British Museum (Natural History). Dept. of Zoology.

Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 1) online

. (page 1 of 20)
Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 20)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


WILLIAM DILLER MATTHEW




PRESENTED



BY



The Trustees



OF



THE BRITISH MUSEUM,



CATALOGUE

OF THE



UNGULATE MAMMALS

IN THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY).



VOL. I.
ARTIODACTYLA,

FAMILY BOVIDJE,
SUBFAMILIES BOVINE TO OYIBOVIN^

(CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, CHAMOIS, SEROWS,
TAKIN, MUSK-OXEN, ETC.).



By B. LYDEKKEB, F.R.S.



LONDON :

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE
BRITISH MUSEUM.

SOLD BY

LONGMANS, GREEN & Co., 39, PATERNOSTER Row, E.C.

B. QUARITCH, 11, GRAFTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, W.

DULAU & Co., LTD., 37, SOHO SQUARE, W.

AND AT THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), CROMWELL ROAD, S.W.

1913.

(All rights reserved.)







LIBRA**



LONDON ;

TRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
DDK.E STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.E., AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET.



PBEFACE

THE present Volume, which is the first of a new Catalogue
of the specimens of Ungulate Mammals in the Collection of
the British Museum, deals with a part of the great family
Bovidre, including the Oxen, Sheep, Goats, Serows, and
related Euminants. Its preparation has been entrusted to
Mr. E. Lydekker, F.R.S., who for many years has not only
been responsible for the care of the Mammals exhibited in
the public Galleries of the Museum, but deserves most of the
credit for their present condition and arrangement. A very
large proportion of the space available for Exhibition pur-
poses is occupied by the Mammals forming the subject of
this Catalogue.

The Collection of Ungulates owes much t the generosity
of private donors ; but it may be hoped that Mr. Lydekker' s
appeal for additional specimens will meet with a due
response. It is in particular important to realise that skins
and skeletons are required for the study collection, and that
in order to prove of real value specimens should be given
without the condition that they must be placed in one of
the public Galleries. It will be noticed from the Catalogue
that an unduly large number of the specimens in the
Museum are males, as would indeed have been expected.
It is therefore desirable to improve the collection by adding
to it the skins and skulls of female individuals, particularly
in the case of those Ungulates in which the females are
hornless, or have reduced horns.

a 2

808429



iv PREFACE

It need hardly be explained that Mr. Oldfield Thomas,
F.R.S., has influenced the preparation of this Catalogue in
many ways, and specially by the continued efforts he has
made, for a number of years, to encourage the growth of the
Collection under his charge, as well as by his numerous
contributions to the literature of the subject.

SIDNEY F. HARMER,

Keeper of Zoology.

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY),
LONDON, S.W.
May 12, 1913.



INTBODUCTION

EXACTLY forty years have elapsed since the publication of
the last Catalogue of the specimens of Ungulate, or Hoofed,
Mammals in the collection of the Museum namely, Dr. J. E.
Gray's "Hand-List of the Edentate, Thick-skinned, and
Ruminant Mammals " in which were included not only the
animals now classed as Ungulata (in the wider sense of that
term), but likewise the members of the orders Edentata and
Sirenia.

During this long period the collection of specimens of
Ungulates has so enormously increased, and the systematic
classification has been so much altered, that it has been
deemed advisable to attempt a systematic and descriptive
list of the entire series. For many reasons notably the
large bodily size of the majority of the species, the relatively
small series of specimens by which many of the species
and races are represented, and the fact that specimens
very frequently comprise only the head or the skull and
horns this is by no means an easy task ; and it should be
clearly understood that, under present circumstances, it is
impossible to make a Catalogue of these animals comparable,
for instance, in the matter of systematic detail and in neat-
ness and conciseness of definition, with Dr. Knud Andersen's
" Catalogue of Chiroptera," now in course of publication.
All that can be done is to record the leading characteristics
of the various species, so far as they are at present known,
and to leave the completion of the task for the future.

