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Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 2) online

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UC-NRLF



$B 3MS 130






J

I




WILLIAM D1LLER MATTHEW




EARTH

SafeNCE

UBRAItf



PRESENTED



BY



The Trustees



OF



THE BRITISH MUSEUM.



CATALOGUE

OF THE



UNGULATE MAMMALS

IN THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY).



VOL. II.
ARTIODACTYLA,

FAMILY BOVIDJE,
SUBFAMILIES BUBALIN^E TO REDUNCIN.E

(HARTEBEESTS, GNUS, DUIKEKS, DIK-DIKS, KLIPS PKINGERS,
REEDBUCKS, WATERBUCKS, ETC.).



By R. LYDEKKER, F.E.S.,

ASSISTED BY

GILBERT ELAINE.



LONDON :

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE
BRITISH MUSEUM.

SOLD BY

LONGMANS, GREEN & Co., 39, PATERNOSTER Row, E.G.

B. QUARITCH, 11, GRAFTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, W.

DULAU & Co., LTD., 37, SOHO SQUARE, W.

AND AT THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, S.W.
1914.

(All rights reserved.)



INTRODUCTION

MY labours in the preparation of the greater part of this
volume have been much lightened by Mr. Gilbert Elaine,
who has been good enough to examine, name, and catalogue
the specimens in the Collection. In regard to the classifica-
tion of the heterogeneous group of ruminants commonly
included under the designation of " antelopes," it has been
deemed advisable to follow the one adopted by Sclater and
Thomas in The Book of Antelopes, with such minor modifica-
tions as are necessary in order to bring it, so far as possible,
into accord with the emendations in regard to the position of
certain generic groups and the limitations of subfamilies
proposed by Mr. E, I. Pocock in his article on the
Cutaneous Scent-Glands of Euminants, published in the
Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1910.

In several cases considerable difficulty has been expe-
rienced with regard to the numerous local forms of African
antelopes for which separate subspecific names have been
proposed, as the specimens in the Collection are quite
insufficient to afford a clue as to the value of the characters
upon which these forms are based. When such forms are
from more or less widely sundered localities they have, as a
rule, been recognised as distinct ; but in cases where several
have been named from nearly adjacent, or even the same,
districts, their right to distinction has not been definitely
accepted, and the subspecific titles are merely entered
seriatim, under the heading of the species to which they
pertain. In all cases the responsibility for the recognition
of such local races rests with the writers by whom the names
were given, and not with myself.

As in the preceding volume, special prominence has been
given to external characters, more particularly the horns, in



vi INTRODUCTION

the definition of groups, in order to render the work more
acceptable to sportsmen than would be the case if less easily
appreciated features were given the first place.

The opportunity may be taken of correcting the following
errors in the first volume :

P. 81, last line, for E. S. Giinther read E. T. Giinther.
P. 102, line 6 from bottom, for 2. 3. 9. 8. read 2. 3. 9. 6.
P. 129, bottom line, p. 162, line 16 from top, and Index, pp. 243,
244, for Orthagoceros read Orthaegoceros.
P. 160, line 10 from top, for 50 read 55.
P. 182, line 4 from bottom, for 7f| read 7.
P. 184, line 2 from bottom, for 2^ read 2f .

E. LYDEKKER,

December IQtJi, 1913.



CONTENTS

PAGE

PREFACE . . . . . . . . . iii

INTRODUCTION ......... v

ORDER UNGULATA.

SUBORDER I. ARTIODACTYLA.
SECTION A. PECORA.

