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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 4) online

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1874 ; Sterndale, Mamm. India, p. 510, 1884 ; Percy, Big Game
Shooting (Badminton Libr.), vol. ii, p. 264, 1894.

Recervus duvaucellii, Gray, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 65, 1847 ;
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 259, 1862.

Cervus ruceros, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 40, 1850.

Rusa dimorpha, Gray, Knowsley Menagerie, p. 62, 1850 ; Fitzinger,
Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. vol. Ixviii, pt. 1, p. 355, 1873.

Cervus eucladoceros, Falconer's Pal. Mem. vol. i, p. 587, 1868.

Cervus (Rucervus) duvauceli, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6,
p. 79, 1910, ed. 7, p. 54, 1914 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910,
p. 493 ; Lydekker, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit. Mus. p. 36, 1913.

BARASINGHA ; SWAMP-DEER.

Type of Rucervus.

Typical locality plains of Peninsular India.

Height at shoulder from 3 feet 8 inches to 3 feet
10 inches ; build stout and tall ; coat moderately fine, and
somewhat woolly ; muzzle long and slender ; antlers (fig. 18)
smooth and flattened, with a long brow-tine usually rising
almost at a right angle to beam ; above the brow-tine the
beam remains undivided for about half its length, when it
splits into a regular fork, of which each branch is usually
again simply forked, although the outer branch may be much
longer than the inner one, and bear three or more tines ;
small snags frequently developed on upper surface of brow-
tine, although " sports " at its junction with the beam seldom
occur, and the brow-tine is never forked ; metatarsal gland
and tuft wanting ; general colour in summer bright rufous
brown, frequently, or usually, with a broad brown line down
the middle of the back, bordered by a line of white spots on
each side, and more or less faint traces of other spots ;
throat, inner sides of thighs, and under-parts white or
whitish ; lower surface of the tail pure white ; in winter
upper-parts yellowish brown, and under-parts paler ; in



95

females colour lighter at all seasons ; young fully spotted with
white. The ears are filled internally with long white hairs ;
and the naked portion of the muzzle is slaty. Good antlers
measure from 34 to 41 inches along the outer curve, with a




FIG. 18. HEAD OP SWAMP-DEER (Cervus [Rucervus] duvauceli). The
nearly continuous sweep formed by the brow-tine and the beam is a
feature in which this head approximates to the Thamin.
From Lydekker, Proa. Zool. Soc. 1899.

basal girth of from 4J- to 6, and a tip-to-tip interval of from
20 to 43 inches.

The range is restricted to India, not extending eastward
of the Bay of Bengal or to Ceylon. Along the foot of the
Himalaya it embraces the tract from Upper Assam in the
east to the Kyarda Dun west of the Jumna, Assam, a few
localities in the Indo-Gangetic plain from the Eastern



96 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Sandarbans to Bahawalpur, Rohri in Upper Sind, and parts
of the extensive area lying between the Ganges and Godaveri
valleys as far eastwards as Mandla. The species is abundant
in portions of the upper Narbada Valley, as well as the
neighbourhood of Bastar to the southward : in the Central
Provinces its range corresponds with that of the red jungle-
fowl, both species being confined to the tracts covered with
sal-forest.

45. 1. 8. 128. Skull and antlers. Nepal.

Presented ~by B. H. Hodgson, Esy., 1845.
45. 1. 8. 129. Skull and antlers. Same locality.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 130. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 131. Frontlet and antlers. Same locality.

Same history.
45. 1. 8. 200. Skin, immature female. Same locality.

Same history.

45. 1. 8. 271. Skull, with antlers, and skin. Nepal

(sal-forest). Type of Ccrvus dimorphe. Same history.

50. 7. 9. 13. Skin, mounted, and skull (50. 8. 30. 4).

India. An earlier skull (No. 694, d) has been put in the

skin. Presented ty the Earl of Derby, 1850.

55. 12. 24. 399. Skin, female. India.

Same donor, 1855.

694, 1). Skull and antlers. India. No history.

694, i. Skull, immature. India. (In Geological De-
partment.) No history.
63. 5. 28. 3. Skull and antlers. Himalaya.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1863.
63. 12. 3. 7. Skin, young, formerly mounted. Zoological
Gardens. Same history.

79. 11. 21. 38. Frontlet and horns. India.

Transferred from India Museum, 1879.
79. 11. 21. 39. Frontlet and horns. India.

Same history.

79. 11. 21. 40. Frontlet and antlers. Upper India ;

collected by Gen. T. Hardwicke. Same history.

