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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



THE HISTORY

OF THE

COLLECTIONS

CONTAINED IN THE

NATURAL HISTORY DEPARTMENTS

OF THE

BEITISH MUSEUM



VOL. I.

LIBRARIES.

THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY.
THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY.
THE DEPARTMENT OF MINERALS.



LONDON :

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM

SOLD BY

LONGMANS & Co., 39 Paternoster Row, E.G. ; B. QUABITCH, 15 Piccadilly, W. ;

DULAU & Co., 37 Soho Square, W. ; KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH,

TBUBNER & Co., Dryden House, 43 Gerrard Street, Soho, W. ;

AND AT THE

BEITISH MUSEUM (NATUBAL HISTORY), Cromwell Road, S.W.

1904.
(All rights reserved.)



PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWE



Q.H1



PREFACE.



THE present history of the collections preserved in the four
Natural History Departments of the British Museum has been
produced at my suggestion, by the officers in charge of the
collections. Mr. B. B. Woodward has written the history of
the libraries ; Mr. George Murray, assisted by Mr. Britten, that
of the Department of Botany ; Dr. Arthur Smith Woodward
with valuable help from the late keeper, Dr. Henry Woodward,
and from Dr. Bather, assistant keeper, that of the Department
of Geology ; and Mr. Fletcher that of the Department of Minerals.
A second volume will contain the history of the collections in
the Department of Zoology to which Mr. Edgar Smith, Dr.
Bowdler Sharpe, Mr. C. O. Waterhouse, Mr. Boulenger, Mr.
Oldfield Thomas, Mr. Jeffrey Bell, Mr. Pocock, Mr. Kirkpatrick,
Sir George Hampson, and Mr. Lydekker, have each contributed
a special section.

The possibility of producing such a history as the present is
a remarkable evidence of the care and efficiency with which the
records of the Museum have been kept during the past century.
The value of the book to workers in the various branches of
Natural History will be very great. It not only furnishes an
interesting record of the names of hundreds who have con-
tributed to build up our science during the nineteenth century,
but it will prove to be of assistance to investigators who are
anxious to discover the present depository of specimens or
collections referred to in old publications and to compare then



512997

LIBRAKI



iv Preface.

with later samples. It will also furnish to a very large number
of persons, who at present are not informed on the subject,
a correct idea of the variety, extent, and importance of the
immense series of collected specimens which are here, carefully
guarded and kept in orderly arrangement, " not only " (according
to the terms of Sir Hans Sloane's will) " for the inspection and
entertainment of the learned and curious, but for the general
use and benefit of the public to all posterity."

It furnishes documentary proof of the steady yet rapid
progress of the scientific value of the Natural History Depart-
ments and of the care and accuracy with which the responsi-
bilities undertaken by the Trustees have been discharged by
their officers.

E. RAY LANKESTER.

March, 1904.



CONTENTS.



THE LIBRARIES.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION vii-xvii

1. GENERAL SKETCH OF THE SEVERAL LIBRARIES IN THE BRITISH
MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY), WITH SOME ACCOUNT OF THEIR
FORMATION AND PROGRESS, PROM 1753 TO THE END OF 1900. 1

2. CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL ACCESSIONS TO THE

END OF 1900 ,5

3. LIST OF IMPORTANT BOOKS, MANUSCRIPTS, AND DRAWINGS
ARRANGED UNDER THE NAMES OF AUTHORS AND PREVIOUS



4. LIST OF CURRENT SERIAL PUBLICATIONS PRESENTED TO THE

BRITISH MUSEUM (NATURAL HISTORY) ..... 53

A. British Islands 53

B. British Empire over the Seas 60

C. Non-British 64



THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY.

1. GENERAL SKETCH 79

2. CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL ACCESSIONS TO THE

BOTANICAL COLLECTIONS TO THE END OF 1902 ... 85

3. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE MORE IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTORS TO

THE COLLECTION OF PLANTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 129

THE DEPARTMENT OP GEOLOGY.

