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GIFT OF




CALIFORNIA FORESTRY PAMPHLETS
VOL. Ill

Forest Fire Report, 1909. State Board of For-
estry, -vj c

'A Handbook for Eucalyptus Planters. Giroular No.
. State Board of Forestry.

V c

/A Bibiography of Forestry in California. Circu-
lar ITo. 3. State Board of Forestry.

i>- v'n

Native Growth for Planting in California. Circu-
lar No. 4. State Board of Forestry. By
Evangeline Porter.

Yield from Eucalyptus Plantations in California.
Bulletin No. 1. California State Board of
Forestry. By Louis Margolin.

v V

Pharmacal Plants and Their Culture, Bulletin No.
California State Board of Forestry. By
Albert Schneider.

.Wood-Using Industries of California. Bulletin
No. 3. State Board of Forestry. By
Andrew K. Armstrong.

I -V - ; 2

'^Street and Highway Planting. Bulletin No. 4.
California State Board of Forestry. By
Ben Y. Morrison,



"Z.



P




.. '-. :



5TATL BOARD OF FORESTRY

G. B. LULL, 5tate Forester



;STRY.

r.

>T. AGRICULTURE.



DEC 3 1914

Division of Forestry
University of California



FOREST FIRE REPORT



1909



NTERS



5ACRAMLNTO, CAL.
JANUARY 1, 1910



W. W. SHANNON, Superintendent of State Printing



29910H



rintendent State Printing.



Main Life,
Forestry*




3 1914



Division of Forestry
University of California



FOREST FIRE REPORT 1909



STRY.



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T. AGRICULTURE.



FOREST FIRES CAUSE HEAVY LOSS.

Reports received by the State Forester from the
firewardens show that during the past year 638 forest,
brush and grass fires occurred within the State. The
total area burned was 357,269 acres, divided approx-
imately as follows: Forest, 76,730 acres; brush,
191,510 acres; grass, 88,029 acres. The merchantable
timber destroyed amounted to over 40,000,000 feet,
worth fully $100,000. Other direct damage was done
to grain, grass, fencing and buildings to the amount
of half a million dollars. Added to this is the loss from
destruction of young growth too small to be merchant-
able at present, and also the loss from injury to water-
sheds by the removal of water-conserving brush and
timber which together bring the total to a million
dollars at least. One fire fighter was caught by the
flames and lost his life. Fires to the number of 101
reached a size of 1,000 acres or over before being con-
trolled, and a half dozen covered 20,000 acres or more.
These last were principally grass and brush fires,
which often spread so rapidly as to cover large areas
before they can be suppressed in spite of prompt
action on the part of the firewardens. Two hundred
and thirty-six fires were extinguished before they
covered ten acres. Considering the remote and inac-
cessible situations in which fires ordinarily occur it is
a matter of congratulation that more than one third
of the whole number should have been extinguished so
promptly.

August Worst Month.

The first fire was reported in February, and from
then on the number increased steadily to August, de^ *
creasing rapidly during the last three months.

(3 >




NTERS



<==r
r p |} ( . rintendent State Printing.



number of fires reported for each month is as follows:
January, 0; February, 1; March, 1; April, 6; .May.
31; June, 66; July, 145; August. 174; September,
168; October, 37; November, 8; December. 1.

Wardens Do Good Work.

The great difference between the number of fires
which occurred during September and the number
which occurred during October is rather remarkable.
During previous years October has been a particularly
Jjfc, dangerous month for the reason that the light rains

which fall ordinarily during late September tempt the
people to burn brush and rubbish with little care.
During 1909 the rains which fell during the last half
of September were rather heavier than usual and
this partly explains the circumstance. But a still
more important factor is that the people burn brush
with more care than they used to. The numerous fin -
wardens distributed over the State have had a most
salutary influence. They are for the most part men of
experience and discretion, and by knowing what pre-
cautions are necessary to insure safety in brush burn-
ing, and by insisting that these precautions be taken.
they have accomplished the very gratifying reduction
in the number of October fires. Only three fires set
under permit from firewardens escaped from control.

Causes of Fires.

