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.
ser. 7, vol. xv, p. 392, 1905 ; AoJci, Annot. Zool. Japon. vol. viii,
p. 341, 1913, as a synonym of C. unicolor.

Typical locality Bonin Islands, lying about one degree to
the east-south-east of the southern point of Japan, to which,
according to Aoki, these deer were introduced by Perry
about 1850.

A provisional race of smaller size than C. u. swinlioei,
and of the approximate dimensions of C. u. nigricans, from
which it differs by the much lighter colour of the under-
parts and limbs the shanks being nearly white, and the
rufous fawn of the flanks being sharply defined from the
brown of the back as well as by the tail being shorter and
white beneath. Basal length of female skull 8f inches.

96.2.28.4. Skull, female. Bonin Island. Type. Shows
the proximally expanded nasals, deep lachrymal pits, and
small auditory bullse characteristic of the sambar group.
The skull and skin of a male specimen are in the Tring
Museum.

Presented by the Executors of H. Seebokm, Esq., 1896.

OTHER NAMES APPLIED TO POJSINE DEER.

The following is a list of names (compiled by Hollister,
Philippine Jo-urn. Sci. sect. D, vol. vii, pp. 41 et seq.) applied
by Heude to Philippine deer, in addition to those quoted
elsewhere in this volume. The specific names are arranged
alphabetically, irrespective of the genera to which they were
assigned by their author. Hollister remarks that, although
many of these names are undoubtedly synonyms, a few may
prove valid when, a sufficient number of specimens from the
typical localities are available for comparison.



CKRVID^E 89

Ussa ambrosianus, Heude, Mem. Hixl. Nat. Hny*. CJiinoix, vol. ii,
pt. 1, p. 27, 1888.

Typical locality Xuova Ecija, Luzon.
Ussa atheneensis, Heude, op. cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 188, 1889.

Typical locality Luzon.
Ussa barycerosj Heude, op. cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 139, 1899.

Typical locality La Laguna and Batangas, Luzon.

Ussa brachyceros, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1. p. 36, 1888.

Typical locality Batangas, Luzon.
Melanaxis breviceps, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 48, 1888.

Typical locality Masbate Island.

Ussa chrysotrichos, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 39, 1888.

Typical locality La Laguna and Batangas, Luzon.
Ussa cinerens, Heude, op. cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 140, 1889.

Typical locality Cebu Island.
Ussa corteanus, Heude, op. fit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 37, 1888.

Typical locality Marive.les, Luzon.

Ussa crassicornis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. '23, 1888.

Typical locality Cebu.
Ussa dailliardianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 32, 1888.

Typical locality Jala- Jala, Laguna, Luzon.

Melanaxis (?) elegans, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 49, 1HHH.

Typical locality Philippine Islands.
Ussa clorzanns, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 28, 1888.

Typical locality Bataan Province, Luzon.
Ussa gavcianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 29, 1888.

Typical locality Nueva Ecija, Luzon.
Ussa gonzalinus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 35, 1888.

Typical locality Philippines, probably Luzon.



90 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Ussa gorrichamis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 21, 1888.
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon.

Ussa guevararms, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 40, 1888.
Typical locality Mariquina, Luzon.

Ussa guidoteanus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 29, 1888.
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon.

Ussa hipolitiamis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 39, 1888.
Typical locality La Laguna and Batangas, Luzon.

Ussa longicuspis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 34, 1888.
Typical locality Philippines, probably Luzon.

Ussa macarianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 28, 1888.

Typical locality Nneva Ecija, Luzon.
Ussa maraisianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 81, 1888.

Typical locality Jala-Jala, Laguna de Bay, Luzon.

Ussa marzaninus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 33, 1888.
Typical locality Nueva Ecija and La Laguna, Luzon.

Melanaxis masbatensis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 47, 1888.
Typical locality Masbate Island.

Ussa michaelinus, Heude, op. cit. vol. iv. pt. 3, p. 135, 1899.
Typical locality San Miguel de Murcia, Tarlac, Luzon.

Ussa microdontus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 34, 1888.
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon.

Ussa nublanus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 24, 1888.
Typical locality, La Laguna, Luzon.

Ussa ramosianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 26, 1888.
Typical locality Nueva Ecija, Luzon.

Ussa rosarianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 30, 1888.
Typical locality Nueva Ecija, Luzon.






CERVID^E 91

Ussa roxasianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 33, 1888.
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon.

Ussa rubiginosus, Hende, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 38, 1888.
Typical locality Bataan and Nueva Ecija, Luzon.

Sikelaphus soloensis, Hcude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 3, p. 147, 1894.

Typical locality Sulu.
Ussa spatharius, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 25, 1888.

Typical locality La Laguna, Luzon.

Ussa telesforianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, p. 1, p. 36, 1888.
Typical locality Batangas (?), Luzon.

I'ssa tuasoninus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, p. 1, p. 25, 1888.
Typical locality Batangas, Luzon.

Ussa verzosaiius, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, p. 1, p. 37, 1888, vol. iv, pt. 3,
p. 134, 1894.

Typical locality Nueva Ecija, Luzon.

Ussa vidalinus, Heude, op. cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 136, 1899.

Typical locality San Miguel cle Murcia, Tarlac, Luzon.
Ussa villemerianus, Hcude, op. cit. vol. iv, pt. 3, p. 136, 1899.

Typical locality San Miguel de Murcia, Tarlac, Luzon.