84. 4. 14. 1. Skeleton, female. Assam ; collected by

G. P. Sanderson, Esq. Purchased, 1884.



97

84. 4. 14. 2. Skeleton, female. Same locality and
collector. Same history.

694, k. Skeleton and antlers. India.

Purchased (Zoological Society).

87. 2. 9. 4. Frontlet and antlers. India ; collected by
A. Grote, Esq. Presented ly Mrs. Stirling, 1887.

* * * *. Frontlet and antlers. India. No history.

88. 3. 20. 22. Skull and antlers. India.

Presented ly R. Lydelcker, Esq., 1888.
91. 8. 7. 8. Skull and antlers. Kheri district, Oudh.

Presented ly A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891.
91. 8. 7. 9. Skull and antlers. Bramaputra Valley,
Gowhatti, Assam ; collected by Mr. E. Adam. Same history.
91. 8. 7. 10. Frontlet and antlers. Gowhatti.

Same history.

91. 8. 7. 11. Skull and antlers, immature. Baraitch
district, Oudh. Same history.

5. 11. 30. 1. Skin, mounted. Central Provinces.

Purchased, 1905.

12. 10. 31. 5. Skull and antlers. Gowhatti. Neither
this nor the following specimen has antlers sufficiently large
to be included in Ward's list.

Bequeathed ly A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912.
12. 10. 31. 6. Skull and antlers. Kheri district.

Same history.

14. 3. 31. 2. Skull and antlers. Dehra Dun ; collected
by K. H. W. Dunlop, Esq., about 1860. Length of antlers
34J, basal girth 6, tip-to-tip interval 33J inches.

Presented ly Major A. Wallace- Dunlop, 1914.

X. CERVUS (RUCERVUS) SCHOMBURGKI.

Cervus (Kucervus) schomburgki, Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1863, p. 155,
1867, p. 835 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 75, 1910,
ed. 7, p. 57, 1914.

Cervus schomburgki, Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 349, 1871 ;
BrooJce, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1876, p. 304, 1878, p. 905 ; Flower and
LydeJcker, Study of Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat.
Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 180, 1891 ; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs,
p. 307, 1873, Deer of All Lands, p. 193, 1898, Great and Small
Game of India, etc. p. 230, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc.
p. 248, 1907 ; Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 15, 1896 ;
Bentham, Asiat. Horns and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 88, 1908.

IV. H



98



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



Rucervus cambojensis, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 76, 1872,

Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 145, 1873.
Rucervus schomburgkii, Fitzinger, Sitzber. Jc. Ak. Wiss. Wien,

vol. Ixxix, pt. 1, p. 64, 1879.

Typical locality Siam.

Height at shoulder about 3 feet 5 inches ; coat in winter
rather long and coarse ; general colour uniform brown,




FIG. 19. SKULL AND ANTLERS OF SCHOMBUBGK'S DEEK

(Ccrvus [Rucervus] schomburgki) .
From a photograph lent by Messrs. Rowland Ward, Ltd.

darkest on nose and the upper surface of tail, and lightest
on cheeks and flanks ; under-parts, under surface of tail, and
lower lip whitish ; a tinge of rufous on upper lip, back of
head, and limbs; hair on front of lower part of fore-legs
elongated into a fringe; metatarsal gland not described;
antlers (fig. 19) large, complex, smooth, and polished; the



CKKY1D.-K 01)



lirow-fcine very long, frequently forked, and arising nearly
at a right angle to beam, the latter very short and more or
less laterally compressed, then forking dichotomously, with
each of the main branches about equally developed, and
again forking in a similar manner, to terminate in long
cylindrical tines ; in immature antlers hind branch of main
fork less developed than front one.

Good antlers measure from 27 to 33 inches in length
along the front curve, with, a basal girth of from 4-J to 6,
;n id a tip-to-tip interval of from OJ to 28 J inches.

The range, according to W. L. Sclater and Benthani,
includes Yun-nan.

Cervulus cambojensis, described from a frontlet and antlers,
with part of the head-skin, from Cambodia, was identified
by its describer (Gray) with this species, in his 1872
Catalogue ; it really belongs to Cervus unicolor cquinus, under
which heading it is entered above (N"o. 61. 4. 12. 18).

65. 11. 2. 3. Frontlet and antlers. Siani; collected by
Sir \\. Schomburgk. Purchased (Stevens), 1865.

65. 11. 2. 4. Pair of antlers. Siam; same collector.

Same history.