1. GENERAL SKETCH 197

2. A CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL ACCESSIONS TO
THE COLLECTIONS OF FOSSILS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY
TO THE END OF 1900 200

3. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE MORE IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTORS TO

THE COLLECTION OF FOSSILS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY 260



vi Contents.

THE DEPARTMENT OF MINERALS.

PAGE

1. GENERAL SKETCH 343

2. CHRONOLOGICAL ACCOUNT OF THE PRINCIPAL ACCESSIONS TO THE

DEPARTMENT OP MINERALS (1753-1903) . . . .353

SERIES A. MINERALS 353

Chronological List (1753-1903) referring to Series A. .355

SERIES B. BOCKS 388

Chronological List (1753 1903) referring to Series B. .388

SERIES C. METEORITES 405

Chronological List (1753-1903) referring to Series C. . 406

3. ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE MORE IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTORS TO
THE COLLECTION OF MINERALS, ROCKS AND METEORITES IN
THE DEPARTMENT OF MINERALS . . .412



INTRODUCTION.



THE British Museum dates its actual foundation from the year
1753, when an Act of Parliament was passed "for the purchase
of the Museum or Collection of Sir Hans Sloane, and of the
Harleian Collection of Manuscripts, and for providing One
General Repository for the better Reception and more convenient
Use of the said Collections and of the Cottonian Library and of
the Additions thereto."

Sir Hans Sloane, an eminent physician in London, was for
sixteen years President of the Royal College of Physicians
and in 1727 succeeded Sir Isaac Newton in the Presidential
Chair of the Royal Society. He was throughout his long
life a diligent and miscellaneous collector, having, as stated in
the Preamble of the Act of Incorporation of the Museum,
" through the course of many years, with great labour and
expense, gathered together whatever could be procured, either
in our own or foreign countries, that was rare and curious."
His collection, which at the time of his death in 1753 was
contained in his residence, the Manor House, Chelsea, consisted
of " books, drawings, manuscripts, prints, medals, and coins,
ancient and modern antiquities, seals, cameos and intaglios,
precious stones, agates, jaspers, vessels of agate and jasper,
crystals, mathematical instruments, pictures, and other things,"
which latter included numerous zoological and geological speci-
mens, and an extensive herbarium of dried plants preserved in
310 large folio volumes.

According to the terms of Sir Hans Sloane's will, this collec-
tion was purchased for the sum of 20,000 far below its
intrinsic value in order "that it might be preserved and



viii Introduction.

maintained, not only for the inspection and entertainment of
the learned and the curious, but for the general use and benefit
of the public to all posterity."

The valuable collection of manuscripts formed by Sir Robert
Cotton at the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the seven-
teenth centuries was already the property of the nation, having
been presented by his grandson, Sir John Cotton, in the year
1700. The Harleian Collection was obtained by purchase at
the same time as the Sloanian, and the three were brought
together under the designation of " the British Museum," placed
under the care of a body of trustees,* and lodged in Montagu
House, Bloomsbury, purchased for their reception in 1754. The
Museum was opened to the public on the 15th of January, 1759.
Admission to the galleries of antiquities and natural history was at
first by ticket only, issued on application in writing, and limited to
ten persons, for each of three hours in the day. Visitors were not
allowed to inspect the cases at their leisure, but were conducted
through the galleries by officers of the house. The hours of
.admission were subsequently extended ; but it was not until the
year 1810 that the Museum was freely accessible to the general
public for three days in the week, from ten to four o'clock.
The present daily opening, with longer hours in summer, dates
only from 1879.

