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A GUIDE TO THE EXHIBITION ***




Produced by deaurider, Lesley Halamek, Stephen Rowland and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net









A GUIDE TO THE EXHIBITION ILLUSTRATING GREEK AND ROMAN LIFE.

_SECOND EDITION._

[Illustration:

_Frontispiece._ TERRACOTTA BOATS FROM AMATHUS (p. 34).
]




BRITISH MUSEUM.

DEPARTMENT OF GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.


A GUIDE

TO THE EXHIBITION ILLUSTRATING

GREEK AND ROMAN LIFE.

_SECOND EDITION._


WITH A FRONTISPIECE AND TWO HUNDRED AND
SIXTY-FOUR ILLUSTRATIONS.

LONDON:


PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES.

1920.




LONDON:
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
DUKE STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.E. 1,
AND GREAT WINDMILL STREET, W. 1.




ERRATA.


P. 121, l.17. _For_ =339= _read_ =339*=

Pp. 143, 144, 145. _For_ =421-426= _read_ =421*-426*=

P. 216 near foot. _For_ =655= _read_ =655*=




PREFACE.


In this Exhibition an attempt has been made to bring together a number
of miscellaneous antiquities which formed a part of the collections of
the Department, in such a method as illustrates the purpose for
which they were intended, rather than their artistic quality, their
material, or their place in the evolution of craft or design.

Such a series falls naturally into groups, and it has been found
convenient to treat these groups in accordance with a general scheme,
the illustration of the public and private life of the Greeks and
Romans.

The materials forming the basis of this scheme are, primarily, objects
which already formed part of the Museum collections: for this reason
it has not been possible always to preserve that proportion in the
relation of the sections to the whole which would have been studied
if the objects had been selected for acquisition with this purpose
in view. Further, it is necessary to warn visitors that they must not
expect to find the subject in any sense exhaustively treated here:
the complete illustration of every detail of ancient life would be
impossible for any museum as at present constituted. All that can here
be done is to shape the available material into a system which may at
least present a fairly intelligible, if limited, view of ancient
life. Several new acquisitions, made since the appearance of the first
edition of this Guide, have strengthened the exhibition in directions
in which it was deficient, and it is hoped that this process will be
continued. Meanwhile, some of the gaps have been filled by means of
casts and reproductions of objects belonging to other categories in
this Museum, or preserved elsewhere.

The preparation of the first edition of this Guide (1908) was
entrusted to different members of the Departmental Staff. Mr. Yeames
prepared a great deal of the necessary preliminary work: Mr.
Walters wrote the sections on Athletics, the Circus, Gladiators, and
Agriculture: Mr. Forsdyke those on Coins, Arms and Armour, Dress
and the Toilet. The remaining sections were mainly the work of Mr.
Marshall.

In the present edition the section on Arms and Armour has been
re-written by Mr. Forsdyke, and the remainder has been mainly revised
by myself. The proofs have been read by Mr. Walters and Mr. Forsdyke.

A. H. SMITH.

BRITISH MUSEUM,
_March, 1920._




CONTENTS.

_The references in brackets are to the numbers of the Figures._


PAGE

INTRODUCTION 1


I. POLITICAL INSCRIPTIONS AND SLAVERY 1

Treaties, etc. (1); Proxenia Decrees (2-3);
Dikasts' Tickets and Ostraka (4-6);
Votive Arms (7-8); Military Diploma (9_a_, 9_b_);
Corn Largesse (10); Slaves (11).


II. COINS 14

Greek Coins (12); Roman Coins (13-15).


III. DRAMA 25

Greek Comedy (16); Roman Plays (17-18); Actors
and Masks (19-22).


IV. SHIPPING 33

Greek Shipping (Frontispiece and 23-26); Roman
Shipping (27-28).


V. RELIGION AND SUPERSTITION 39

Implements and Methods of Worship. Votive
Altars (29); Sacrifices and Apparatus (30-31);
Prayer; Theoxenia (32); Augury; Shrines (33-34).

Votive Offerings (35-45).

Superstition and Magic. Magical Inscriptions;
Bronze Hand (46).


VI. ATHLETICS 58

Pugilism (47); Sports of the Pentathlon (48-51);
Boxing Gloves (52); Prize Vase (53).


VII. GLADIATORS AND THE ARENA 64

Types of Gladiator (54-58); Helmet (59); Tesserae
(60); Animal Contests (61).