67. 8. 20. 1. Pair of antlers. Siam; collected by E.
Blyth, Esq. Purchased, 1867.

67. 8. 20. 2. Pair of antlers. Same locality and collector.

Same history.

67. 8. 20. 3. Pair of antlers. Same locality and collector.

Same history.

01. 12. 2. 1-2. Two pairs of antlers. Siam; presented
to the Science and Art Department by the Siamese Embassy.
Co-types ; figured Proc. Zool. Soc., 1863.

Transferred from the Science and Art Department, 1801.

8. 3. 17. 5. Skull and antlers (fig. 10). Siam. The
"record" specimen. Length of antlers on outside curve 33,
basal girth of, tip-to-tip interval 17i inches.

Presented ly J. Eoivland Ward, Esq., 1008.



H U



100 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



Xr. CEEVUS (RUCEEVUS) ELDI.

(?) Cervus smithi, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1837, p. 45.

Cervus eldii,* Giithrie, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. vol. ii, p. 417,
1842 ; Beavan, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 759 ; Blyth, ibid. 1867,
p. 837 ; Sclater, Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, . 348, 1871 ; Brooke,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 906 ; Flower and Lydekker, Study of
Mammals, p. 320, 1891 ; W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus.
pt. ii, p. 180, 1891 ; Blanford, Fauna Brit. India, Mamm. p. 541,
1891; Lydekker, Horns and Hoofs, p. 308, 1893, Deer of All
Lands, p. 195, pi. xv, 1898, Great and Small Game of India, etc.
p. 234, 1900, Game Animals of India, etc. p. 252, 1907 ; Evans,
Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. vol. ix, p. 326, 1895 ; Ward,
Records of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 16, 1896; Bentham, Asiat. Horns
and Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 90, 1908.

Panolia acuticornis, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 180, 1843 ;
Cantor, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xv, p. 72, 1846.

Cervus lyratue, Schinz, Synop. Mamm. vol. ii, p. 395, 1845.

Dama acuticornis, Reichenbach, Sdugethiere, vol. iii, p. 16, 1845.

Panolia eldi,f Gray, Cat. Hodgson Collect. Brit. Mus. p. 34, 1846,
List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 66, 1847, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 229,
Cat. Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 202, 1852, Cat. Ruminants Brit.
Mus. p. 75, 1872, Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 144, 1873 ;
Gerrard, Cat. Bones Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 259, 1862; Blyth,
Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxx, p. 193, 1862, vol. xxxi,
p. 334, 1863, Cat. Mamm. Mus. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, p. 149, 1863,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 835, Mamm. and Birds Burma, p. 45,
1875 ; Beavan, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxxvi, pt. 2,
p. 175, 1868 ; Siuinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1869, p. 652 ; Sterndale,
Mamm. India, p. 511, 1884; Percy, Big Game Shooting (Bad-
minton Libr.), vol. ii, p. 268, 1894.

Panolia frontalis, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii,
pt. 1, p. 352, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 592, 1874.

Rucervus eldi, Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1877, p. 17 ; Percy, Big Game
Shooting (Badminton Libr.), vol. ii, p. 268, 1894.

Cervus (Eucervus) eldi, Ward, Records of Big Game, ed. 6, p. 77,
1910, ed. 7, p. 58, 1914; Lydekker, Cat. Hume Bequest Brit.
Mus. p. 36, 1913.

Cervus (Panolia) eldi, Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 944.



HTHAMIN, THAMIN, or THAMENG (Burmese) ; SANGNAI (Manipuri)
ELD'S DEER or BROW-ANTLERED DEER.

Type of Panolia.

Typical locality Pegu, Lower Burma.

Height at shoulder about 3 feet 9 inches; coat coarse
shaggy in winter, and long and thickened about the neck in
the males ; antlers (fig. 20) rounded and rugose, with a long

* Modified by later writers to eldi.

t Misprinted eedi in Gray's earlier lists.



CERVIDjE



101



curved brow-tine, formiDg a continuation of the curve of
the beam, which is set at right angles to the pedicle; the
beam unbranched for a considerable distance, curving back-
wards, then outwards and finally forwards, after which it is
dichotomously forked ; the outer branch of the terminal fork
more complex than the inner one, the number of terminal
points varying from two or three to at least eight or ten ;
one or more prominent snags usually developed at the
junction of the brow-tine with the beam ; the curve of the
two antlers usually more or less asymmetrical ; colour in




FIG. 20. HEAD OF THAMIN (Cervus [Rucervus] eldi).

winter typically dark brown above, and white below, some-
times with a white mark above the eye ; in winter fawn-
coloured above and pale brown beneath ; females paler rufous
fawn ; new-born young generally spotted on the rump with
white ; in a more rufous phase spots persist till a late period ;
metatarsal gland represented by a tuft of hairs paler than
those of the rest of the leg, and a patch of underlying
glandular skin.