To render that possible it is essential that a much
larger series of complete skins of even the commoner species
than is now contained in the collection should be brought
together ; and the publication of the present Catalogue may



VI INTRODUCTION

perhaps serve as an inducement to sportsmen, travellers, and
others with like opportunities, to aid in this work while
there is yet time. In view of the rapid diminution of
Big Game Animals in almost all parts of the world, the
Museum ought to possess not only a large series of skins of
every species to be permanently preserved for purposes of
study, but also a reserve series to replace the specimens
exhibited in the public galleries as these become faded and
generally deteriorated and this not only once but several
times over.

To render a Catalogue of this nature suitable in all
respects to the requirements of both scientific naturalists
and of sportsmen, is an absolute impossibility ; but as the
Ungulates form a group of special interest to the latter class,
an attempt has been made to render the descriptions of the
various groups and species as little abstruse as possible.

To a great extent the principle of classing nearly related
kinds of animals as races of a single species, rather than as
distinct species, has been followed ; and, to accord with this,
generic terms are frequently used in a wider sense than is
customary with many other writers.

In order to bring the work more or less nearly into line
with other recently issued Catalogues of Mammals, it has
been decided to adhere in the main to the principle of
priority in the matter of scientific nomenclature, and also to
employ tautonomic designations (such as Eupicapra rupi-
capra) in cases where the original specific name has been
raised to generic rank. Adherence to this principle has
involved changes even in certain names employed in my
recently issued " Catalogue of the Hume Bequest " changes
which are deplored by no one more than by myself, but for
which the officers of the Zoological Department of the
Museum are solely responsible.

A manuscript catalogue of the specimens of Ungulates
in the collection, made by Mr. Oldfield Thomas, F.K.S., and



INTRODUCTION vil

extending down to about the year 1894, has afforded a large
amount of assistance in the work. In the matter of illustra-
tions, acknowledgments are due to the Zoological Society,
to Eowland Ward, Ltd., and to personal friends and
colleagues of my own whose names are mentioned in the
sequel.

Unless the contrary is stated, each specimen entered in
this Catalogue is assumed to represent an adult male.
Most of the older stuffed specimens are entered as mounted
skins, despite the fact that a considerable number of these
have already been converted into flat skins, and that the
process of conversion is likely to be continued in the future.

K. LYDEKKEE.

March 20ta, 1913.



CONTENTS

PAGE

PREFACE . iii

INTRODUCTION ... v

ORDER UNGULATA.

SUBORDER I. ARTIODACTYLA .......

SECTION A. PECORA ........ 8

FAMILY I. BOVID.E .9

SUBFAMILY i. BOVINE . . . . . . .11

GENUS Bos ........ 11

1. SUBGENUS Bos 12

I. BOS TAURUS ....... 12

2. SUBGENUS BIBOS ...... 13

II. Bos (BIBOS) GAURUS ..... 13
A. Bos gaurus gaurus ..... 18
B. Bos gaurus readi 20
C. Bos gaurus hubbacki . .... 20

III. BOS (BlBOS) BANTENG ..... 21

A. Bos banteng banteng .... 23

B. Bos banteng lowi ..... 25

C. Bos banteng birmanicus .... 27

D. Bos banteng ported ..... 28

E. Bos banteng butleri ..... 29

F. Bos banteng, subsp. ..... 29

3. SUBGENUS POEPHAGUS ..... 30

IV. BOS (POEPHAGUS) GRUNNIENS ... 31

Bos grunniens mutus ..... 33

4. SUBGENUS BISON ...... 34

V. Bos (BISON) BONASUS ..... 35
A. Bos bonasus bonasus .... 36
B. Bos bonasus caucasius .... 36

VI. Bos (BISON) BISON . . .37
A. Bos bison bison ..... 38
B. Bos bison athabascae . ... 39



CONTENTS

PAGE

5. SUBGENDS BUBALUS . . . . ^ -. . 40

VII. BOS (BUBALUS) BUBALIS . . '<- . 41

A. Bos bubalis bubalis ... .43

B. Bos bubalis macroceros .... 45
C. Bos bubalis fulvus ..... 45
D. Bos bubalis hosei ..... 46

VIII. BOS (BUBALUS) MINDORENSIS ... 47

IX. Bos (BUBALUS) DEPEESSICORNIS ... 48
A. Bos depressicornis depressicornis . . 49
B. Bos depressicornis fergusoni ... 50