VIII. CHARIOT-RACING AND THE CIRCUS 70

Chariots in the Circus, and Charioteers (62-65).


IX. ARMS AND ARMOUR 74

Early Armour (66); Helmets (67-79); Cuirasses
(80-85); Greaves, etc. (86-89); Shields (90);
Standards (91-93).

Early Weapons. Mycenaean Swords and Daggers
(94-96); Mycenaean Spears and Arrows (97-98);
Early Italian Swords and Spears (99-100); Greek
Swords (101-105); Greek and Roman Spears (106-108);
Roman Swords (109); Sling-shot and Arrowheads
(110-111); Calthrop (112).


X. HOUSE AND FURNITURE 109

General Furniture. Couch (113).

Lighting. Lampstands (114-115); Lamps (116-119);
Candlesticks and Lanterns (120-123).

The Kitchen. Implements. Fish Plate (124).

The Bath. Strigils (125-126); Water Supply.
Pumps (127-128); Heating. Shapes of Vases.


XI. DRESS AND TOILET 122

Greek Female Dress (129-133); Greek Male Dress
(134-138); Roman Dress (139-140); Footwear (141-2);
Fibulae (143-158).

Jewellery. Bracelets (159); Earrings (160);
Bullae, Necklaces, Studs, Pins (161-163).

Toilet. Combs (164); Toilet Boxes (165);
Mirrors; Razors (166-168); Miscellanea (169-170).


XII. DOMESTIC ARTS 142

Spinning and Weaving (171-177); Sewing Implements
(178-182); Cutlery (183); Locks and Keys
(184-190); Seals (191).


XIII. TRADE 158

Shops (192-193).


XIV. WEIGHTS AND SCALES 159

Greek Weights (194-195); Roman Weights;
Scales and Steelyards (196-200).


XV. TOOLS, BUILDING AND SCULPTURE 166

Tools (201); Building Materials (202-203).


XVI. HORSES AND CHARIOTS 169

Chariots and Carts (204-205); Horse Trappings
(206-208).


XVII. AGRICULTURE 174

Ploughs (209); Wine Making (210); Olive Harvest
(211-212); Goat-herd, etc. (213).


XVIII. INDUSTRIAL ARTS 180

Metal-working (214-215); Pottery (216-222);
Gems and Pastes; Wood-working; Lathe-work.


XIX. MEDICINE AND SURGERY 185

Greek and Roman Medicine (223-226).


XX. MEASURES AND INSTRUMENTS 191

Measures (227); Compasses (228); Stamps (229).


XXI. INFANCY. TOYS 193

Infants (230-231); Dolls, etc. (232-234); Tops (235).


XXII. EDUCATION, WITH WRITING AND PAINTING 197

Reading and Writing Lessons (236-238); Arithmetic;
Writing Materials (239-241); Painting.


XXIII. GAMES 203

Knucklebones (242-243); Dice (244); Ivory
Pieces (245).


XXIV. MARRIAGE 207

Greek Marriage (246-249); Roman Marriage
(250-251).


XXV. MUSIC AND DANCING 213

Musical Instruments. Kithara and Lyre (252-253);
Flutes and Cymbals (254); Dancing (255).


XXVI. DOMESTIC AND PET ANIMALS; FLOWERS 218

Performing Animals (256); Flowers.


XXVII. METHODS OF BURIAL 220

Greek Burials (257-258); Italian Burials. Hut
Urns (259); Canopic Urn (260); Funeral Masks
(261); Etruscan Urn (262); Roman Burials and
Funeral Urns (263); Roman Grave Relief (264).




GREEK AND ROMAN LIFE


The exhibition is arranged in the central rectangle of what was
formerly the Etruscan Saloon; it includes Wall-Cases =25-64=,
=94-119=, and Table-Cases =E-K=. The subject naturally divides itself
into the two chief headings of public and domestic institutions, and
each of these occupies one half of the room. On the West side are
grouped the sections relating mainly to Public Life, on the East those
of Private Life: of the former, the section illustrating the monetary
system of the ancients and its development naturally leads up to
the Department of Coins and Medals. For the general scheme of the
exhibition, reference should be made to the Table of Contents.