Fine antlers measure from 34 to 42 inches along the
outer curve, with a basal girth of from 4 to 6, and a tip-to-
tip interval of from 21^ to 31J inches.



102 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

The range includes low alluvial tracts, from the valley
of Manipur in the north, southwards through Burma and
the Malay Peninsula, and eastwards to southern Siam,
Cambodia, the island of Hainan, and Formosa.

The three following races have been named :

A. Antlers with the main termination not markedly

flattened, few snags on hind edge, and the
brow -tine long.

a. Under surface of hind-pasterns hairy C. e. eldi.

b. Under surface of hind-pasterns horny C. e. frontalis.

B. Antlers with the main termination markedly flat-

tened, numerous snags on sharp hind edge,

and the brow-tine short C. e. siamensis.

A. Cervus eldi eldi.

Cervus eldi typicus, Lydelcker, Deer of All Lands, p. 200, 1898, Game
Animals of India, etc. p. 253, 1907; Ward, Eecords of Big
Game, ed. 6, p. 77, 1910, ed. 7, p. 58, 1914.

Typical locality Pegu, Lower Burma, whence the range
apparently extends southwards into the Malay Peninsula.

General characters those of the species.

Antlers from the Malay Peninsula and Mergui are stated
by Bly th to be smaller than those from Manipur and Burma,
frequently" with two or three additional snags on the brow-
tine, which may indicate the existence of a distinct race in
the Xovifehern districts.

According to a writer in The Indian Meld,* the Burmese
recognise three distinct types of thamin stags, severally
termed wet-thamin ( = pig-thamin), chywe-thamin ( = buffalo-
thamin), and nwa-thamin ( = cow-thamin). In the first the
colour is dark drab above, with a narrow dark spinal stripe,
and an abundant throat-ruff; the second is a taller and more
slender stag, without a throat-ruff; while the third is still
more slight and graceful in build, lighter in colour and
spotted, with a softer coat, and smaller antlers. These
differences are probably due mainly to age.

45. 1. 8. 126. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.
Presented ly B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 1845.

45. 1. 8. 127. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.

Same history.
* Vol. xvii, p. 60, 1910.






CERVID^K 103

0!)."), <(. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.

No histoi'i/.
01):"), /. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.

No history.
69."i, i/. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown.

Purchased ( Warwick).

695, w. Frontlet and antlers (in Geological Department).
Locality unknown. No history.

46. '4. 29. 10. Skull and antlers. Burma (?).

Purchased, 1846.
4G. 4. 21). 11. Skull and antlers. Burma (?).

Same history.

GO. 4. 25. 4. Skeleton, wanting skull. Probably Burma.
Purchased {Zoological Society), 1866.
68. 12. 29. 9. Skin. Probably Burma.

Purchased (Zoological Society), 1868.

79. 11. 21. 36, a. Frontlet and antlers. Locality

unknown. Transferred from India Museum, 1879.

87. 2. 9. 5. Skull and antlers. Locality unknown ;

collected by A. Grote, Esq. Presented by Mrs. Stirling, 1887.

87. 2. y. G. Frontlet and antlers. Locality unknown;

same collector. Same history.

91. 8. 7. 12. Skull and antlers. Thatone, Tenasserim ;

collected by W. Davison, Esq.

Presented by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1891.

91. 8. 7. 15. Skull and antlers. Same locality and

collector. Same history.

94. 12. 19. 1-5. Five skulls, with antlers. Monywa

district, lower Ghindwin Valley, Upper Burma.

Presented by C. F. Gilbert, Esq., 1894.
96. 6. 29. 2. Head, mounted. Burma.

Purchased ( Ward), 1896.
0. 7. 23. 1. Skin, mounted. Burma.

Presented by Major H. G. Evans, 1900.
12. 10. 31. 8. Skull and antlers. Thatone; collected
by W. Davison, Esq.

bequeathed by A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912.



104 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



B. Cervus eldi frontalis.

Cervus (Rusa) frontalis, McClelland, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist.

vol. iii, p. 539, pis. xiii and xiv, 1843 ; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc.