FAMILY I. BOVIDJE 1

SUBFAMILY v. BUBALIN^ ...... 2

I. GENUS BUBALIS . . . . . . ' . 3

I. BUBALIS BUSELAPHUS . . . . 4

II. BUBALIS MAJOR ...... 6

III. BUBALIS TORA ...... 8

A. Bubalis tora tora ... .10

B. Bubalis tora digglei . . . . .11

C. Bubalis tora rahatensis . 11

D. Bubalis tora swaynei .... 12

E. Bubalis tora noacki . . . . .13

IV. BUBALIS COKEI .... .13
A. Bubalis cokei cokei ..... 15
B. Bubalis cokei rothschild: .... 16
C. Bubalis cokei nakuras .... 16
D. Bubalis cokei kongoni . .17

V. BUBALIS NEUMANNI ..... 18

VI. BUBALIS LELWEL ...... 19

A. Bubalis lelwel lelwel. .... 20

B. Bubalis lelwel tschadensis . .20

C. Bubalis lelwel jacksoni .... 21

D. Bubalis lelwel niediecki .... 23

E. Bubalis lelwel insignis .... 23

F. Bubalis lelwel roosevelti .... 24

VII. BUBALIS CAAMA ...... 24

A. Bubalis caama caama .... 27

B. Bubalis caama selbornei . . . .27

VIII. BUBALIS LICHTENSTEINI ..... 29



viii CONTENTS

PAGE

II. GENUS DAMALISCUS

I. DAMALISCUS PYGARGUS ..... 33

II. DAMALISCUS ALBIFRONS ..... 35
III. DAMALISCUS LUNATUS . . . . .37

IV. DAMALISCUS KORRIGUM . . . .39

A. Damaliscus korrigum korrigum ... 41

F>, Damaliscus korrigum tiang . . .42

C. Damaliscus korrigum selousi ... 44

D. Damaliscus korrigum jonesi ... 44

E. Damaliscus korrigum jimela . . 44

F. Damaliscus korrigum phalius ... 46

V. DAMALISCUS HUNTERI . . . 46

III. GENUS CONNOCH^TES 48

I. CONNOCH^TES GNU ...... 50

II. CONNOCIOETES TAURINUS . . . ... 54

A. Connochaetes taurinus taurinus ... 56

B. Connochaetes taurinus johnstoni . . 57

C. Connochsetes taurinus hecki ... 57

D. Connochffites taurinus albojubatus . . 58

SUBFAMILY vi. CEPHALOPHIN^E . . . t- . 59
GENUS CEPHALOPHUS . ... . . .60

1. SUBGENUS CEPHALOPHUS ..... 63

I. CEPHALOPHUS SYLVICULTRIX .... 63

II. CEPHALOPHUS JENTINKI ..... 66

III. CEPHALOPHUS SPADIX ..... 67

IV. CEPHALOPHUS NATALENSIS .... 68

A. Cephalophus natalensis natalensis . . 69

B. Cephalophus natalensis amcenus . . 69

C. Cephalophus natalensis robertsi . * 70

D. Cephalophus natalensis bradshawi . . 71

V. CEPHALOPHUS CENTRALIS . . . ,71

VI. CEPHALOPHUS NIGRIFRONS . . . .72
VII. CEPHALOPHUS CLAUDI ..... 73

VIII. CEPHALOPHUS RUBIDUS ..... 73

IX. CEPHALOPHUS WEYNSI ..... 74

X. CEPHALOPHUS JOHNSTONI .... 75

XI. CEPHALOPHUS IGNIFER . . . . . 75

XII. CEPHALOPHUS HARVEYI ..... 76

A. Cephalophus harveyi harveyi ... 77
B. Cephalophus harveyi kenise . . .77



CONTENTS IX

PAGE

XIII. CEPHALOPHUS LEOPOLDI .... 78

XIV. CEPHALOPHUS LEUCOGASTER .... 79

XV. CEPHALOPHUS DORSALIS .... 80

XVI. CEPHALOPHUS CASTANEUS .... 81

XVII. CEPHALOPHUS LEUCOCHILUS .... 82

(?) CEPHALOPHUS EMINI . . . .83

XVIII. CEPHALOPHUS OGILBYI ..... 83

XIX. CEPHALOPHUS BROCKET. .... 84