X. Bos (BUBALUS) CAFFER ..... 50

A. Bos caffer caffer 52

B. Bos caffer neurnanni . . .53

C. Bos caffer ruahensis ..... 53
D. Bos caffer schillingsi . . 54

E. Bos caffer wemberensis . 54

F. Bos caffer gariepensis . . . .55
G. Bos caffer radcliffei . . .55

H. Bos caffer limpopoensis . . .56

I. Bos caffer azrakensis .... 57
J. Bos caffer wiesei ..... 57
K. Bos caffer sequinoctialis .... 58
L. Bos caffer mathewsi . .... 59
M. Bos caffer cottoni ..... 60
N. Bos caffer thierryi . . .61

0. Bos caffer mayi 62

P. Bos caffer brachyceros .... 62
Q. Bos caffer planiceros . . , . .66
E. Bos caffer hunti . . . . .67
S. Bos caffer nanus . . ., .68

T. Bos caffer beddingtoni >. : . . - 70
U. Bos caffer simpsoni . . . . 70

SUBFAMILY ii. CAPRINJE . ... . .72

I. GENUS Ovis . . . . . .73

I. Ovis ARIES . . . . . . .75

II. Ovis MUSIMON ...... 75

III. OVIS ORIENTALIS . . ..... . 77

A. Ovis orientalis orientalis . . . . . 79
B. Ovis orientalis gmelini .... 80
C. Ovis orientalis anatolica . .81

D. Ovis orientalis urmiana .... 81
E. Ovis orientalis erskinei .... 82
F. Ovis orientalis isphahanica ... 83



CONTENTS xi

PAGE

IV. OVIS LARISTANICA ..... 83

V. OVIS VIGNEI ....... 84

A. Ovis vignei vignei ..... 85

B. Ovis vignei punjabiensis .... 86

C. Ovis vignei cycloceros .... 88

D. Ovis vignei arkar ..... 90

VI. Ovis AMMON ...... 92

A. Ovis ammon ammon . .... 95

B. Ovis ammon mongolica .... 96

C. Ovis ammon hodgsoni .... 97

D. Ovis ammon storcki . . . . .100

E. Ovis ammon sairensis .... 101

F. Ovis ammon littledalei .... 102

G. Ovis ammon nigrimontana . . . 103
H. Ovis ammon karelini .... 104

I. Ovis ammon heinsi ..... 105

J. Ovis ammon humei . . . . .105

K. Ovis ammon poli ..... 106

VII. OVIS CANADENSIS ..... 109

A. Ovis canadensis canadensis . . . Ill
B, Ovis canadensis calif orniana . . .113
C. Ovis canadensis auduboni .... 113
D. Ovis canadensis nelsoni . . . .114
E. Ovis canadensis sierrae . . . .115
F. Ovis canadensis cremnobates . . . 115
G. Ovis canadensis mexicana . . .116

H. Ovis canadensis gaillardi . . . .116
I. Ovis canadensis dalli . . . .118
J. Ovis canadensis kenaiensis . . .119
K. Ovis canadensis fannini . . . .119
L. Ovis canadensis stonei .... 120
M. Ovis canadensis cowani .... 120
N. Ovis canadensis nivicola .... 121
0. Ovis canadensis borealis .... 121
P. Ovis canadensis alleni .... 122

II. GENUS AMMOTRAGUS 122

AMMOTRAGUS LERVIA ...... 123

A. Ammotragus lervia lervia . . *. .124
B. Ammotragus lervia sahariensis . . . 125
C. Ammotragus lervia ornata . . . 125

D. Ammotragus lervia blainei . . . 126

III. GENUS PsEUDois 126

PSEUDOl'S NAHOOR 126



Xll CONTENTS

PAGE

IV. GENUS CAPRA ....... 129

I. CAPRA CAUCASICA ...... 131

A. Capra caucasica cylindricornis . . . 131

B. Capra caucasica caucasica .... 133

II. CAPRA SEVERTZOWI ..... 134
A. Capra severtzowi severtzowi . . . 136
B. Capra severtzowi dimriki .... 137

INCERT^E SEDIS ..... 138

III. CAPRA PYRENAICA ..... 138
A. Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica . . . 139
B. Capra pyrenaica lusitanica . . . 139
C. Capra pyrenaica victorias .... 140
D. Capra pyrenaica hispanica . . . 140

