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CALIFORNIA FORESTRY 'PAMPHLETS

VOL. I

Chico Forestry Substation, 1897-8. Univ. of Cali-
fornia Experiment Station. v *

Santa Monica Forestry Substation 1899-1901. Univ.
of California Experiment Station.

'-*v CA^^V*.^ _^"-/v 'S^*.. . i) M 2 / f ?

The Value of Oak Leaves for Forage. Bull. 150.
Univ. of California Agri. Experiment Station.

Walnut Culture in California Walnut Blight. Cali-
fornia Agri. Experiment otation. By Ralph E.
Smith. >! <



C. T. P-3






!*' <r/^u*vu. r,




A/^v/T/V



SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA CULTURE SUBSTATION. 327



Many-flowered millet-grass makes a very thick, rank growth the second
year. Schrader's brome grass does not make nearly the growth on the
damp land as it does on the home tract, where, along the water ditch, it
made a dense mat of fine feed before it headed out. As an annual grass
crop, on semi-arid lands, I think that Schrader's brome will be a good
acquisition, and will subdue, to a certain extent, the troublesome grass
that goes under the name of 'Wild Rye' in the Sacramento Valley.' 7

Kales. Dwarf Purple, Dwarf Scotch, Tall Scotch, White Vienna, and
Tall Jersey kales were planted on the ten-acre tract January 28, 1898.
All the varieties made a very poor growth during the summer until fall,
when Tall Scotch and Tall Jersey suddenly made a rank growth until
they came into bloom. By December 15th they had attained a height
of about eight feet. White Vienna grew to be five feet high. The
dwarf varieties, with the exception of Dwarf Purple, succumbed to the
green aphis and never bloomed. All the dwarf varieties were a failure
in the dry season of 1898.

Sugar Beets. Eight new varieties of sugar beets were tested in 1898,
but the seed had arrived too late to obtain the best results. The beets
did not attain a sufficient size to warrant an analysis. On April 9th
four acres were planted to k 'G. W. I." improved seed obtained from the
Chino Valley Beet Sugar Co., and one acre to Vilmorin Improved seed
obtained from Berkeley. A total stand of four acres was obtained, and
the sugar percentage was 15.2. Four seasons previously, in 1894, when
field tests were made with leading varieties of sugar beets, the highest
percentage obtained was 14.3 upon a brand known as "O. D.," imported
by the Chino Valley Sugar Co. The average, however, was below 13
per cent. A considerable improvement in the sugar percentage has
therefore taken place.



V

328 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION.

E. CHICO FORESTRY SUBSTATION, SACRAMENTO VALLEY.

(One mile east of Chico, and one and a half miles from the foothills of the Sierras.

Elevation, 230 feet.



The Chico forestry station was originally a part of the famous Rancho
Chico (26,000 acres ), belonging to the late General John Bidwell. This
great estate contains some of the finest oak groves known to exist in
California. Portions of it still remain as wild as when the Sacramento
Valley was discovered, and have been the delight of such botanists as
the late Dr. C. C. Parry, the late Professor Asa Gray, and Sir Joseph
Hooker.

TREE GROWTH ON RANCHO CHICO.

General Bidwell began to plant native California trees as early as
1856, and added to his arboretum many of the finer exotics, until his
collection is in some important particulars one of the finest on the
Pacific Coast. The most of his tree-planting was done in 1868, but
has been continued at intervals ever since. Many specimens of Pinyx
sabiniana and Pinus ponderosa planted in 1856 now have trunks of frop:
8 feet 10 inches to 11 feet in circumference, and are more than 100 f< ;
high. Of Sequoia gigantea and S. sempervirens there are many spe-
mens 80 and 90 feet high and girthing from 4 to 5-| feet. A native cot-
ton wood (Populus Fremontii), which has grown to its present size since
1856, measures 16 feet in circumference of trunk, and is 100 feet high.
Among trees planted about 1868 are the following: Quercus robur, 50
feet high, girth 25 inches; Quercus cerris, 45 feet high, girth 22 inches;
Juglans Calif ornica, 80 feet high, girth 13 feet; Salisburia adianti folia,
40 feet high, girth 3 feet 3 inches: Camphora officinalis, height 70 feet,
girth 6 feet 4 inches. Another camphor girths 9 feet, but is of more
spreading habit. The growth of many American oaks, of pecans and
hickories, of the Liriodendron, the European linden, elms, and other
deciduous trees, has been surprisingly rapid. At the same time the
finer spruces, firs, cryptomerias, and other conifers have done quite as
well as the deciduous trees. There is as yet no complete catalogue of
the native and exotic trees on Rancho Chico, but the station is accumu-
lating data for such a publication at some future period.