XX. CEPHALOPHUS CALLIPYGUS .... 85

XXI. CEPHALOPHUS RUFILATUS .... 86

A. Cephalophus rufilatus rufilatus ... 87

B. Cephalophus rufilatus rubidior ... 89

XXI I. CEPHALOPHUS DORLE ..... 89

XXIII. CEPHALOPHUS NIGER ..... 91

XXIV. CEPHALOPHUS WALKERI ... 92

2. SUBGENUS GUEVEI ...... 93

XXV. CEPHALOPHUS (GUEVEI) MAXWELLI . .93

XXVI. CEPHALOPHUS (GUEVEI) MELANORHEUS . . 96

A. Cephalophus melanorheus melanorheus . 97

B. Cephalophus melanorheus sundevalli . 97

C. Cephalophus melanorheus anchietae . . 98

D. Cephalophus melanorheus sequatorialis . 98

E. Cephalophus melanorheus rnusculoides . 99

XXVII. CEPHALOPHUS (GUEVEI) MONTICOLA . . 100

XXVIII. CEPHALOPHUS (GUEVEI) NYAS.K . . .103

A. Cephalophus nyasae nyasse . . . 103

B. Cephalophus nyaste defriesi . . .104

C. Cephalophus nyasae congicus . . . 104

XXIX. CEPHALOPHUS (GUEVEI) HECKI . . . 105

XXX. CEPHALOPHUS (GUEVEI) SIMPSONI . . . 105

XXXI. CEPHALOPHUS (GUEVEI) LUGENS . . . 106

3. SUBGENUS SYLVICAPRA ..... 107

XXXII. CEPHALOPHUS (SYLVICAPRA) GRIMMI . , 107

A. Cephalophus grimmi grimmi . . .110

B. Cephalophus grimmi flavescens . . .112

C. Cephalophus grimmi altifrons . . . 113

D. Cephalophus grimmi splendidulus . .114

E. Cephalophus grimmi coronatus . . .114

F. Cephalophus grimmi campbellue . .116



CONTENTS

PAGE

G. Cephalophus grimmi abyssinicus . . 117
H. Cephalophus grimmi nyansae . . .118
I. Cephalophus grimmi hindei . . .119

J. Cephalophus grimmi altivallis . . . 120

K. Cephalophus grimmi shirensis . . . 120

L. Cephalophus grimmi roosevelti . . . 121

XXXIII. CEPHALOPHUS (SYLVICAPEA) LEUCOPROSOPUS . 121

SUBFAMILY vii. OREOTRAGIN^E . . . . .122

GENUS OREOTRAGUS ....... 123

OREOTRAGUS OREOTRAGUS ..... 123

A. Oreotragus oreotragus oreotragus . . 126

B. Oreotragus oreotragus saltatrixoides . . 126

C. Oreotragus oreotragus aureus . . . 127

D. Oreotragus oreotragus schillings! . . 127

E. Oreotragus oreotragus somalicus . . 128

F. Oreotragus oreotragus aceratos . . . 130

G. Oreotragus oreotragus porteousi . . 130

SUBFAMILY viii. NEOTRAGIN^E ..... 131

I. GENUS OUREBIA ....... 132

I. OUREBIA OUREBI ...... 133

II. OUREBIA HASTATA ...... 135

III. OUREBIA NIGRICAUDATA ..... 137

IV. OUREBIA MONTANA ...... 138

A. Ourebia montana montana . . .139

B. Ourebia montana aequatoria . . . 140

V. OUREBIA HAGGARDI ..... 140

VI. OUREBIA KENY^ ...... 141

VII. OUREBIA MICRODON ..... 142

VIII. OUREBIA GOSLINGI ...... 143

IX. OUREBIA COTTONI ...... 144

X. OUREBIA GALLARUM. ..... 144

II. GENUS BAPHICERUS . . . . . . 145

1. SUBGENUS BAPHICERUS . . . ^ . 146

I. KAPHICERUS CAMPESTRIS ..... 146

A. Raphicerus campestris campestris . . 149

B.. Baphicerus campestris natalensis . . 151