IV. CAPRA IBEX 141

V. CAPRA SIBIRICA ...... 142

A. Capra sibirica sibirica .... 143

B. Capra sibirica fasciata .... 144

C. Capra sibirica altaica . . . .144

D. Capra sibirica lydekkeri .... 145

E. Capra sibirica hagenbecki .... 145

F. Capra sibirica almasyi .... 146

G. Capra sibirica merzbacheri . . . 147

H. Capra sibirica alaiana .... 148

I. Capra sibirica wardi ..... 148

J. Capra sibirica sakeen .... 149

K. Capra sibirica dauvergnei . . .150

L. Capra sibirica pedri ..... 151

M. Capra sibirica filippii . . . .152

VI. CAPRA NUBIAN A . . . . . .153

A. Capra nubiana nubiana . . . .154

B. Capra nubiana sinaitica . . . . 154

C. Capra nubiana mengesi .... 155

VII. CAPRA WALIE ...... 155

VIII. CAPRA HIRCUS ... . 156
A. Capra hircus aegagrus . - . . . 157

B. Capra hircus blythi 159

C. Capra hircus cretensis .... 161

D. Capra hircus picta ..... 161

IX. CAPRA FALCONERI ..... 161
A. Capra falconer! falconeri . . . 163
B. Capra falconeri cashmiriensis . . . 164
C. Capra falconeri, subsp. .... 166
D. Capra falconeri megaceros .... 167
E. Capra falconeri jerdoni .... 169
F. Capra falconeri chialtanensis^ subsp. n. . 171



CONTENTS Xlll

PAGE

V. GENUS HEMITKAGUS ... . 173

I. HEMITRAGUS JEMLAHICUS .... 173

II. HEMITRAGUS JAYAKARI . . . 176

III. HEMITRAGUS HYLOCRIUS . . . 177

SUBFAMILY iii. EUPICAPRIKE . . . 178

I. GENUS EUPICAPRA ... . 179

EUPICAPRA RUPICAPRA . . . . .180

A. Kupicapra rupicapra rupicapra . . 181

B. Kupicapra rupicapra faesula . . . 182

C. Eupicapra rupicapra ornata . . . 182

D. Eupicapra rupicapra pyrenaica . . 183

E. Eupicapra rupicapra parva . . . 183

F. Eupicapra rupicapra caucasica . . . 183

G. Eupicapra rupicapra asiatica . . . 185

II. GENUS CAPRICORNIS ... . 186

1. SUBGENUS CAPRICORNIS ... . 188

I. CAPRICORNIS SUMATRENSIS . . . 188
A. Capricornis sumatrensis sumatrensis . . 189
B. Capricornis sumatrensis robinsoni . . 189
C. Capricornis sumatrensis swettenhami . . 189
D. Capricornis sumatrensis milne-edwardsi . 190
E. Capricornis sumatrensis jamrachi . . 191
F. Capricornis sumatrensis rubidus . . 192
G. Capricornis sumatrensis thar . . . 193
H. Capricornis sumatrensis humei . . .195
I. Capricornis sumatrensis rodoni . . . 195