Native Oak Groves. One of the most remarkable features of Rancho
Chico and the surrounding district, from a forestry standpoint, consists
of very fine and large groves of second-growth white oak (Q. lobata).
These have grown since the valley was occupied by .white men and are
undoubtedly the best young oak groves in California. Several of them,
covering areas of from twenty to forty acres, were recently photographed
for the Division of Forestry, at Washington, and the station is collecting
statistics regarding the rate of growth, yield per acre, and value of the
crop. .,, ,

FOKJESTRY FINtfca& ^ND HISTORY.



Several important ;clja^gfiS', ty&ye ;take r ri 'place at the Forestry Station
since the date of 'the compilation- <>f'^the" last report (see volume for
1896-7, pages 406-412). Considering the very small sum now spent on



CHICO FORESTRY SUBSTATION, SACRAMENTO VALLEY. 329

the station, it has been creditably maintained, and continues to furnish
new and valuable information respecting the forestry resources of
Northern California.

The State Legislature in the winter of 1896-7, fully recognizing the
usefulness of the two forestry stations (one at Chico, the other at Santa
Monica, both under the charge of the University of California), made
an appropriation of $8,000 to carry on these stations for the two fiscal
years 1897-8 and 1898-9. This amount was based upon a very careful
Estimate made by the Agricultural Department of the University,
which itemized every proposed expenditure, and showed that with
$2,000 per annum for each of the two stations, they could be greatly
developed, upon extremely useful lines. The former appropriation of
$5,000, or $1,250 per annum for each of the two stations, was shown to
be inadequate to the full and proper growth of these important forestry
stations. This item was unexpectedly vetoed by the Governor. By
this veto, the Regents of the University were compelled to either seek
for some legal means for abandoning these two stations, or to make the
smallest possible appropriation necessary to keep them going until their
permanent status could be determined. The Agricultural Department
was, therefore, ordered to cut down all expenditures, and reduce the rank
-. I the stations. The appropriation made to sustain them both was $1,500
lor the fiscal year 1897-8. The appropriation for the fiscal year 1898-9
x* increased to $1,630. The appropriation for 1899-1900 was $1,230.

To sum up this brief history: The two forestry stations, when receiving
$2,500 per annum from the State, were, in point of proportionate develop-
ment, not very far behind the four farm stations, on each of which the
University spends from $2,000 to $2,200 per annum (from the United
States Agricultural Experiment Station Fund). The appropriation
made by the Legislature of 1896-7 would have raised the forestry
stations to practically the same level as the farm stations, and so would
have greatly increased their permanent efficiency.

The meager allowance for the station at Chico necessarily forced a
change in the method of managing the place. It was put under a
workman, instead of a foreman, and though always run economically,
a multitude of new, hard-time economies were put into practice. Mr.
A. B. Boland, long the active and efficient foreman here, was sent to
the Sierra Foothills substation for a short time, and was thence trans-
ferred to a vacancy at the Central Station. Mr. H. B. Allen, of Chico,
who had been for a year under Mr. Boland, was promoted in July, 1897,
to be "workman in charge," and was left, without assistance, to carry
on the station.

A floor was laid in the wagonshed, and rooms made of rough mountain
lumber for Mr. Allen and his wife. They gradually improved the
surroundings of the building, and made a pleasant home out of this
frontier-like combination of barn, wagonshed, stable, and cottage.