C. Baphicerus campestris neumanni . . 151

D. Baphicerus campestris stigmaticus . . 152
E. Baphicerus campestris capricornis . .153



CONTENTS XI

PAGE

II. RAPHICERUS SHARPEI ..... 153

A. Raphicerus sharpei sharpei . . . 154

B. Eaphicerus sharpei colonicus . . . 155

2. SUBGENUS NOTOTRAGUS ..... 155

III. RAPHICERUS (NOTOTRAGUS) MELANOTIS . . 155
III. GENUS NEOTRAGUS ...... 158

1. SUBGENUS NESOTRAGUS ..... 159
I. NEOTRAGUS (NESOTRAGUS) MOSCHATUS . . 159

A. Neotragus moschatus moschatus . . 160

B. Neotragus moschatus akeleyei . . . 161

C. Neotragus moschatus deserticola . . 162

II. NEOTRAGUS (NESOTRAGUS) LIVINGSTONIANUS . 162

A. Neotragus livingstonianus livingstoniarms . 163
B. Neotragus livingstonianus zuluensis . .164

2. SUBGENUS HYLARNUS. ..... 166

III. NEOTRAGUS (HYLARNUS) BATESI . . . 166

IV. NEOTRAGUS (HYLARNUS) HARRISONI . . . 167

3. SUBGENUS NEOTRAGUS ..... 168
V. NEOTRAGUS PYGIOEUS ..... 169

SUBFAMILY ix. MADOQUIN^E . . . . . .172

I. GENUS MADOQUA ....... 172

1. SUBGENUS MADOQUA . . . . . .173

I. MADOQUA SALTIANA. ..... 174

II. MADOQUA SWAYNEI ...... 176

III. MADOQUA PIACENTINII ..... 177

IV. MADOQUA PHILLIPSI ..... 177

A. Madoqua phillipsi phillipsi . . . 178
B. Madoqua phillipsi harrarensis . . .179

C. Madoqua phillipsi gubanensis . . . 181

V. MADOQUA ERLANGERI ..... 182

VI. MADOQUA CORDEAUXI ..... 182

2. SUBGENUS RHYNCHOTRAGUS .... 183
VII. MADOQUA (RHYNCHOTRAGUS) DAMARENSIS . . 184

A. Madoqua damarensis daniarensis . . 184

B. Madoqua damarensis variani . . . 185

VIII. MADOQUA (RHYNCHOTRAGUS) CAVENDISHI . . 185

A. Madoqua cavendishi cavendishi . . . 186

B. Madoqua cavendishi minor . . . 187



Xll CONTENTS

PAGE

IX. MADOQUA (KHYNCHOTRAGUS) KIRKI . . . 187
A. Madoqua kirki kirki . . . . .188

B. Madoqua kirki nyikse .... 189

C. Madoqua kirki hindei .... 190

X. MADOQUA (KHYNCHOTRAGUS) THOMASI . . 191

XI. MADOQUA (EHYNCHOTRAGUS) GUENTHERI . . 191

A. Madoqua guentheri guentheri . . . 192

B. Madoqua guentheri wroughtoni . . . 193

C. Madoqua guentheri smithi . . . 194

XII. MADOQUA (EHYNCHOTRAGUS) NASOGUTTATA . 194

II. GENUS DORCOTRAGUS . . . . . 195

DORCOTRAGUS MEGALOTIS ..... 195

SUBFAMILY x. EEDUNCIN^E ...... 197

I. GENUS PELEA ....... 199

PELEA CAPREOLUS ...... 199

II. GENUS EEDUNCA ....... 202

1. SUBGENUS ELEOTRAGUS ..... 203
I. EEDUNCA (ELEOTRAGUS) ARUNDINUM . . 203

A. Eedunca arundinum arundinum . . 206

B. Eedunca arundinum occidentalis . . 210

2. SUBGENUS EEDUNCA ...... 210

II. EEDUNCA REDUNCA . . . . . ,211

A. Eedunca redunca redunca .... 2.13

B. Eedunca redunca bohor .... 214

C. Eedunca redunca wardi .... 215
D. Eedunca redunca tohi . . . .217
E. Eedunca redunca cottoni . . . .217
F. Eedunca redunca nigeriensis . . .219