In this connection it is interesting to note the
causes of forest fires. Two hundred and forty- five
were of unknown origin. The rest are grouped as
follows: Campers, 114; lightning, 74; engines. r>3 :
clearing land, 45 ; incendiary, 39 ; hunters, 21 ; blast-
ing, 9; smoking bees, 7; electric wires, 2. This classi-
fication is somewhat arbitrary and requires explana-
tion. Campers include hunters, fishermen, prospect-
ors, travelers in the mountains, and in general, all
who start forest fires carelessly. Most of them would
call themselves nature lovers, but their love of nature
is not strong enough to prompt them to be sure their
camp-fires are out, or to be careful of their matches
and tobacco. Hunters in the above classification differ
from campers in that they deliberately set fires to

(4)



drive out game. Of course, most hunters are not
included in this category. The old-fashioned stockmen
\\ho set tires to "improve the range" are classed here.
Incendiary fires are those set intentionally for any one
of a number of reasons. The remaining classes require
no explanation.

Numerous Convictions.

A large proportion of the fires were of unknown
origin. Probably in most cases the firewardens had a
shrewd suspicion of the cause but could obtain no
leiral evidence. Even where it is possible to determine
with absolute certainty the cause of a fire there is
often too little evidence to warrant legal action. The
reasons for this are several. In the first place, fires
usually occur in remote districts where inhabitants
are few and scattered, and it is easy for any one to
set a fire either carelessly or intentionally and avoid
being caught at it. Secondly, the firewardens are.
very properly, more interested in putting the fire out
than in gathering evidence as to how it was caused.
and the evidence may be covered up by the time the
warden gets around to investigate. Thirdly, there is
a strong tendency among many of the voluntary fire-
wardens to consider that they have done all that can
reasonably be asked of them when they have extin-
guished a fire, and. that after the crisis has passed,
they should not be expected to spend more time and
money in gathering evidence without compensation.
This is a reasonable view, revealing one of the faults
of a system of fire protection which depends largely
on voluntary contributions for its success. It may be
noted here that the disproportionately small number
of convictions is due largely to these causes. Of 307
fires suspected of having been set in violation of the
fire laws, only 18 have resulted in conviction. But
considering the difficulties attending successful prose-
cution for forest fire cases this result is far from dis-
couraging. Fines amounting to $385.00 were imposed
on 17 offenders and one was sentenced to 90 days in
jail. Other cases are pending.



STRY.



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T. AGRICULTURE.



NTERS



rintendent State Printing.



(5)



State and Federal Governments Co-operate.

During the last year there were 609 firewardens
under appointment from the State Forester. Two
hundred and seventeen of these were paid by the U. S.
Forest Service, but requested State appointments also
in order to take advantage of the extra powers con-
ferred by the State forest laws. Fifteen counties paid
firewardens who received appointments from this
office. Both the United States rangers and the county
wardens are picked men, and it is due, in large part,
Mala Jjfc, to them that so many fires were stopped before they

Jtorwtiy* ' had covered an area of 10 acres. The remainder wciv

volunteers who did excellent work in fighting fires,
but who naturally accomplished little in the way of
patrol. Thus many fires were allowed to gain such
headway as to give serious trouble though they might
have been easily extinguished if they had been attacked
promptly. But it would be unreasonable to ask a
volunteer to spend perhaps a whole day investigating
a suspicious smoke in some inaccessible portion of the
mountains without compensation. It is greatly to the
credit of the volunteers, however, that they actually
performed much more in the w r ay of fire protection
than could be reasonably expected of them. The fire-
wardens issued burning permits to the number of
1,360 during the year.

Mountaineers Suffer Most.

Along with the $1,000,000 or more that forest fires
cost the commonwealth last year should be included
an item to cover the expense of fire fighting and patrol.
This item is very difficult to reduce to dollars and
cents, since it properly includes not only money paid
out directly for these purposes, but also services vol-
untarily furnished by those threatened by fires for
which no bills were presented. Commuted to cash the
total sum would probably reach $100,000. Part of
this was paid from some of the county treasuries ; part
was paid by the United States Government from the
public funds and a very important share of the burden
fell upon ranchers, stockmen, timbermen and others
having property or interests in the forested region,
who not only had to stand the direct loss occasioned

(6)



by the fires, but the expense of fighting them as well.
It is right that the State should expect a man to pro-
tect his own property, to a reasonable extent, without
compensation. But the mountaineer who fights a
forest fire does much more than protect himself. He
protects the valley below. He helps conserve timber
for the future and water for irrigation and domestic
use. The whole State shares the good that results
from his efforts, and the system that requires him to
pay so much of the bill is not fair.