In July, 1897, Mr. Pennell resigned as Patron, being about to leave
Chico, and Mr. V. C. Richards, editor of the "Chico Record," was
appointed. He has taken much interest in the station, visiting it
often, helping and advising, so that its success under trying circum-
stances is largely due to his efficiency.

The Lath House. A small lath-house, 12 feet by 40 feet, was built in
the spring of 1897, and has been extremely useful, enabling seedling
conifers to withstand the summer heat. It has been occupied ever since,



330



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION.



and among the species grown there and in lath-covered frames were
upward of. forty species of conifers, which were mostly removed to
nursery or to plantations, in the winter of 1899. Many of these species
are new to California.

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.

As shown in the foregoing pages, the climate of this portion of the
Sacramento Valley must be exceedingly favorable to the growth of a
great variety of trees. The rainfall is usually abundant and the sum-
mers, though hot, are tempered by sea breezes. The most serious diffi-
culties are caused by late and often severe frosts. Still the lists of
species of trees and shrubs represented at the station and published in
previous reports, show that there are gains as well as losses. Many oaks
and other hardwood trees grow especially well here. The limitations of
the district are more distinctly marked in the case of the eucalypts and
acacias than in that of any other class of trees.

Rainfall. The following table, chiefly compiled from observations
made by A. L. Nichols, of Chico, covers fifteen successive seasons:

RAINFALL AT CHICO SEPTEMBER, 1885, TO JUNE, 1SOO.



Season.


Rain Began.


Rain Ended.


TotHl Rainfall
in Inches.


1885-6


Sept. 24, 1885


May 6, 1886


31.13


1886-7


Oct. 15, 1886


June 12, 1887


17.16


1887-8


Nov. 29, 1887


June 17, 1888


14.49


1888-9


Sept. 15, 1888


June 27, 1889


21.56


1889-90 . . - -


Oct. 7, 1889


May 11, 1890


52.71


1890-1


Sept. 29, 1890


July 8, 1891


23.46


1891-2


Oct. 28, 1891


June 10, 1892


22.40


1892-3


Oct. 8, 1892


May 18, 1893


33.56


1893-4


Sept. 7, 1893


July 11, 1894


23.32


1894-5


Sept. 29, 1894


May 27, 1895


34.56


1895-6


Sept. 10, 1895


May 11, 1896


25.54


1896-7


Aug. 30, 1896


June 20, 1897


22.44


1897-8 _


Sept. 28, 1897


Apr. 30, 1898


12.81


1898-9


Sept. 25, 1898


Apr. 1, 1899


18.45


1899-00 ....


Oct. 13, 1899


May 12, 1900


24.89











The average annual rainfall, on the basis of this table, is 26.06 inches.
In the fifteen years the rainfall twice fell below 15 inches, and four times
below 20 inches. Four times, however, it was above 30 inches.

The total rainfall of the dry season of 1897-8 was distributed as fol-
lows: September, .09; October, 3.24; November, 1.27; December, 1.98;
January, .73; February, 2.69; March, .13; April, .46.

The rainfall for December, 1889, which was 12.64 inches, was more
than the entire rainfall of the season of 1897-8; and the total of
December and January, 1889, was 22.18 inches, which surpasses the
rainfall for four of the twelve seasons herein tabulated.

Temperature. The following temperature statistics are compiled from
fifteen years' observations, ending with 1898, and made by the railroad
agent at Chico and by various Weather Bureau agents:

Average winter temperature - 46.9

Average spring temperature 62.4

Average summer temperature . 81.1

Average autumn temperature ^ 64.1

Average annual temperature 63.6

Highest temperature 115.0

Lowest temperature _ - - - 18.0



CHICO FORESTRY SUBSTATION, SACRAMENTO VALLEY.



331



The lowest point of 18 was reached April 17, 1883, when the spring
growth of many grapevines was killed. It was again reached in the
spring of IScSS. The minimum of 20 has been reached on many occa-
sions. March 17, 1898, the minimum was 22, and this destroyed a
good deal of the fruit crop. Large trees of Eucalyptus globulus, a foot
or more in diameter, were killed to the ground in 1883, and others have
been injured on several occasions since. The species of eucalyptus
described as hardy here have withstood 20 at the station. The extreme
maximum of 115 has not yet been recorded at the station (since 1894).
The summer heat, while great, is not a moist heat, and is easily endured.