G. Eedunca redunca ugandae .... 220

III. EEDUNCA FULVORUFULA ..... 220

A. Eedunca fulvorufula fulvorufula. . . 222

B. Eedunca fulvorufula chanleri . . . 223

C, Eedunca fulvorufula shoana . . . 224

III. GENUS KOBUS ....... 225

1. SUBGENUS KOBUS ...... 226

I. KOBUS ELLIPSIPRYMNUS ..... 226

II. KOBUS DEFASSA ...... 232

A. Kobus defassa defassa .... 238

B. Kobus defassa ugandae .... 240



CONTENTS Xlll

PAGE

C. Kobus defassa unctuosus . . . . ' 241

D. Kobus defassa crawshayi .... 244

E. Kobus defassa penricei .... 245

2. SUBGENUS ONOTRAGUS . . . 246

III. KOBUS (ONOTRAGUS) LECHE .... 246

IV. KOBUS (ONOTRAGUS) ROBERTSI . . . 249
V. KOBUS (ONOTRAGUS) SMITHEMANI . . 249

VI. KOBUS (ONOTRAGUS) MARIA . . . 251

8. SUBGENUS ADENOTA .... . 253

VII. KOBUS (ADENOTA) KOB . . 253

A. Kobus kob kob 256

B. Kobus kob nigricans . 258

0. Kobus kob adolfi . . 259

D. Kobus kob bahr-keetae .... 259

E. Kobus kob ubangiensis . . . 259

F. Kobus kob aluras . . 260

G. Kobus kob loderi . . 260

H. Kobus kob neumanni . 262

I. Kobus kob notatus . . 263

J. Kobus kob thomasi . . . 264

K. Kobus kob nigroscapulatus . . . 265

L. Kobus kob leucotis . . . 266

VIII. KOBUS (ADENOTA) VARDONI . . 268

A. Kobus vardoni vardoni . . 269

B. Kobus vardoni senganus .... 269



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Fig. 1. Skull and Horns of Tora Hartebeest (Bubalis tora) . 9
,, 2. Head of Coke's Hartebeest (Bubalis cokei) . . . 14
,, 3. Skull and Horns of Jackson's Hartebeest (Bubalis

lelwel jacksonx) ....... 22

,, 4. Head and neck of Northern Race of Eooi Hartebeest

(Bubalis caama selbornei) ..... 26
,, 5. Head of Lichtenstein's Hartebeest (Bubalis lichten-

sttini) 30

,, 6. Head of Tiang (Damaliscus Jcorrigum Hang) . . 42
,, 7. Skull and Horns of Herola or Hunter's Hartebeest

(Damaliscus hunteri) ...... 47

,, 8. The Gnu (Connochcetes gnu) ..... 49

,, 9. Skull and Horns of Gnu (Connochaites gnu) . . 53
,, 10. Front and Side Views of Skull and Horns of Yellow-
backed Duiker (Cephalophus sylvicultrix) . . 65
,, 11. Front and Side Views of Skull and Horns of Duiker -

bok (Cephalophus grimmi) ..... 112
,, 12. Front and Side Views of Skull of Somali Klipspringer

(Oreotragus oreotragus somalicus) . . . 129

,, 13. Front and Side Views of Skull and Horns of Peters's

Oribi (Ourebia hastata) ..... 136

,, 14. Front and Side Views of Skull and Horns of Kenia

Oribi (Ourebia Jcenyce) ...... 142

,, 15. Front and Side Views of Skull of Steinbok (Rapliicerus

campestris) ........ 150

,, 16. Livingstone's Suni (Neotragus [Nesotragus] living-
stonianus). A, Male, changing coat, and female.