NOTE. - _The references at the end of each section correspond
to the numbers of the objects in this Guide. These numbers,
which are placed near the objects in the Cases, are
distinguished by being in red upon a white ground. Numbers
attached to the objects (such as B 77 on a vase) refer to
the British Museum Catalogues, which should be consulted for
fuller details than can be given in the Guide._




I. - POLITICAL INSCRIPTIONS AND SLAVERY.

(Table-Case K.)


A section of Table-Case K contains a series of inscriptions which
illustrate various sides of Greek and Roman political life.

It must be borne in mind that the Greek state was generally of very
small dimensions. As a rule all life was centred within a city, which
had but a moderate extent of outlying country. Aristotle describes the
perfect city or state (the words are interchangeable) as the union
of several villages, supplying all that is necessary for independent
life.[1] Greece, though small in area, was thus divided up into a
large number of states, whose interests were constantly in conflict.
It thus came about that it was provided with systems of treaties,
arbitrations, and consular representation such as marked a fully
developed international system.

=Treaties.= - The bronze tablet No. =1= dates probably from the
second half of the sixth century B.C., at a time when the Eleians and
Heraeans of Arcadia were still dwelling in villages, and were not yet
united each into a single city. It is written in the Aeolic dialect of
Elis, and records a treaty between the two peoples named. There was to
be a close alliance between them in respect of all matters of common
interest, whether of peace or war. Any breach of the treaty, or any
damage to the inscription recording the treaty, would involve a fine
of a talent of silver to be paid by the offender to Olympian Zeus,
the supreme Greek deity. The tablet was brought from Olympia by Sir
William Gell in 1813.

No. =2= is a cast of a similar treaty between the communities of the
Anaiti and Matapii, for a fifty years' friendship. In case of a breach
of the treaty the priests at Olympia have arbitrators' powers.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. - TREATY OF CHALEION AND OEANTHEIA. (NO. 3.)]

No. =3= (fig. 1) is a bronze tablet, with a ring at one end for
suspension, recording a treaty made between the cities of Chaleion and
Oeantheia on the Gulf of Corinth. It is in the Lokrian dialect, and
can be dated to about 440 B.C. The main object of the treaty was
to regulate the practice of reprisals between the citizens of the
respective towns, and, in particular, to prevent injury to foreign
merchants visiting either port. There are also provisions for ensuring
a fair trial to aliens. The tablet was found at Oeantheia (Galaxidi),
and was formerly in the Woodhouse collection.

=Colonization.= - This was a feature of peculiar importance in Greek
life. In the course of the eighth and seventh centuries B.C. numerous
colonists had left their homes on the mainland of Greece or on the
coast of Asia Minor, and had settled principally in Southern Italy
and Sicily, or round the shores of the Black Sea. The reasons for
such emigration were sometimes political, but more often commercial.
Between the mother-city and the colony relations of an intimate
character were almost invariably maintained. Representatives from
either city attended the more important festivals held in the other
town, and the daughter-city not infrequently sought the advice of the
mother-city in times of difficulty and danger. The inscription on the
bronze tablet No. =4= illustrates the way in which colonists left one
Greek state to settle in another comparatively near at hand, and
also shows the relations existing between the colonists and the
mother-state. At a date probably previous to 455 B.C. colonists from
the Opuntian or Eastern Lokrians (inhabiting a district lying opposite
to the island of Euboea) left their homes to settle in Naupaktos, a
town situated on the narrowest part of the Gulf of Corinth, in the
territory of the Western Lokrians. The question arose as to how far
the colonists were to remain in connection with the mother-country.
The tablet shows that the settlers had the privilege of enjoying full
social and religious rights on revisiting their native city, although
during their absence they were exempt from paying taxes to it.
Under certain conditions they might resume their residence in the
mother-state without fee, and they also had a right to inherit
property left by a near relative in that state. Other provisions deal
with judicial arrangements affecting the new settlers.

=Proxenia.= - Just as modern states appoint consuls in foreign
countries in order that the interests of their citizens abroad may be
protected, so the various Greek cities appointed their representatives
in different foreign states. These representatives were chosen from
the citizens of the town in which they acted, and their appointment
was regarded as a special honour, carrying with it substantial
privileges. The main functions of the _proxeni_ were those of
dispensing hospitality to travellers and assisting them in cases of
difficulty, and of receiving ambassadors arriving from the state which
they represented. They were also expected generally to further that
state's commercial interests.