At the time of the foundation of the Museum, the site allotted
seemed amply sufficient for its purposes ; but gradually, as the
collections of all kinds increased, they outgrew the limits, not
only of the original Montagu House, but even of its successor,
the present classical building, completed in 1845 from the
designs of Sir Robert Smirke. The erection of the magnificent
reading-room in 1857 disposed for a time of the difficulty of

* The Trustees under the Act of Incorporation were the Archbishop of
Canterbury, the Lord Chancellor, the Speaker of the House of Commons,
the Bishop of London, and the principal Officers of State for the time
being ; six representatives of Founders' families ; the Presidents of the
Royal Society and College of Physicians; and fifteen other Trustees to
be elected by them. Subsequently, the Presidents of the Society of
Antiquaries and of the Eoyal Academy of Arts, a Trustee by special
nomination of the Sovereign, and three more family Trustees were added
to the Board.



Introduction. ix

finding accommodation for the ever-growing library; but the
keepers of other departments continued urgent in their demands
for more space, and after much discussion of rival plans for
keeping the collections together and obtaining the needful exten-
sion of room by acquiring the property immediately around the
old Museum, or for severing the collections and removing a
portion to another building, the latter course was finally decided
upon. At a special general meeting of the Trustees, held on
the 21st of January, 1860, attended by many members of the
Government in their official capacity, a resolution, moved by the
First Lord of the Treasury, was carried : " That it is expedient
that the Natural History Collection be removed from the British
Museum, inasmuch as such an arrangement would be attended
with considerably less expense than would be incurred by pro-
viding a sufficient additional space in immediate contiguity to the
present building of the British Museum."

The House of Commons, in the Session of 1863, sanctioned
the purchase of part of the site of the International Exhibition
of 1862 at South Kensington, with a view to appropriating it to
the purpose of a Museum of Natural History.

In January, 1864, the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Works
issued an advertisement for designs for a Natural History
Museum and a Patent Museum, to be erected on part of the land
thus acquired, a plan which had been prepared by Mr. Hunt in
September, 1862, from Sir Richard Owen's suggestions, being
proposed as a model in respect to dimensions and internal
arrangement.

The plans of the various competitors were submitted to Her
Majesty's Commissioners of Works, who awarded prizes to three
of the number, giving precedence to that of Captain Francis
Fowke, R.E., and then referred the three premiated plans to the
Trustees of the British Museum. As the internal arrangements
in Captain Fowke's plan did not meet with the approval of the
Museum officers, he was desired to modify them in conformity
with the requirements of the Trustees. He was engaged in this
labour when his death occurred, in September, 1865.

Early in the year 1866, Mr. Alfred Waterbouse was invited by



x Introduction.

the Chief Commissioner of Works to take up the unfinished work
of Captain Fowke ; but he found himself unable to complete the
plan to his own satisfaction, and in February, 1868, he was
commissioned to form a fresh design, embodying the require-
ments of the officers of the Natural History Departments of the
Museum.

Mr. Waterhouse was not long in submitting to the Trustees his
plan and model of the building, with a disposition of galleries as
required, and these were formally accepted by the Trustees in
April, 1868. It was nob, however, until February, 1871, that
the working plans had been thoroughly considered, and received
the final approval of the Trustees.

The actual work of erection was commenced in the year 1873,
and the building was handed over to the Trustees of the British
Museum by Her Majesty's Commissioner of Works in the month
of June, 1880. Immediately that the exhibition cases were
completed, and the galleries were sufficiently dry to receive the
collections, the great labour of removing the Natural History
Collection from Bloomsbury was commenced. The departments
of Geology, Mineralogy, and Botany were arranged in their
respective sections of the Museum in the course of the year 1880,
and the portion of the Museum which contained these departments
was first opened to the public on April 18th, 1881. It was not
until the following year that the cases destined to receive the
larger collections of the Zoological Department were sufficiently
near completion to allow of these collections following, and three
more years were required before all the rooms could be brought
into a state fitted for public inspection.