II. CAPRICORNIS ARGYROCH^TES .... 196

2. SUBGENUS CAPRICORNULUS ..... 200

III. CAPRICORNIS (CAPRICORNULUS) CRISPUS , . 200

A. Capricornis crispus crispus . 200

B. Capricornis crispus pryerianus . . . 201

IV. CAPRICORNIS (CAPRICORNULUS) SWINHOEI . 201

III. GENUS NEMORHJEDUS ... . 202

I. NEMORH^DUS GORAL . . 203

II. NEMORH^EDUS HODGSONI .... 206

III. NEMORH^DUS GRISEUS 206

IV. NEMORH^EDUS CAUDATUS . 208

V. NEMORH^DUS RADDEANUS .... 209



XIV CONTENTS

PAGE

IV. GENUS BUDOECAS ...... 210

I. BUDORCAS TAXICOLOR ..... 211

A. Budorcas taxicolor taxicolor . . . 211

B. Budorcas taxicolor white! .... 213

II. BUDORCAS TIBETANA ..... 214

III. BUDORCAS BEDFORD: ..... 217

V. GENUS OREAMNOS ...... 217

OREAMNOS AMERICANOS ..... 218
A. Oreaxnnos americanus americanus . .219

B. Oreamnos americanus columbiae . . 220

C. Oreamnos americanus missoulae . . 220

D. Oreamnos americanus kennedyi . . . 221

SUBFAMILY iv. OVIBOVIN.E ...... 221

GENUS OVIBOS ........ 222

OVIBOS MOSCHATUS ...... 224

A. Ovibos moschatus moschatus . . . 225

B. Ovibos moschatus wardi .... 227

C. Ovibos moschatus niphcecus . . . 228

D. Ovibos moschatus melvillensis . . . 228

E. Ovibos moschatus mackenzianus 229



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Fig. 1. Bones of the Eight Fore-Feet of the Pig (A), the

Deer (B), and the Camel (C). (From Flower's

" Osteology of the Mammalia ") .... 2
,, 2. Inner aspect of a slightly worn Left Upper Molar

Tooth of the Nilgai, Boselaphus tragocamelus . 4
3. Under Surface of Skull of Ked Deer, Cervus elaplms.

(From Miller's " Cat. Mamm. West. Europe ") . 5
4. Lower Front Teeth of Elk (A) and Giraffe (B) . . 6
,, 5. Skull of the South American Pudu Deer ... 6
,, 6. Lower Front Teeth of Ked Deer, Cervus elaphus.

(From Miller's " Cat. Mamm. West. Europe ") . 8
,, 7. The Stomach of a Sheep, cut open to show the

Internal Structure ...... 8

,, 8. Skull and Horns of Cow Gaur, Bos gaurus. (From

Ward's " Eecords of Big Game ") .... 14
,, 9. Head and Neck of Indian Gaur, Bos gaurus . . 16
,, 10. Head of Malay Gaur or Seladang, Bos gaurus

hubbacki. (From " Game Animals of India, etc.") . 17
,, 11. Skull and Horns of Javan Bantin, Bos banteng

banteng ........ 24

,, 12. Skull and Horns of Bornean Bantin, Bos banteng lowi 26
,, 13. Head and Neck of Burmese Bantin, or Tsaine, Bos

banteng birmanicus ...... 27

,, 14. Skull and Horns of Yak, Bos grunniens ... 32
,, 15. Head of Indian Buffalo, Bos bubalis . . .42

,, 16. Skull and Horns of Ankoli Buffalo, Bos caffer radcliffei.

(From Thomas, " Proc. Zool. Soc." 1904) . . 56
,, 17. Skull and Horns of Kivu Buffalo, Bos caffer tnatheivsi.

(From Thomas, " Proc. Zool. Soc." 1904) . . 60
,, 18. Skull and Horns of Female Lake Chad Buffalo, Bos

caffer brachyceros. (From " Wild Oxen, Sheep, and

Goats") 64

19. Head of S. Nigerian Buffalo, Bos caffer liunti. (From

" Proc. Zool. Soc." 1913) . . . .67

,, 20. Frontlet and Horns of Congo Buffalo, Bos caffer

nanus. (From " Wild Oxen, Sheep, and Goats ") . 69
Figs. 21, 22. Heads of Male and Female Kwilu Buffalo, Bos

caffer simpsoni. (From " Proc. Zool. Soc." 1910) . 71
Fig. 23. Skull and Horns of Female Kwilu Buffalo, Bos caffer

simpsoni ........ 72



XVI LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Fig. 24. Head of Sardinian Mouflon, Ovis musimon. (From a

photograph lent by the New York Zoological Society) 76
,, 25. Head of Elburz Red Bam, Ovis orientalis erskinei . 82
,, 26. Skull and Horns of Afghan Urial, Ovis vignei cyclo-

ceros ......... 88

,, 27. Head of Kopet-Dagh Urial, Ovis vignei arkar . . 91
,, 28. Head of Siberian Argali, Ovis ammon ammon . . 95
,, 29. Skull and Horns of Mongolian Argali, Ovis ammon

mongolica. (From a specimen collected by Col.