Climatic Vicissitudes of the Past. The late GeneralJohn Bid well, whose
invaluable and characteristic pioneer recollections have been drawn upon
by every historian of California, furnished us a very interesting synop-
sis of the seasons before 1852, in the Sacramento Valley. The following
notes were taken from his conversation on the subject in May, 1898:



Season.


Character.


General Bidwell's Comments.


10-1 ...


Very dry indeed


Livestock suffered much


n -2


Verv wet and warm


Great floods. Cattle drowned


I 12-3


A dry season




1843-4


Another dry season


Time of Fremont's first expedition So little snow


1844-5


Medium wet


in the Sierras that he was able to cross without
much difficulty.

W^ould have been a very good agricultural season


1845-6
1846-7 -.


Wet, but not cold ....
Medium wet


Fremont's second expedition.
Time of Mexican ^Var


1847-8


Dry and cold


Discovery of gold.


1848-9
1849-50


Wet and snowy; a
remarkable year.

Very wet


Snow in December, 1848, one foot deep over valley;
in January much more snow. Hard drifts three
feet deep in valley, near where Chico now stands.
Snow lay for a month before melting.

Much suffering in mining camps


1850-1


Dry




1851-2


Dry to very dry


Much complaint from cattlemen, even on the Coast.



Additions to Arboretum, Etc. In the spring of 1898 many specimen
trees, in some cases from ten to one hundred of a sort, were planted in
the arboretum or in forest form. The additions include the following
oaks: Quercus alba, Q. bicolor, Q. cerris, Q. coccinea, Q. densiflora, Q.
Dovglasii, Q. dumnsa, Q. ilex, Q. imbricatia, Q. macrocarpa, Q. nigra, Q.
phellos, Q. robur, Q. rubrn, Q. Wixlizeni.

The other additions were chiefly deciduous, and included Aphanantha
aspera, two species of Celtis, three species of Colutea, two of Fraxinus,
several of Robinias and Gleditschias, two species of Rhus, economically
valuable, and a number of species from the southern Alleghanies, the trees
of which region seem to thrive better here than at any other California
substation. A dozen fine trees of Arbutus Menziesii (the Madrono) were
set in the arboretum.



332



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION.



A large number of selected trees were shipped in the spring of 1897 to
various points north of Chico, also to a number of points in the San Joa-
quin Valley and in Southern California, so as to afford comparative
tests of species on different soils and at different 'elevations.

Nursery in 18989. So many shipments have been made, and so
many trees planted out, that the nursery stock is greatly reduced, but it
contains some fine conifers such as Cupressus Corneyana and C. Lusi-
tanica, also some broad-leaved evergreens, principally from Chile, the
Southern States, and Japan; also, some new willows, many useful
deciduous trees, and ten or twelve species of economic and flowering
shrubs, for which a separate place has been selected near the west
entrance. Magnolia glauca is doing very well. Persea Lingue and Boldea
fragrans also seem well adapted to the place.

Self-sown Seedlings. An interesting feature of the station is the
extent to which forest trees and other seedlings are now growing in
various parts of the grounds. In May, 1898, the following species were
observed, in great numbers, from self-sown seed of the previous autumn:
Juglans Californica, Catalpa speciosa, Paulownia imperialis, Negundo
California, Fraxinus Oregana, Cercis Texensis, and Vitis Calif ornicaj
besides sycamores, cottonwoods, and willows. A few Cupressus semper-
virens and Pinus Austriaca have grown from self-sown seeds in the groves
of these species.

STUDIES OF TREE DEVELOPMENT.