The original collections of the Natural History Departments
of the British Museum are, as stated above, those of Sir Hans
Sloane. The addition to these of the collections of Sir Joseph
Banks (1827), and the long continuous accession of new collec-
tions during 150 years, some purchased and many presented by
naturalists whose names are historical as authorities and bene-
factors of science has rendered the Museum at the present day
the richest and most important in the world. The gradual
development of the separate departments of Botany, Geology,



Introduction. xi

Mineralogy, and Zoology is narrated in the work now produced
by the combined authorship of the various responsible officers of
the Museum. The history given is not merely a general one but
forms an important record of the smaller as well as the larger
collections which have been absorbed into the great series. Each
section of the work devoted to one of the four Departments as
at present constituted, viz. : Botany, Geology, Mineralogy, and
Zoology, commences with a general sketch of the history of the
Department. This is followed by a chronological account of the
yearly additions to its collections up to (and in some instances
beyond) the year 1900, and further by an alphabetical list of
donors or of previous owners of collections now embodied in those
of the Department which have importance either because they
contain type-specimens or because of the scientific or historical
associations of the name cited. In treating of the Department
of Zoology it has been found convenient on account of the great
size and variety of the collections to break up the account into a
number of separate sections, each describing, according to the
plan above explained, the collections representing a separate class
or section of the Animal Kingdom.

The genesis of these several existing Departments and the
succession of their administrators are briefly as follows :

The first appointments of Officers to the newly-constituted
Museum were made in 1756, when Dr. Gowin Knight was chosen
as Principal Librarian, with three Keepers under him, viz : Dr.
M. Maty for the Printed Books, Dr. C. Morton for the Manu-
scripts, and Mr. James Empson for the remaining collections,
entitled " Natural History Department." This Department,
however, included all the Antiquities, Coins, and Medals.
Empson had as his successive Assistant Keepers : H. Rimius
(died 1757), W. Hudson (retired 1758), and the Rev. A. J.
Planta (transferred to Printed Books, 1765). On Empson's
death in 1765, Maty was transferred from the Keepership of the
Department of Books to that of the Department of Natural
History, his Assistant Keeper being the celebrated Dr. Solander,
who had already been employed in the work of cataloguing from
1763. Solander in 1768 obtained permission, on finding a sub-



x i i Introduction.

stitute, to accompany Banks on the now famous voyage with
Captain Cook. He returned in 1771, and, Maty becoming
Principal Librarian in 1772, Solander was made Keeper of the
Natural History Department in 1773. At the same time, J. O.
Justamond was appointed Assistant Keeper, and was joined
in that office in 1776 by the Rev. P. H. Maty ; E. W. Gray
succeeded Justamond in 1778. E. W. Gray was uncle of Samuel
Frederick Gray, the Chemist, whose son John Edward Gray
joined the Museum staff in 1824 and became one of the most
prominent systematists of his time.

On Solander's death in 1782, P. H. Maty succeeded to the
Keepership, and the Rev. C. G. Woide to the vacant Assistant
Keepership. When P. H. Maty died in 1787, E. W. Gray
was appointed to the Keepership, and in 1791 the well-known
naturalist, G. Shaw, became Assistant Keeper.

In 1803 Taylor Combe was made an Assistant Keeper, with
charge of the Antiquities and Coins.

E. W. Gray died in 1806, and the following year the first
important change was made, the old department being divided
nto the " Department of Natural History and Modern Curiosi-
ties," with G. Shaw for Keeper, and the " Department of
Antiquities and Coins," of which T. Combe was made Keeper.
Chas. Konig was added to the staff of the former as Assistant
Keeper in the same year, and became Keeper in 1813 on Shaw's
death.

"W. E. Leach was made Assistant Keeper in 1813, but retired
in 1822, and was succeeded in 1823 by J. G. Children, transferred
from the Department of Antiquities, which he had joined in
1816. The department was further strengthened by the addition
of J. E. Gray in 1824, G. R. Gray in 1831, and Adam White in
1835.

In 1827 the Banksian Herbarium was transferred to the
custody of the Trustees, Robert Brown, its former custodian,
being created " Keeper of Sir Joseph Banks' Botanical Collection."
By the addition to this in 1835 of the Sloane Herbarium and
other botanical collections in the charge of the Natural History
Department, a " Botanical Branch " was formed.