[Illustration: FIG. 2. - GRANT OF _proxenia_ TO DIONYSIOS (NO. 5). Ht.
12-7/8 in.]

Two bronze tablets recording decrees of _proxenia_, passed by the
people of Corcyra, are here exhibited. No. =5= (fig. 2), probably of
the end of the fourth century B.C., records the grant of _proxenia_
to Dionysios, son of Phrynichos, an Athenian.[2] It mentions the date,
the appointment, and the right of possessing land and house property
in Corcyra, the last evidently a reward granted to the _proxenos_
for his services. No. =6= (fig. 3), of about 200 B.C., is a grant of
_proxenia_ to Pausanias, son of Attalos, a citizen of Ambrakia.[3]
He is accorded the usual honours, and the Treasurer is directed to
provide the money for the engraving of the decree on bronze. Both
these tablets were found in Corfu, the modern name of the ancient
Corcyra. The persons appointed acted, of course, in Athens and
Ambrakia respectively.

[Illustration: FIG. 3. - GRANT OF _proxenia_ TO PAUSANIAS (NO. 6). Ht.
8-7/8 in.]

=Law-courts at Athens.= - One of the most striking features of
democratic Athens was its elaborate machinery for the administration
of justice. The system of popular control began in the fifth century
B.C., and reached its full development in the fourth. For petty
offences the various magistrates had the power of inflicting a small
fine, but graver charges were usually decided by a jury court. Those
who composed these jury courts were called _dikastae_. They were
chosen at first up to the number of six thousand from the entire body
of citizens over thirty years of age, but later on apparently any
citizen over thirty years of age was a qualified juryman. From the
time of Perikles each juryman received three obols (about 5d.) a
day for his services. The whole body of jurymen was divided into ten
sections, each of which was distinguished by one of the first ten
letters of the Greek alphabet (A to K). Each dikast received a ticket
([Greek: pinakion]), at first of bronze, but in Aristotle's day of
boxwood, inscribed with his name, his parish, and the number of his
section. In Aristotle's day the father's name was always given as
well.[4] Four of these dikasts' tickets (in bronze) are exhibited in
this case, together with a fragment of a fifth. Upwards of eighty are
known, all apparently belonging to the fourth century B.C. The tickets
shown are:

[Illustration: FIG. 4. - TICKET OF THUKYDIDES (NO. 10). L. 4-1/4 in.]

No. =7=, which belonged to Deinias of Halae, of the third section
([Greek: G]). The ticket is stamped with the Athenian symbol of an owl
within an olive wreath, two owls with one head, and a Gorgoneion.

No. =8=, belonging to Archilochos of Phaleron, of the fifth section
([Greek: E]).

No. =9=, belonging to Aristophon, son of Aristodemos, of Kothokidae.
His was the third section ([Greek: G]).

No. =10=, the ticket of Thukydides of Upper Lamptrae (fig. 4). He
belonged to the sixth section ([Greek: Z]). The ticket bears the
symbols of an owl within an olive wreath, and a Gorgoneion.

The lowest fragment is part of a ticket belonging to Philochares of
Acharnae of the fifth section.

[Illustration: FIG. 5. - INSCRIBED POTSHERDS (OSTRAKA) AT ATHENS (NO.
11).]

=Ostracism.= - This was a peculiar device adopted by Greek city-states
for getting temporary relief from the influence of prominent citizens,
whose presence was for the time being considered undesirable. At
Athens ostracism was introduced by the statesman Kleisthenes about 508
B.C. The method of effecting it was as follows. The popular assembly
(Ekklesia) first decided whether they desired that ostracism should
be carried out. If they considered it expedient, they met and recorded
their vote. The name of the person they most wished to get rid of
was written on a potsherd (ostrakon), and if six thousand votes were
recorded against any one name, that man had to go into banishment for
ten years. In Case K is a coloured illustration (No. =11=) of three
ostraka found at Athens (fig. 5). The names written on the sherds are
well known in Greek history. _Themistokles_ (fig. 5_a_), of the deme
Phrearri, was the creator of Athenian sea-power. In consequence of
this ostracism (ca. 471 B.C.) he died an exile at Magnesia on
the Maeander. _Megakles_ (fig. 5_b_) of the deme Alopeke, son of
Hippokrates and uncle of Perikles, was ostracised in 487 B.C. as
"a friend of the tyrants." In the next year, 486 B.C., was banished
_Xanthippos_ (fig. 5_c_), son of Arriphron and father of Perikles,
on the ground of undue prominence. The Museum collection contains no
ostraka of historic importance, but the potsherd inscribed by one Teos
(No. =12=) gives an idea of the actual object (fig. 6).