Bengal, vol. xxviii, p. 296, 1859.
Cervus (Hippelaphus) frontalis, Sundevall, K. SvensTca Vet.-Ak.

Handl. 1844, p. 320, 1846.
Cervus eldi cornipes, Lydekker, Nature, vol. Ixiv, p. 257, 1901, Game

Animals of India, etc. p. 254, 1907 ; Ward, Records of Big Game,

ed. 6, p. 77, 1910, ed. 7, p. 58, 1914.

Typical locality the Manipur Valley, which is practically
one continuous swamp.

Antlers apparently indistinguishable from those of typical
race ; hind-pasterns longer, with the whole under surface
horny (instead of hairy), and applied to the ground in
walking.

79.11.21.36. Frontlet and antlers. Manipur; collected
by Dr. J. McClelland. Co-type.

Transferred from India Museum, 1879.

91. 8. 7. 13-14. Two skulls, with antlers. Manipur.

Presented ly A. 0. Hum.e, Esq., G.B., 1891.

1. 7. 13. 1. Hind-foot, mounted. Manipur. Type of
C. cornipes. Presented ly Major C. S. Cumberland, 1901.

12. 10. 31. 7. Skull and antlers. Manipur; collected
by Mr. Hume. In this specimen, which stands No. 16 in
Ward's 1910 list, the measurements of the antlers are as
follows: length on outside curve 38 J, girth 6^, tip-to-tip 24,
widest inside span 3 Of inches.

Bequeathed ly A. 0. Hume, Esq., C.B., 1912.

C. Cervus eldi siamensis, nom. n.

Panolia platyceros, Gray, List Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 181, 1843, Cat.
Ungulata Brit. Mus. p. 203, 1852 ; Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867,
p. 843, as a variety of P. eldi; nee Cervus platyceros, Cuvier,
1798.

Panolia platycercus, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 75, 1872,
Hand-List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 144, 1873, errorim.

Cervus eldi platyceros, LydeJcJcer, Deer of All Lands, p. 200, 1898,
Game Animals of India, etc. p. 253, 1907 ; Ward, Records of
Big Game, ed. 6, p. 77, 1910, ed. 7, p. 58, 1914 ; Gairdner, Journ.
Nat. Hist. Soc. Siam, vol. i, p. 113, 1914.

Panolia eldi platyceros, Allen, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. vol. xxii,
p. 468, 1906.



105

Typical locality (southern) Siam, the range including
Cambodia, apparently Hainan, and perhaps Formosa.

Antlers with the main termination much flattened, a
number of small snags on the sharp hind edge, and the brow-
tine relatively short ; general colour reddish at all seasons,
with spots along middle of back, and in some cases also on sides.

Although there is some doubt as to the place of origin
of the type of Panolia platyceros (No. 695, h), it presents all
the characteristics of Siamese antlers.

695, k. Single antler. Siam (?). Type ; figured by
Blyth, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, p. 841,' figs. 22 and 23. In
Gray's Catalogue of Ungulata the locality was given as
India, but in the Museum copy it is altered, in Gray's own
handwriting, to Siam ; and in the Catalogue of Ruminants
Siam appears as the place of origin. Purchased ( Warwick).

65. 11. 2. 1. Skull and antlers. Siam. Figured by
Blyth, op. cit. figs. 20 and 21.

Presented ly Sir R. Schomburgk, 1865.

65.11.2.2. Frontlet and antlers. Siarn. Same history .

8. 11. 1. 18. Skull and antlers. Nha Trang, Annam;
collected by Dr. J. Vassal. Purchased, 1908.

The reference of the following specimens more especially
those from Formosa to the present race is provisional.

70. 2. 10. 27. Skin, young. Hainan ; collected by

1J. Swinhoe, Esq. Purchased, 1870.

70. 2. 10. 28. Skin, young. Same locality and collector.

Same history.
70. 2. 10. 29. Skin. Same locality and collector.

Same history.
70. 2. 10. 32. Skin. Same locality and collector.

Same history.

70. 2. 10. 71-75. Five frontlets, with antlers. Formosa ;

same collector. Same history.

70.2.10.76. Single, antler. Same locality and collector.

Same history.

5. SUBGENUS S1KA.

Sika, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 115 ; Gill, Arrangement Fam.
Mamm. p. 80, 1872; Heude Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois,
vol. ii, p. 17, 1888.



106 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

Pseudaxis, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mua. p. 70, 1872 ; Brooke,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1878, p. 907; Lydekker, Deer of All Lands,
p. 110, 1898 ; Pocock, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 943.