Introduction. xiii

A further and most important change in the constitution of
the Department was introduced in 1837 by the formation of two
other Branches, the " Mineralogical and Geological Branch,"
under the Keepership of C. Konig, and the " Zoological Branch,"
or which J. G. Children was promoted to be Keeper.

Konig was succeeded in 1851 by G. R. Waterhouse, and
Children in 1840 by J. E. Gray.

The administration of the Department was greatly changed
in 1856, by the appointment of Professor (afterwards Sir
Richard) Owen as "Superintendent," and the conversion of the
" Branches " into " Departments." The single " Natural History
Department " thus became three distinct Departments, viz. :
1 , Botanical ; 2, Zoological ; 3, Mineralogical and Geological.

In 1857 the "Mineralogical and Geological Department"
was divided into the " Geological Department," under the former
Keeper, G. R. Waterhouse, and the " Mineralogical Depart-
ment," to which Prof. Story-Maskelyne was appointed as Keeper.

Subsequent changes were mainly in the personnel of the
staff, and were as follows :

On the retirement of Sir Richard Owen in 1884, he was
succeeded by Prof, (afterwards Sir William) Flower, with the
title of Director, and in 1898, on the retirement of the latter, by
the present Director.

The succeeding Keepers have been :

Botanical Department : J. J. Bennett (1859), W. Carruthers.
(1871), and G. R. M. Murray (1895).

Geological Department: H. Woodward (1880), and A. S.
Woodward (1901).

Mineralogical Department : L. Fletcher (1880).

Zoological Department : A. Gunther (1875). Since 1895,
the Director for the time being has been the Acting-Keeper of
Zoology.



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF OFFICERS, ASSISTANTS AND
OTHERS CONNECTED WITH THE NATURAL HISTORY
DEPARTMENTS.



The initial prefixed to the name indicates in which division of the establishment
the individual served B, Q-, M and Z standing for the several departments,
O for the " Director's Office," and L for the " General Library."

"ret" = retired. " f " is prefixed to the date of death.



Solander, D.



ASSISTANT KEEPEJ



Bimius, H. [|1757]

Hudson, W. [ret. 1758]
Planta, Rev. A. 3.

[transf. to Printed

Books, 1765]

Solander, D.



Justamond, J. O. [dis-
missed, 1778]
Maty, Rev. P. H.

Gray, E. W.

Woide, Rev. C. G.

[transf. to Printed

Books]

Shaw, G.



Empson,J.[fl765]



Maty, Matt,
[transf. from
Printed Books]

Solander, D.
[fl782]



Maty, Rev. P. H.
[t!787]

Gray,E.W.[tl806]



PRINCIPAL
LIBRARIAN.



Knight, G.

[t!772]



Maty, M. [f!776]



Morton, C.
[f!799]



Combe, T. [Keeper of
Antiq. in 1807]

1807. Antiquities and Coins were formed into a separate Department.
Konig, C. | Shaw, G. [|1813]

Leach, W.E. [ret. 1822] j Konig, C. [+18511
Samouelle, G. [? ret.
c. 1841]

Children, J. G. [transf.
from Antiq. Dept.,
1816-22]



Planta, J.

[f!827]



Gray, J. E.

(B) Bennett, J. J.

(Z) Gray, G. R.

(Z) White, A. [ret. 1863]



(B) Brown, Robt.
[fl858]



Ellis, H.
[ret. 1856]



1835. The " Botanical Branch " was formed by the transfer of the custody of the
Sloane Herbarium and other botanical collections to the custody of the " Keeper of
Sir Joseph Banks' Botanical Collections."

1837. The rest of the Department was sub-divided into the " Mineralo<ncal and
Geological Branch " and the " Zoological Branch."



Chronological List of Officers, etc.



XV



ASSISTANTS.