The following names have been applied to members of
the sambar-rusa group from countries other than the
Philippines :

Sambar curvicornis, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. ii,
pt. 1, p. 42, 1888. Cochin-China.

Sambar longicornis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 42, 1888. Cochin-
China.

Sambar outreyanus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 42, 1888. Cochin-
China.

Sambar planidens, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 43, 1888. Cochin-
China.

Sambar colombertinus, Heudc, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 43, 1888.
Cochin-China.

Sambar combalbertinus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 43, 1888.
Cochin-China.



92 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Sambar lignarius, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 44, 1888. Cochin-

China.
Sambar lemearms, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 44, 1888. Cochin -

China.
Sambar errardianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 45, 1888. Cochin-

China.
Sambar joubertianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1. p. 45, 1888. Cochin-

China.
Sambar latideiis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 45, 1888. Cochin -

China.
Sambar planiceps, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 45, 1888. Cochin -

China.
Sambar officialis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 46, 1888. Cochin-

China.
Sambar simonimis, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 46, 1888. Cochin-

China.
Sambar brachyrinus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii, pt. 1, p. 46, 1888. Cochin-

China.
Sambar verutus, Heude, op. cit. vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 46, 1888. Cochin-

China.
Hippelaphus hamiltonianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. iii, p. 49, 1896.

Sandakan.
Hippelaphus macassaricus, Heude, op. cit. vol. iii, p. 50, 1896.

Macassar.
Hippelaphus menadensis, Heude, o%>. cit. vol. iii, p. 50, 1896.

Menado.
Hippelaphus floresianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. iii, p. 92, 1896.

Flores.

Hippelaphus buruensis, Heude, op. cit. vol. iii, p. 98, 1896. Burn.
Hippelaphus noevellianus, Heude, op. cit. vol. iii, p. 94, 1896. Buru.



4. SUBGENUS RUCERVUS.

Rucervus, Hodgson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1, vol. i, p. 154, 1838 ;

Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 905 ; Lydekkcr, Deer of All

Lands, p. 188, 1898.

Panolia, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 180, 1843.
Recervus, Gray, List. Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 65, 1847, errorim.
Recurvus, Jdger and Bessels, Petcrmann's Mittlieil. vol. xvi, p. 87,

1870, errorim. .
Rucercus, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 875, 1898, errorim.

Large deer, with flattened or rounded antlers, in which
both the bez (second) and third tines are wanting, the beam
dichotomously forked, and one or hoth branches again forked,
so that the number of tines is typically at least four, and
may be many more, the hrow-tine forming either a right
angle or a continuous curve with the beam ; coat generally



CKKVID.K 0.)

almost or quite uniformly coloured, without a light rump-
patch ; neck maned ; ears large ; face long ; tail short ; bare
uiva of muzzle ascending some distance above nostrils ; face-
glands moderate, and not capable of complete eversion ;
metatarsal glands small or wanting ; hind-pasterns as in
preceding subgenus ; upper canines small ; upper molars
with a small additional column on the inner side ; young
usually spotted ; skull relatively narrow, with the auditory
bulla> on under surface moderately inflated.

The distributional area includes a large portion of the
mainland of south-eastern Asia, together with the island of
Hainan.

The species are distinguishable as follows :

A. Brow-tine of antlers more or less differentiated

from beam.

. Beam of antlers undivided for a consider-
able distance above origin of brow-tine,

which is not forked C. (It.) duvauceli.

b. Beam of antlers dividing a short distance
above origin of brow-tine, which is fre-
quently forked C. (R.) tchombnrgki.

u. Brow-tine of antlers continuous with beam... C. (B.) eldi.
IX. CEEVUS (RUCEEVUS) DUVAUCELI.

Cervus duvaucelii,* Cuvier, Ossemcns Fossiles, ed. 3, vol. iv, p. 505,
1825 ; J. B. Fischer, Synop. Mamm. p. 452, 1829; Anon, Journ.
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. v, p. 240, 1836; Sclater, Trans. Zool.
Soc. vol. vii, p. 346, 1871 ; Brooke, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 905 ;
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 179, 1891 ;
Flower and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; Blan-
ford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 538, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns
and Hoofs, p. 304, 1893, Deer of All Lands, p. 189, pi. xiv, 1898,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1899, p. 829, Great and Small Game of India, etc.
p. 228, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 245, 1907 ; Ward,
Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 13, 1896; Bentham, Asiat. Horns
and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 85, 1908.

Cervus bahrinja, Hodgson, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1834, p. 99.

Cervus elaphoides, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. iv,
.p. 648, 1835.

Cervus (Eucervus) elaphoides, Hodgson, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 1,
vol. i, p. 154, 1838.

Cervus dimorphe, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xii, p. 807,
1843.

Axis (?) duvaucellii, Gray, List Mamm. Brit Mus. p. 178, 1843.



* Variously rendered as duvauceli and duva/-,l//,



94 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Cervus (Hippelaphus) duvaucelii, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak.
Handl. 1844, p. 178, 1846.

Rucervus duvaucelii, Hodgson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xvi,
p. 689, 1847 ; Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 230, Cat. Ungulata
Brit. Mus. p. 203, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 76, 1872,
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 145, 1873 ; Blyth, Cat.
Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, p. 150, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc.
1867, p. 835 ; Anderson, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxxvi,
pt. 2, p. 185, note, 1868 ; Blanford, ibid. pp. 197 and 199, 1868 ;
Jerdon, Mamm. India, p. 254, 1867 ; Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak.
Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 356, 1873, vol. Ixx, pt. 1, p. 324,



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