The especial fitness of the soil and climate of the region to the pro-
duction of timber and to the growth of a very great number of species
of trees, is shown by the following notes of measurements made at the
forestry station. In each case, typical trees have been chosen for the
measurement, and marked. Where wide variations occur, several trees
are measured. The blocks are remarkably uniform in size of trees,
and now so cover the ground that cultivation has properly ceased.
Except in the case of the Araucaria, the trees represent close-planted

groups :

TABLE I. STATISTICS OF LARGE CONIFERS.



Name.


No. of Tree.*
Observed .


Measured
Octpber, 1897.


Increase Since
1894.


Soil.


Height.


Girth.


Height.


Girth.


Araucaria Bidwelli


1
35
460
75
10
225
400
10
100
20


Feet.
12
18
26
18
25
22
16
11
27
22


Inches.

18
16

28
17
14
8 .
36
16


Feet.

11
13
14
15
9
7
14
16


Inches.
2
10
10
10
19
10
5
5
20
8


Gravelly ; hard.


Chamsecyparis Lawsoniana
Cupressus sempervirens _-_.
Pinus Austriaca


...Red loam.
Gravelly; red.
Dark, sandy loam.
. _. .Red loam.


Pinus insignis


Pinus resinosa


Gravelly; red.
Gravelly; red.
...Red loam.


Pinus sylvestris


Pseudot -uga taxifolia.


Sequoia gigantea ..


Dark, heavy loam.
Light, sandy.




Sequoia sempervirens





The age of all these trees is about the same. They were planted in
1888 or 1889, but no record was kept by the persons at the station
before the forestry work was given to the State University. Cultivation



CHICO FORESTRY SUBSTATION, SACRAMENTO VALLEY.



333



began in 1894, and by 1896 the trees were beginning to grow rapidly.
Some of the Pinus resinosa in July, 1899, were 30 feet high, with girth
of 21 inches. The ones measured give a fair average, and the grove
surpasses in general appearance the other pines. Pinus insignis (Mon-
terey pine) makes better single specimens.




The Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) is in two closely planted
groves. The best upright or columnar specimens are from 25 to 30 feet
high, with a trunk circumference of 12 to 14 inches and a shaft circum-
ference of 9 or 10 feet. The spreading specimens are usually about 20



334



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EXPERIMENT STATION.



feet high, with larger trunks. While much less attractive than the
columnar specimens, they are equally valuable for timber.

The trees of a small block of Thuya gigantea (Port Orford cedar), not
tabulated, are about fifteen feet high, with branches that cover a circle
of 12 feet across, and, like those of the other conifers, are beginning to
interlock. All the older conifers showed in June, 1898, a spring and
early summer growth of 12 to 24 inches.

The large deciduous trees on the station are growing quite as well as
the conifers. The following table shows some of the principal groups
and several specimens of especial usefulness:

TABLE II. STATISTICS OF LARGE DECIDUOUS TREES.



Name.


No.
Observed.


Measured Oct.,
1897.


Increase Since
1894.


Notes.


Height.


Girth.


Height.


Girth.


Betula alba (European
White Birch)
Catalpa speciosa (Catal-
pa)


75
50
10
54
60
20
3
1
2


Feet.
20

30
20
28
25
28
60
50
21


Inches.
6

26
13
27
19
34
36
30
16


Feet.

14
10
15*
10
9

22


Inches.

10
3
13
8
15

12


Planted in 1895.

A few are much
larger.
Some girth 16 inches

Some are 33 feet tall.

Un gainly and
crooked.
Some are 40 ft. high.

}Very beautiful
specimens about
10 years old.

Planted in 1894.


F rax in us Americana
(American Ash). -
Juglans Ualifornica (Cal-
ifornia Walnut)


N e g u n d o Californica
(California Box Elder)
Paulownia imperialis
(Paulonia) .


Populus fastigiata ( Lom-
bard y Poplar)


Populus Fremontii (Cot-
tonwood).. ._-
Ulmuscampestris (Hunt-
ingdon var. )





The birches noted in above table were received by mail in 1894, when
a few inches high, and placed in nursery. In January, 1895, they were
set out in a group adjoining the block of Sequoia. Their growth has
been marvelous, and justifies all that previous reports have said about
the value of Betida alba as a street tree.