B, Female 163

,, 17. Front and Side Views of Skull and Horns of Zulu race

of Livingstone's Suni (Neotragus [Nesotragus]

living stonianus zuluensis) ..... 165
,, 18. Front and Side Views of Skull and Horns of Bates'

Dwarf Antelope (Neotragus [Hylarnus] batesi) . 167
,, 19. Front and Side Views of Skull with one Horn, and

without lower jaw, of the Royal Antelope (Neotragus

pygmceus) 171

,, 20. Front and Side Views of Skull and Horns of Harrar Race

of Phillips' Dik-Dik (Madoqua phillipsi harrarensis) 180
,, 21. Front and Side View of Skull and Horns of

Cavendish's Dik-Dik (Madoqua [Ehynchotragus]

cavendishi) . . . . . . . .186



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Fig. 22. Front and Side Views of Skull and Horns of the Beira

(Dorcotragus megalotis) . . . . . 196

,, 23. Skull and Horns of the Vaal Ehebok (Pelea capreolus) 201
,, 24. Head of Reedbuck (Redunca [Eleotragus] arundinum] 207
., 25. Skull and Horns of Eastern Bohor Reedbuck (Redunca

redunca wardi) . . . . . . .216

-Head of Sudani Bohor Reedbuck (Redunca redunca

cottoni), from Mongalla ..... 218

-Skull and Horns of Uganda Defassa (Kobus defassa

ugandca) ........ 233

-Skull and Horns of Shari Defassa (Kobus defassa

unctuosusC?)} 243

., 29. Head of the Lechwe (Kobus [Onotragus] leche) . . 248
,, 30. Skull and Horns of Mrs. Gray's Lechwe (Kobus

[Onotragus] maria) ...... 252

-Skull and Horns of Western Kob (Kobus bob) . . 257
-Skull (wanting lower jaw) and Horns of Loder's Kob
(Kobus kob loderi). (From " Proc. Zool. Soc." 1899,

p. 983) 261

., 33. Head and neck of Albert Nyanza Kob (Kobus Jcob
neumanni.) (From a photograph lent by Rowland
Ward, Ltd.) 262



CATALOGUE

OF

UNGULATE S



VOL. II.



FAMILY BOVLD^E (continuejfl .\ :

KEY TO SUBFAMILIES OF BOVIDJE INCLUDED IN
THIS VOLUME.

c. Horns (when twisted) heteronymous (vol. i,

p. 10).

a. Horns in both sexes, relatively large,
in females ; never in the form of
relatively short straight spikes.
Size, medium or large.

a' . Horns fibrous, depressed, with opposed
edges of bases forming parallel
approximated lines on forehead... Ovibovince (vol. i).

I'. Horns close-grained and more or less
nearly cylindrical, at least at tips,
and opposed edges of bases not
forming parallel lines on forehead.

a". Horns conical and gently or
strongly recurved, or bent
downwards and outwards at
bases, and finally directed up-
wards ; never strongly ridged.
Tail (except in two species of
Nemorhwdus) short Bupicaprimv (vol. i) .

6 2 . Horns sublyrate, strongly ridged,
and often sharply bent near
middle, or smooth and
directed at first outwards or
downwards. Tail relatively

long Bubalince, p. 2.

II. B



2 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

b. Horns present or absent in females ; when

present in both sexes, spike-shaped.

a'. Horns in the form of relatively short

straight spikes. Face - glands

present ; tail short or medium.

Size small to large.

a 2 . Horns frequently present in female.
Face-glands forming a line on
a bare streak. Head crested.

Size medium or small Ceplialophince,

6 2 , Horns (except in one race of Oreo- [p. 59.

tragus) normally absent in
female. Face - glands not
forming a line on a bare streak.
Head not crested. Size small.

a 3 . Hoofs truncated Oreotraginw, p. 122.

fe 3 . Hoofs normal.

a 4 . Muzzle with large bare area
, ., ., t '.', reaching hind angle of

1 .* * '.; \, * nostrils Neotragince, p. 131 .

,tf. Muzzle with small bare area,
*, ^ " not reachingmuch beyond

*' * " " '"'" front angle of nostrils Madoquince, p. 172.

b'. Horns (except in Pelea) not in the
form of relatively short straight
spikes ; absent in females. Face-
glands and (except in Pelea) foot-
glands wanting; tail medium.
Size, medium or large Reduncinw, p. 197.