Abbot Anderson) ....... 97

,, 30. Skull and Horns of Kulja Argali, Ovis ammon little-

dalei 102

,, 31. Skull and Horns of Bokharan Argali, Ovis ammon

nigrimontana. (From a specimen collected by

Mr. D. Carruthers) 103

,, 32. Skull and Horns of Alatau Argali, Ovis ammon

Itarelini. (From a specimen in Sir E. G. Loder's

collection) . . . . . . . .104

,, 33. Skull and Horns of Pamir Argali, Ovis ammon poll . 107
,, 34. Head of Sonoran Bighorn, Ovis canadensis gaillardi.

(From a photograph by Messrs. Dracopoli) . . 117
,, 35. Head of Pallas's Caucasian Tur, Capra caucasica

cylindricornis. (From Ward's " Records of Big

Game") 132

,, 36. Frontlet and Horns of East Caucasian Tur, Capra

caucasica . . . . . . . .135

,, 37. Frontlet and Horns of an Ibex, or Tur. (From a

photograph by Mr. A. Ghidini) .... 135
., 38. Head of Tian Shan Ibex, Capra sibirica almasyi . 146
,, 39. Skull and Horns of Sind Wild Goat, Capra hircus

blythi. (From Ward's " Records of Big Game ") . 159
,, 40. Frontlet and Horns of Astor Markhor, Capra falco-

neri falconeri. (From Ward's " Records of Big

Game") 163

41. Skull and Horns of Pir Panjal Markhor, Capra

falconeri casJimiriensis. (From Ward's " Records

of Big Game ") 165

42. Frontlet and Horns of Gilgit or Hazara(?) Markhor.

Capra falconeri, subsp. (From Ward's " Records

of Big Game") 166

,, 43. Skull and Horns of Cabul Markhor, Capra falconeri

megaceros. (From Ward's " Records of Big Game ") 168
44. Skull and Horns of Suleman Markhor, Capra

falconeri jerdoni. (From Ward's " Records of Big

Game") .... . 170

., 45. Frontlet and Horns of Chialtan Markhor, Capra

falconeri chialtanensis . ..... 172



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xvii

PAGE

Fig. 46. Lower Incisors and Canines of Chamois, Rupicapra
rupicapra. (From Miller's " Cat. Mamm. West.
Europe," p. 993) 180

,, 47. Skull and Horns of (A) Caucasian (Rupicapra rupi-
capra caucasica), and (B) Asia Minor (R. r. asiatica)
Chamois ........ 184

,, 48. Skull and Horns of Sze-chuan Serow, Capricornis
sumatrensis milne-edwardsi. (From " Proc. Zool.
Soc." 1908) 187

,, 49. White-maned Serow, Capricornis argyroclicetes . 196

,, 50. Head of White-maned Serow, Capricornis argyro-
chcetes. (From a specimen in the collection of
Mr. G. Fenwick Owen) 197

,, 51. Skull and Horns of White-maned Serow, Capricornis

argyrochates. (From " Proc. Zool. Soc." 1908) . 198

,, 52. Skull and Horns of Bhutan Takin, Budorcas taxi-
color wliitci. (From " Proc. Zool. Soc." 1908) . 213

,, 53. Sze-chuan Takin, Budorcas tibetana . . . 215

,, 54. Skull and Horns of Sze-chuan Takin, Budorcas

tibetana. (From " Proc. Zool. Soc." 1908) . . 216

,, 55. The Musk-Ox, Ovibos moschatus . . 222



CATALOGUE

OF

UNGULATES



OKDEK UNGULATA.