The Huntingdon elm has grown faster than the American and other
species tested here, and it also is a more shapely tree.

The box elder grows rapidly, but it has little value and is less
attractive than the soft maples. Where much better trees will thrive,
it is a pity to plant box elder. The catalpa, with its showy flowers, is
far more attractive. The paulownia has little economic value here,
though its soft lumber has ornamental uses in Japan.

Considering the quality of its product, the rapid growth of the ash
here is very suggestive. It thrives well on the various soils of the
station. Several species of ash are being tested, all giving promise of
usefulness.



CHICO FORESTRY SUBSTATION, SACRAMENTO VALLEY. 335

TABLE III. STATISTICS OF RECENTLY PLANTED DECIDUOUS TREES.



Species.


Where an1 When
Planted.


Size as
Planted.


Size hi
ISM.


Si /e in

1897.


Size in
June, 1898


Acer dasycarpum (Silver
Maple)


Mixed forest, Jan.,


Feet.


Feet.


Feet.


Feet.


Acer campestris (Euro-
pean Maple).. .-.
Acer platanoides (Syca-


1895
Mixed forest, Jan.,
1895


3^
4


6
5


10

7


12

g


more Maple)


Arboretum, Jan.,












1895.


3


4


7


8


Alnus glutinosa (Elder) ..


Arboretum, Jan.,
1894 ...


3


8


14


16


Betula lenta (Birch)


Hardwood forest,










Catalpa speciosa (Catalpa)
Celtis occidentalis (Nettle


Jan., 1896
Mixed forest, Jan.,
1895


1
3


Itf

6


IX
8


1%
10


tree ) - -


Mixed forest, Jan.,










Cerasus serotina (\Vild


1895


4


8


13


15


Cherry) - ... .


Arboretum, Jan.,










Cladas<ris tinctoria (Yel-


1895


VA


4


7


8


low Wood)


Arboretum, 1894


5


6*4


7 1 A


8


Diospyrus Americana
(Am. Persimmon).


Arboretum, 1896


3




8


9V<


Fraxinus Americana
(White Ash)


Arboretum, 1894


2


4


6


7


Fraxinus dimorpha (Al-
gerian Ash)


Hardwood forest,










Fraxinus Oregana (West-


Jan., 1896...


1


2


4>


6 1 A


ern Ash)..

Fraxinus viridis (Green


Hardwood forest,
Jan., 1896


4




7


9


Ash) . . .


Arboretum, 1895


4


6


9


10


Juglans Californica (Cali-
fornia Walnut)
Morus alba (White Mul-


Mixed forest, Jan.,
1895


4


5


8K


9/4


berry)


Mixed forest, Jan.










Morus "Lhoo" (Jap.?


1895


4


61^


9


11


Mulberry)


Rownearash.es Jan










Neerundo Californica (Box


1897 .


4




8


10


Elder) .


Mixed forest, Jan.,










Paulownia imperialis


1895


4


6


10


12


(Paulonia) .


Mixed forest, Jan.,










Ptelea trifoliata (Wafer
Ash)


1895. ...
Arboretum, 1895


4
3


10

5


15

6V<


18
8


Pyrus Americana (Wild
Apple)


Arboretum 1895


1


4


7


1 1 A


Quercus robur No. 1 (Eng-
lish Oak)


On avenue 1894


2


5


8


9V<


Quercus robur No. 2 (Eng-
lish Oak)


On avenue, 1894


2


9


14


15


Quercus robur No. 3 (Eng-
lish Oak)


Mixed forest, Jan.,










Tilia Americana (Bass-


1895


2


6


8


9


wood)


Arboretum, 1896


5




7


9















The number of trees of the above species planted varies from two or
three in the arboretum to a hundred or more in forest form. All receive
cultivation to keep the weeds down and the surface mellow. The catal-
pas and tilias planted in 1895 were in blossom in May, 1898. The
white mulberries planted at the same time were bearing fruit.

The English oaks (Q. peduncnlata) vary greatly in size and nature
of growth. Some are shrubby, branching near the ground, and



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