Paid Patrolmen Necessary.

Nor is it economical. A small fire may be controlled
jy one man, whereas a fire twice the size may require
four men. The California climate with its long, dry
seasons makes it impossible to prevent occasional
fires from occurring, but an efficient patrol system
will greatly reduce the number that start and will
have an even more important effect in limiting the
size, and, in consequence, the injurious effects of those
that can not be prevented. Of the $100,000 which, it
is calculated, the suppression of forest fires cost last
year a part went for patrol. A part also went for the
fighting of fires which could not have been prevented.
These sums are, therefore, well and profitably spent.
But a large part, and this includes practically the
whole amount contributed by the ranchers and moun-
taineers, was spent on fires that either could have been
entirely prevented, or, at any rate, could have been
put out with little trouble or expense under an effi-
cient system of patrol. This last item, which amounts
in all probably to one half of the total, or $50,000,
may be considered as a tax upon the dwellers in the
mountains, and as such it is not only unjustly levied,
but uneconomically applied. The same amount ob-
tained by direct taxation would distribute the burden
more equitably, and if devoted to the organization of
the work of fire prevention, would decimate the de-
struction by fire, During the next session of the legis-
lature another strong effort will be made to secure an
appropriation for this purpose,



:STRY.

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?T. AGRICULTURE.



NTERS



rintendent State Printing.






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STATE BOARD OF FORESTRY.

CIRCULAR No. 2.
G. B. LULL, State Forester.

IN CO-OPERATION WITH THE FOREST SERVICE, U. S. DEPT. AGRICULTURE.



DEC 3 1914

Division of Forestry
University of California

A HANDBOOK FOR

EUCALYPTUS PLANTERS



(3ficbitfl> EDITION.)'



SACRAMENTO:

W. W. SHANNON Superintendent State Printing.

1908.



STATE BOARD OF FORESTRY.



JAMES N. GILLETT. Governor.

CHAS. F. CURRY Secretary of State.

U. S. WEBB... Attorney-General.

G. B. LULL . ..State Forester.



PROVISION FOR CO-OPERATIVE WORK.

SECTION 4. The State Forester shall, upon request
and whenever he deems it essential to the best interests
of the people and the State, co-operate with counties,
towns, corporations and individuals in preparing plans
for the protection, management and replacement of
trees, woodlots and timber tracts, on consideration and
under an agreement that the .parties obtaining such
assistance pay at Ip^fet tKe ;fie;i<3, expenses of the men
employed in preparing, said plans, Stat. 1905:235.



CONTENTS.







PAGE.


1.


INTRODUCTION


5


2.


HISTORY OF EUCALYPTUS IN CALIFORNIA


5


3.


THE TIMBER EUCALYPTS .-


5


4.


SYLVICAL CHARACTERISTICS


6




a. AGE AND SIZE


6




6. FORM


6




c. TOLERANCE


6




d. ROOT DEVELOPMENT


8




0. WlNDFIRMNESS


8




f. REPRODUCTION


8




1. Sprout Reproduction


8




2. Seed Reproduction


9


5.


GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


9




a. SOIL


9




6. TEMPERATURE


10




c. MOISTURE


10


6.


PLANTING REGION


12


7.


CHOICE OF SPECIES


12


8.


HOME-GROWN vs. NURSERY SEEDLINGS


14


9.


NURSERY PRACTICE


15




a. LATH HOUSE


15




&. SEED BOXES


16




c. WATERING


16




d. TRANSPLANTING


17




e. PROTECTION OF NURSERY


17


10.


FIELD PLANTING


17


11.


SPACING


18


12.


CULTIVATION


18


13.


COST OF PLANTATIONS


20


14.


PROTECTION


20


15.


CUTTING, THINNING AND PRUNING


20


16.


GROWTH


21


17.


ECONOMIC PLANTING


34




a. WINDBREAKS


34




6. COMMERCIAL PLANTATIONS


37


18.


TIMBER UTILIZATION


40




a. FUELWOOD


40




6. POSTS


42




c. POLES


43




d. RAILROAD TIES


43




e. MINE TIMBERS


44




f. WHARF PILING


44




g. DIMENSION MATERIAL


46



4 CONTENTS.

PAGE.

19. QUALITIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD 46

20. SEASONING , 47

21. USES OF LUMBER 47

a. VEHICLE PARTS 47

6. INSULATOR PINS 48

c. FURNITURE 48

d. OTHER USES 48

22. BOTANICAL NAMES.. 48




DFC

Division of Forestry
University of C

A HANDBOOK FOR





INTRODUCTION.

The growing interest in forest planting in California makes it
desirable that prospective planters be supplied with concise information
regarding the demands and qualities of the genus Eucalyptus, which,
owing to its rapid growth and wide adaptation to economic uses, is
destined to be planted more extensively than any other tree. Reliable
information on this genus is now obtainable in Bulletin No. 35 of the
Forest Service, but the information contained is more general in nature
than the typical, quick-action planter is willing to digest. More recently
a detailed, though as yet unpublished, report on the planting of the
commercial eucalypts has been made by S. J. Flintham of the Forest
Service after a study conducted in cooperation with the State of Cali-
fornia. The essentials for planters have been culled from this report
and other sources and embodied in this circular to meet the great
demand for specific information on the economies of Eucalyptus
planting. '

HISTORY OF EUCALYPTUS IN CALIFORNIA.

The eucalypts are exotics in California, having been introduced
from Australia in the early fifties by travelers who were impressed
with the splendid proportions and rapid development of the genus
in its native habitat. They were first planted in the vicinity of
San Francisco for ornamental purposes. Later, in the sixties, they
were planted near Los Angeles. The rapid growth and complete
adaptability of the exotic to its new environments instantly claimed
the attention of nurserymen, who recognized its suitability for com-
mercial planting. Between 1870 and 1875 considerable planting
was done for fuel, windbreaks and shade along avenues. One of
these early groves was established near Irvington in the Santa Clara
Valley in 1870, and later, 1872 and 1873, the first plantation in
Southern California was made by Hon. Ellwood Cooper on his ranch
near Santa Barbara. The well-known Widney and Nadeau groves, set
out in 1874 and 1875, were the first extensive plantations made near
Los Angeles.

THE TIMBER EUCALYPTS.

Eucalyptus has deservedly claimed more attention than any other
exotic genus, and probably more than most of those indigenous to the
United States. Great energy and persistence in experimenting with



6 STAVE BOARD OF FORESTRY.

the genus have been manifested by nurserymen and pioneer planters
ever since its introduction. More than 150 species have been identified
by botanists who have studied the Australian forests. Fully 100 of
these, including practically all the species considered valuable for tim-
ber, have been introduced and planted in California.

For general purposes, however, the blue gum has been used more
extensively than all other species combined, and even to-day the
knowledge of most laymen of the eucalypts is confined to their
acquaintance with this species. Several other species, however, possess
special qualities which warrant their selection for particular uses and
for certain localities. Among these are the sugar, manna, gray, red and
lemon gums, which, with the blue gum, owing to their rapid growth and
splendid development, rank as the timber eucalypts.

SYLVICAL CHARACTERISTICS.

Age and Size. In Australia the eucalypts reach ages of from 400
to 500 years, and dimensions second only to the California Sequoias.
Indeed, in height development, though not in diameter, they surpass
them. Many species are said to reach heights from 300 to over 400
feet, and diameters exceeding 12 to 15 feet. These dimensions result
from long periods of growth in the virgin forests, however, and no
such sizes have yet been attained by eucalypts planted in California.

No eucalypt has grown to greater age than 40 years in this State.
At this age the period of rapid development has not been passed, and
no disposition to become short-lived is shown, as is frequently the
case with species grown outside their habitat. Blue gum trees 175
feet in height and 5 or 6 feet in diameter have been produced here
in from twenty-four to thirty years. The single quality, rapidity of
growth, entitles the eucalypts to serious consideration, for no other
species can attain like dimensions in five times this period.

Form. Naturally the timber eucalypts maintain an erect form, with
strong main axes and slender limbs. Young trees shoot up rapidly into
slender poles with scantily branched crowns and feathery, drooping
foliage. The bole gradually clears of limbs, particularly where the
density of the stand causes lateral shading. Open-grown timber has
more numerous and larger limbs.

Tolerance. The timber eucalypts are species of moderate shade
endurance. During their early growth they will bear more shade than
later in life. The seedlings are even shade-demanding, and succeed
best under partial shade. When growth has commenced, however, full
light should be afforded them.