SUBFAMILY v. BUBALI1SLE.

SIZE large. Tail medium or long, terminally crested or
clothed with long hairs. Muzzle with a small bare muffle
and large valvular nostrils, of which the lower margins are
clothed with short bristly hairs. Face-glands placed near
eyes, of an invaginated type, not forming a line of pores ;
foot-glands in a deep interdigital cleft, with the orifice
forming a long slit bordered above by a sharply defined line
in fore-feet, absent or rudimentary in hind feet ; apparently no
glands in groin. Teats 2 or 4. Lateral hoofs well developed.
Horns heteronymous, present in both sexes, relatively
large in females ; of moderate length, and either ridged,
upright, and doubly or singly curved, with smooth tips, or
smooth throughout, and directed at first mainly outwards or
downwards. Skull with shallow lachrymal depressions, but
no lachrymal vacuities or supraorbital pits. Upper molar
hypsodont, with narrow crowns, and no inner accessory



i -, r HALING 3

column. Vertebrae: usually c. 7, D. 13, L. 6, s. 5, ca. 12-14,
but in Connoclicetes gnu D. 14.

The distributional area embraces practically the whole of
Africa, where the country is suitable to these antelopes. In
the Pliocene it included India.

The three genera here recognised are distinguished as
follows :

A. Horns rising more or less vertically, ringed, with

smooth tips ; face-gland with a single orifice
leading into a hair-lined tube, which dips into
the substance of the gland.

a. Horns doubly curved, more or less sharply

angulated, mounted on an elevated pedicle,

and face abnormally elongated Bubalis.

b. Horns simply curved, without sharp angulation,

not supported on a pedicle, and face of

normal proportions Damaliscus.

B. Horns directed mainly outwards or downwards at

starting, smooth throughout ; face-glands
without central orifice and tube, their free
surface consisting of a sparsely haired area
of skin .. .. Connochcetes.



I. Genus BUBALIS.

Bubalis, Lichtenstein, Mag. nat. Freunde, p. 154, 1814 ; Sclater and

Thomas, Book of Antelopes, vol. i, p. 5, 1894; PococJc, Proc.

Zool. Soc. 1910, p. 900.
Alcelaphus, Blainville, Bull. Soc. Philom. 1816, p. 75 ; Butimeyer,

Abh. schweiz. pal. Ges. vol. iv, p. 47, 1877.
Danialis and Acronotus, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol.

iv, pp. 343 and 345, 1827.
Sigmoceros, Heller, Smithson. Misc. Collect, vol. Ix, no. 8, p. 4, 1912.

Large ungainly antelopes, with abnormally long faces,
and horns, which are strongly ridged for the greater part of
their length, and doubly curved, with a more or less marked
11 elbow " at commencement of smooth tips, rising in a more or
less vertical direction from a cylindrical pedicle surmounting
the fronto-occipital region. Neck without mane, tail reaching
below hocks, moderately haired, generally with a crest of
long hair on upper side of terminal half ; a whorl of hair on
forehead, and hair on middle line of face below this directed
downwards to a point a short distance above nose, where
there is a second whorl ; face-glands large, with a central

B 2



4 CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES

orifice leading to a hairy tube, usually tufted. General
colour uniform brownish, yellowish, or rufous, with or
without dark markings on face and limbs.

Distribution co-extensive with that of subfamily.

The eight species here recognised may be briefly diagnosed
as follows :

A. Horn-pedicle relatively short; horns U-shaped

when viewed full-face.

a. Size small, shoulder-height about 3 feet

8 inches B. buselaphus.

b. Size larger, shoulder-height from about 4 feet

2 inches to 4 feet 6 inches B. major.

B. Horn-pedicle of medium height ; horns more or

less of an inverted bracket-shape ( . ).

a. Horns relatively slender, with middle portion

inclining upwards B. tora.

b. Horns stouter, typically with middle portion

horizontal B. cokei.

c. Horns more or less intermediate in form between

those of B and D B. neumanni.