THE ungulate or hoofed mammals, which include the largest
of all land quadrupeds, are herbivorous or omnivorous, and
have their limbs adapted solely for progression, so that there
is no power of pronatiug and supinating the fore-foot, with
the consequent complete absence of prehensile action.
Except in the hyraxes and the camel tribe, the toes are
encased in hoofs or protected in front by large hoof -like nails,
the toes themselves being usually free, although occasionally
connected by membrane. In number the toes range from
five to one. Clavicles, or collar-bones, are invariably wanting
in the existing members of the order (which alone are
considered in the present work). The cheek-teeth, which
are preceded by a deciduous series of the same type, have
relatively broad and flattened crowns, surmounted by
tubercles or ridges, and frequently deeply interpenetrated
by foldings.

In the less specialised members of the order the cheek-
teeth have low crowns with shallow infoldings (brachyodont),.
whereas in the more specialised types their crowns are more-
or less elevated, with a concomitant increase in the depth
and complexity of the infoldings, which are often more or
less completely filled with cement (hypsodont).

The order has a cosmopolitan distribution, exclusive of
Australia and New Zealand.



CATALOGUE OF UNGULATES



Its existing representatives are divisible into four sub-
ordinal groups, of which the names and leading distinctive
features are as follows :

A. The bones of the upper and lower transverse rows
of the wrist- joint, or carpus, alternating with
one another, so as to permit the os magnum to
articulate with the scaphoid (instead of the
lunar or cuneiform) ; toes never more than 4 in
number.

a. The two middle toes (which may be the
only ones), or those representing the 3rd
and 4th of the 5-toed foot, equal in size
. ; f " n,l symmetrical to a vertical line drawn
V :feiwe,en them. Distribution co-exten-
sive with: that of the whole order ARTIODACTYLA.

}&: The: tlfrird .toe (which may be the only

' ' one) larger than the lateral ones (when

present), and symmetrical in itself.

Restricted at the present day in a wild

state to the Old World PERISSODACTYLA.




JI IG- i. BONES OF THE RIGHT FORE-FEET OF THE
PIG (A), THE DEER (B), AND THE CAMEL (C).

M, radius ; U, ulna, below which come the two rows of small
bones constituting the carpus, or wrist ; c, cuneiform ; I,
lunar ; s, scaphoid ; u, unciform ; m, magnum ; td, trapezoid.

The Roman numerals indicate the toes.
From Flower's Osteology of the Mammalia.



ABTIODACTYLA 3

B. The bones of the two horizontal rows of the wrist

arranged vertically one above the other, the

os magnum consequently articulating with the

lunar or cuneiform, but not with the scaphoid.
a. Bodily size small ; muzzle normal ; func-
tional toes 4 in front and 3 behind ;
cheek-teeth rhinoceros-like ; front teeth
well developed. Eestricted to Africa,

Syria, and Arabia HYRACOIDEA.

6. Bodily size large ; upper lip and nose pro-
duced into a long flexible trunk ; cheek-
teeth consisting of a number of tall
transverse vertical plates, of which
there are fewest in the first and most in
the last tooth of the series ; front teeth
reduced to a pair of large rootless upper
incisors (tusks). ^Restricted to South-
eastern Asia and Africa at the present
day, but formerly as widely spread as the
order PROBOSCIDEA.

The first two suborders are frequently brigaded together
as Ungulata Yera, or Diplarthra, and the last two as
Subungulata.

Some writers, on the other hand, exclude the Hyracoidea
and Proboscidea from the Ungulata, which will then, so far
at least as existing forms are concerned, consist of two main
groups, the Artiodactyla, in which the main axis of the
foot lies between the third and fourth digits, producing the
well-known cloven hoof, and the Perissodactyla, in which
the main axis of the foot passes through the middle of the
third toe.



SUBORDER I.- ARTIODACTYLA.

The " even-toed " ungulates include by far the greater
number of the living representatives of the whole order,
comprising as they do all the ruminants together with the
hippopotamuses and swine.


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Online LibraryBritish Museum (Natural History). Dept. of ZoologyCatalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History) (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 20)