ASSISTANT KEEPERS.


KEEPERS.


SUPERINTEN-
DENT.


PRINCIPAL
LIBRARIAN.


1837




(Z) Children,








J. G. [ret. 1840]






1838 (G) Richardson, G. F.










[H848]










1839 (Z) Cooper, D. [super-










num. ret. 1840-1]










1840




(Z) Gray, J. E.










[ret. 1874]






1841 (Z) Baird, W. [f!872]










1842 (Z) Doubleday, E.










Ftl849]










1843 (G) Waterhouse, G. B.










1848 (G) Woodward, S. P.










r|1865]










1850 (Z) Smith, F.










1851




(G) Waterhouse,










G. B. [ret. 1880]






1856 (G) Sharman, B. [super-






Owen, B.


Panizzi, A.


mini., ret. 1857]




[ret. 1884]


[ret. 1866]



Coincident with the appointment of the Superintendent the several " Branches "
were turned into "Departments." In 1857 the " Mineralogical and Geological
Department " was sub-divided into the " Geological" and "Mineralogical" Depart-



1857




(M) Maskelyne,










M. H. N. Story-










tret. 1880]






1858 (Q) Woodward, H.










1859


(B) Carruthers, W.




(B) Bennet, J. J.












[ret. 1871]






1862


(Z) Giinther, A. C. L. G.













(M)Lang, V. von [ret.












1864]













(M) Davies, T. [first












joined establishment












1858. f!892]










1863


(Z) Butler, A. G.













O'Shaughnessy, A. W. E.












[first joined establish-












ment in 1861 (Printed












Books), was attached












to the Z. D. in 1863,












to G. D. in 1864, and












to the Superintendent












from 1865. f!881]










18GG


(Z) Waterhouse, C. 0.








Jones, J. W.












[ret. 1878]


1867


(Z) Smith, E. A.













(G) Bennett, L. D. [ret.












1869]













(M) Flight, W. [ret.












1885]










L869


(B) Trimen, H. [ret.












1879]











XVI



Chronological List of Officers, etc.











PRINCIPAL




ASSISTANTS.


ASSISTANT KEEPERS.


KEEPERS.


LIBRARIAN.


1869


(Q) Kent, W. Saville










[ret. 1873]













(Z) Gray, G. B.










[fl872]






1871


(B) Britten, J.




'B) Carruthers,
W. [ret. 1895]




1872


(Q) Gordon, G. D. H.










[ret. 1875]











(Z) Miers, E. J. [ret.










1885]











(Z) Sharpe, B. B.


(Z) Giinther,










A. C. L. G.






1875


(M) Lewis, W. J. [ret.
1877]


(Z) Smith, F.
[f!879]


(Z) Giinther,
A. C. L. G.










[ret. 1895]







(Q) Davies, W. [first










joined establishment










1843, ret. 1887]








1876
1878


(B) Murray, G. B. M.
(Z) Thomas, M. B. 0.






Bond, E. A.




[in office 1876-78]






[ret. 1888]





(M) Fletcher, L.








_


(Z) Bidley, S. 0. [ret.










1887]











(Z) Bell, F. J.











(Q) Etheridge, B. J.
[ret. 1887].








1879


(Z) Kirby, W. F.


(Z) Butler, A. G.






1880


(B) Bidley, H. N. [ret.
1888]


[ret. 1901]
(O) Taylor, J. T.
(Assist.-Secretary,


(G) Woodward,
H. [ret. 1901]








transferred from


(M) Fletcher, L.








Office, B. M., to










which he returned










in 1884.)









(G) Newton, B. B.











(B) Fawcett, W. [ret.










1886]











(M) Platnauer, H. M.










[ret. 1883]








1881


(O) Fagan, C. E. [Office,










B. M. 1873-81]











(O) Isaac, J. F. [Clerk]











(L) Woodward, B. B.
[Printed Books 1876-










81]













(G) Etheridge, B.



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