D. Horn-pedicle very tall ; horns V-shaped in full

face.

a. A dark face-blaze, dark markings on shoulders,

thighs, and fore-legs, and a whitish patch

on sides of buttocks B. caama.

b. Dark and light markings absent, or represented

only by small patches on face and fore-legs B. lelwel.
Horn-pedicle very short and broad ; horns much

incurved before sub-terminal elbow . . B. lichtensteini.



I. BUBALTS BUSELAPHUS.

Antilope buselaphus, Pallas, Misc. Zool. p. 7, 1766.

Antilope bubalis, Pallas, Spicil. Zool. fasc. i, p. 12, 1767, xii,
p. 16, 1777 ; Midler, Natursyst, Suppl. p. 54, 1776 ; Erxleben, Syst.
Eegn. Anim. vol. i, p. 291, 1777 ; Zimmermann, Spec. Zool. Geogr.
p. 544, 1777, Geogr. Geschichte, vol. ii, p. 122, 1780 ; Gatterer,
Brev. Zool. vol. i, p. 83, 1780 ; Boddaert, Elenchus Anim. p. 143,
1785 ; Schreber, Saugthiere, pi. cclxxvii, B, 1787 ; Gmelin, Syst.
Nat. vol. i, p. 188, 1788 ; Kerr, Linn.'s Anim. Kingdom, p. 314,
1792 ; Donndorff, Zool. Beytrdge, p. 633, 1792 ; Bechstein, Ueber-
sichtvierfuss. Thiere, vol. i, p. 95, 1799, vol. ii, p. 645, 1800 ; Shaw,
Gen. Zool. vol. ii, pt. 2, p. 331, 1801 ; Virey, Nouv. Diet. Hist.
Nat. vol. iii, p. 525, 1803'; Turton, Linn.'s Syst. Nat. vol. i, p. 114,
1806 ; Illiger, Prodr. Syst. Mamm. p. 106, 1811 ; Lichtenstein,
Mag. nat. Freunde, vol. vi, p. 163, 1814 ; G. Fischer, Zoognosia,
vol. iii, p. 417, 1814; Afzelius, Nova Acta Soc. Upsal. vol. -vii,
p. 220, 1815; Cuvier, Diet. Sci. Nat. vol. ii, p. 241, 1816; Des-
marest, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat. ed. 2, vol. ii, p. 195, 1816 ; Goldfuss,
Mamm. vol. ii, p. 466, Schreber's Saugthiere, vol. v, p. 1171, 1820 ;



nrr.AUN.i; 5

Schinz, Cuvicrs Thierreich, vol. i, p. 390, 1821 ; F. Cuvier,
Hist. X<d. Mdinni. vol. iii, livr. li, 1825 ; Lesson, Man. Mamm.
p. 381, 1827, Nouv. Tab!. Regne Anim. p. 180, 1842 ; /. B. Fischer,
Synop. Mamm. p. 473, 1829; Owen, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 37,
Anat. Vertebrates, vol. iii, p. 633, 1868 ; Wagner, Schrebcr's
Sdugthiere, Suppl. vol. iv, p. 469, 1844, vol. v, p. 445, 1855 ; Schinz,
Synop. Mamm. vol. ii, p. 443, 1845 ; Giebel. Sdugethiere, p. 296,
1855 ; Riitimcyer, Abli. schwciz. pal. Ges. vol. iv, p. 47, 1877.

Cerophorus (Alcelaphus) bubalis, Blainville, Bull. Soc. Philom.
1816, p. 75.

Damalis bubalis, H. Smith, Griffith's Animal Kingdom, vol. iv, p. 347,
vol. v, p. 3li2, 1827.

Acronotus bubalis, A. Smith, S. African Quart. Journ. vol. ii, p. 221,
1833; H. Smith, Nat. Libr. vol. iv, p. 174, 1836; Gray, List
Mamm. Brit. Mus. p. 157, 1843, List Osteol. Brit. Mus. p. 58,
1847.



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