Elaphoceros, Fitzinger, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii, pt. i,
p. 602, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. 1, p. 596, 1874.

Sikaillus, Heude, Mem. Hist. Nat. Emp. Chinois, vol. iv, p. 98, 1898.

Sikailus, Heude, op. cit. p. 110, 1898, errorim.

Sica, Trouessart, Cat. Mamm. p. 878, 1898.

Medium-sized or rather small deer, nearly related to the
next (typical) subgenus, but with the antlers smaller and
simpler than is usually the case in that group, more or less
flattened, and generally 4-tined (occasionally 5-tined), with
a third, but no bez-tine; face-glands shallower; coat of
adult spotted with yellow or white, at least in summer, and
a pure white area bordered with black in the region of the
tail, which is also white and black, and considerably longer
than in the typical subgenus ; young more or less distinctly
white-spotted ; metatarsal tuft generally whitish ; throat
maned ; head shorter than in preceding group ; ears
moderate ; bared portion of muzzle larger than in preceding
group, extending well on to the upper surface of the face,
and being very wide between nostrils and upper lip ; hind-
pasterns as in typical subgenus ; rudimentary upper canines
present; upper molars of the general type of those of the
typical group. In the growing antlers the " velvet " is deep
red, passing into black at the tips of the tines, and matching
the summer coat ; the white hairs in the neighbourhood of
the tail are erectile.

At the present day the group is confined to the south-
eastern portion of the Eastern Holarctic and some adjacent
parts of the Oriental Eegion, but it was apparently
represented in Europe during the Pliocene section of the
Tertiary period.

The three species are recognisable as follows :

A. Size smaller.

a. Spots disappearing in winter ; metatarsal

tuft white Cervus nippon.

b. Spots persistent in winter ; metatarsal

tuft apparently not white Cervus taouanus.

B. Size larger, metatarsal gland, except in centre,

coloured like rest of shank Cervus liortulorwm .



CERVlD.fi 107



XII. CERVUS (SIKA) NIPPON.

Cervus nippon, Temminck, Fauna Japonica, Introduction, p. xxii,
1837, teste Stejnege'r, Science, vol. xxii, p. 402, 1905.

Cervus sika, Temminck, Fauna Japonica, p. 54, pi. xvii, 1845 ; Gray,
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1850, p. 228 ; Blyth, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal,
vol. xxix, p. 92, 1860; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1860, p. 377,
Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. vii, p. 346, 1871 ; Garrod, Proc. Zool. Soc.

1877, p. 16 ; Brooke, ibid. 1878, p. 908 ; Powerscourt, ibid. 1884,
p. 208; Heude, Bull. Soc. Philom. ser. 7, vol. vi, p. 183, 1882;
W. L. Sclater, Cat. Mamm. Ind. Mus. pt. ii, p. 39, 1891 ; Flower
and Lydekker, Study of Mammals, p. 321, 1891 ; Ward, Records
of Big Game, ed. 2, p. 21, 1896; Mivart, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1897,
p. 204 ; Thomas, ibid. 1908, p. 54 ; Bentham, Asiat. Horns and
Antlers Ind. Mus. p. 68, 1908 ; Aoki, Annot. Zool. Japon.
vol. viii, p. 341, 1913.

Cervus (Hippelaplius) japonicus, Sundevall, K. Svenska Vet.-Ak.
Handl. 1844, p. 177, 1846.

Cervus S3^ka, Pucheran, Arch. Mus. Paris, vol. vi, p. 398, 1852.

Rusa japonica, Gray, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 3, vol. vi, p. 218,
1860, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 236; Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc.
1860, p. 365, 1862, p. 150 (javonica).

Cervus (Sika) sika, Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1870, p. 115.

Pseudaxis sika, Gray, Cat. Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 72, 1872, Hand-
List Ruminants Brit. Mus. p. 142, 1873 ; Cabrera, Cat. Met.
Mam. Mus. Madrid, p. 130, 1912.

Elaphoceros sika, Fit zing er, Sitzber. k. Ak. Wiss. Wien, vol. Ixviii,
pt. 1, p. 352, 1873, vol. Ixix, pt. i, p. 602, 1874.

Cervus euopis, Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1874, p. 151 ; Brooke, ibid.

1878, p. 908.

Axis sika, Riitimeyer, Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. viii, p. 93, 1878.

Cervus frinianus, p. 185, gracilis, p. 185, lacrymosus, p. 186, ignotus,



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