A HANDBOOK FOR EUCALYPTUS PLANTERS. 7

The intolerance of saplings and poles is well indicated by their rapid
height growth, upon which they depend in competition to escape sup-




^ PLATE 1. Blue gum timber 24 years old, showing characteristic clear, straight
growth of this species. Trees over 36 inches in diameter, 175 feet tall, and
100 to 120 feet clear.

pression. It is not uncommon to see saplings too spindling to stand
erect, caused by their efforts to overtop a competitor for light.



8 STATE BOARD OF FORESTRY.

Root Development. The eucalypts use a great amount of water, hence
they prefer a deep soil, through which the roots may penetrate to lower
strata in search of greater supplies of moisture. In shallow soils over-
lying rock or hardpan the roots are forced to spread laterally, and on
such situations the growth is generally stunted and slow.

In early years root development is exceedingly rapid, that of young
seedlings greatly exceeding the growth of the plant above the surface.
During early growth most eucalypts send down a taproot as well as
numerous spreading laterals. The taproot of the blue gum, at least,
rarely penetrates to a depth greater than 6 feet, further development
being concentrated in the strong laterals.

The roots exhibit a strong impulse to seek water, and to reach it some-
times extend over 100 feet, crossing under ditches, pavements and roads.
If they gain access to pipes or ditches through cracks or breaks in the
masonry, they send out large masses of small feeding roots. Cisterns
and water-pipes have been completely clogged in this manner.

Windfirmness. The production of an extensive lateral root system
renders the eucalypts very windfirm. Their strong anchorage in the
soil, combined with the flexibility of the growing stem, renders them
particularly valuable for windbreak purposes, since a break which will
yield before the force of the wind tends to deflect the air currents
upward, and protects areas far to leeward, whereas an unyielding
barrier breaks the wind only on areas in close proximity to it.

Reproduction. The complete adaptability of the eucalypts to Cali-
fornia is especially shown by their strong reproduction here by both
seed and sprouts.

Sprout Reproduction. All the eucalypts planted in California sprout
vigorously from the stump or roots after cutting or in response to any
injury to the tree. The small trees in young plantations generally
sprout up thriftily after they have been cut back by animals or after
saplings have been killed to the ground by frost or fire. After fire
injury also, in an attempt at ref oliation, the stems generally clothe
themselves thickly from the ground to the top with short sprout
branches like fire-injured redwoods.

Whenever it is desirable to reproduce a species which possesses cop-
picing qualities advantage is generally taken of tttem. With most
species, however, the sprouts produced after the third or fourth cutting
are less thrifty than those after the first or second. This tendency to
weaken seems absent in the eucalypts, or if present, coppicing has
not been practiced long enough in California to reveal it. Fuelwood



A HANDBOOK FOR EUCALYPTUS PLANTERS. 9

groves have sprouted up vigorously after the fourth and fifth cutting,
and seedling trees over thirty years old sprout after cutting as thriftily
as young trees. Indeed, it is almost impossible to kill the stumps of old
trees or to prevent the sprouting of old roots left in the ground after
the stumps have been grubbed out.

Seed Reproduction. Since natural regeneration is not practiced, the
natural seeding of eucalypts is of little commercial importance. Seed
is produced abundantly by all the eucalypts introduced into California.
The fruit generally remains on the trees, unopened, until the fall of
the seed cases to the ground. Wind dissemination plays no part in the
extension of Eucalyptus, and as the seeds are not eaten by birds, the
seedlings always occur beneath or very near the parent tree.



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.

Every species makes definite ecological demands upon its habitat.
The optimum development of a species is contingent upon the fulfill-
ment of its requirements. It generally happens, however, that the
demands of a species are not inflexible, and the species will survive
if its requirements are but partially met. For example, a species will
survive and grow indifferently, if it receives less food or light than it
requires for best development. In the case of temperature much
depends upon the age and condition of the tree species at the time its
normal temperature range is crossed. If it is thriving and the tempera-
ture change comes gradually it will frequently withstand the shock
without injury. Under less favorable conditions it will not recover.
Except upon temperature the demands of eucalypts are fairly flexible.
Their thermal demands, however, must be met. Whenever Eucalyptus
planting is undertaken outside the thermal range of the species used
some loss must be expected. Where only small plantations are made
a risk is generally warranted. But where extensive commercial planta-
tions, involving heavy expense, are made, they should lie within the
thermal range of the species used. Since this circular deals with the



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