[Illustration: FIG. 6. - POTSHERD OF TEOS (NO. 12).]

=Dedications for Victory.= - The dedication in a temple of a part of
the spoils of victory was not merely a religious observance. It was
also the formal entering of a claim to victory. The Etruscan helmet
(No. =13=) dedicated at Olympia by Hieron of Syracuse, is an example
(fig. 7). It was found at Olympia in 1817, and was presented to the
Museum by King George the Fourth. On the side is a votive inscription:

[Illustration]

[Illustration: FIG. 7. - ETRUSCAN HELMET DEDICATED AT OLYMPIA BY HIERON
AND THE SYRACUSANS (NO. 13). 1:4.]

[Greek: Hiarôn ho Deinomeneos kai toi Syrakosioi tô Di Tyran' apo
Kymas] - "_Hieron son of Deinomenes and the Syracusans offer to Zeus
Etruscan spoils from Kyme_." Hieron was tyrant of Syracuse from 478 to
467 B.C., in succession to his brother Gelon, and was one of the most
prominent figures of the age. Gelon had nobly upheld the supremacy of
the Greeks in the west by destroying a Carthaginian host at Himera, in
the same year and, as the tale went, on the same day as the battle
of Salamis. Hieron added to the brilliance of the Sicilian court, and
signalised his naval power in the great repulse of the Etruscans. The
ancient city of Kyme, near Naples, the earliest Greek colony in the
west, was hard pressed by the neighbouring barbarians and by the
civilised and powerful state of Etruria. The Greeks appealed for
help to Hieron, and he sent them a fleet of warships, which beat the
Etruscans in sight of the citadel of Kyme, and broke their sea-power
for ever (474 B.C.). From the arms and treasure taken in the battle
Hieron made the customary offering in the Temple of Zeus at Olympia,
and this helmet with its eloquent inscription was part of the
dedicated spoil.

For other votive helmets see below, p. 76.

The votive spear-head, No. =14=, dedicated by an unknown Theodoros to
(Zeus) Basileus, about 500 B.C., was probably found at Olympia. The
occasion of the dedication is unknown, but it nearly resembles No.
=15= (cast), which was dedicated at Olympia by the Methanians as
spoil from the Lacedaemonians.[5] The original is at Berlin. Several
spear-heads of this type have been found. They do not seem to be
effective for use in battle, and they are therefore supposed to
have been specially made for dedicatory purposes. It has also been
suggested that they are spear-butts, but this does not seem probable.

[Illustration: [Greek: Theodôros anethêke Basilei.]

FIG. 8. - SPEAR-HEAD DEDICATED BY THEODOROS TO (ZEUS) BASILEUS. (NO.
14). 1:3.]

=Emblem of Office.= - The bronze caduceus (No. =17=), (familiar as the
emblem of the herald Mercury), is inscribed "I belong to the people
of Longene," and was apparently the staff of the public herald of that
town. It was found in a tomb in Sicily, and is of the fifth century
B.C. The device is in the form of a staff, surmounted by a pair of
intertwined serpents.

=Roman military Life.= - This is illustrated by two of the Latin
inscriptions here shown. The oblong bronze tablet No. =18= (figs.
9_a_ and 9_b_) is part of a Roman _diploma_, a document recording
privileges in respect of citizenship and rights of marriage granted to
a veteran soldier. The _diploma_ derived its name from the fact that
it was composed of two tablets hinged together.

[Illustration: FIG. 9_a_. - FRAGMENT OF A BRONZE _diploma_ (NO. 18).
Ht. 5-1/2 in.]

We have in the present instance only the left side of one of the
tablets. The right side, which had two holes for the metal rings
attaching it to the other tablet, has been broken away. The
inscription[6] is a copy of one originally engraved on bronze and set
up on the wall behind the temple of Augustus _ad Minervam_ at Rome. It
is headed with the names of M. Julius Philippus, the Emperor, and of
his son, who had the title of Caesar. This is followed by the grant
of full matrimonial rights to the soldiers of ten cohorts and by the
date, equivalent to Jan. 7th, 246 A.D. Next comes the name of the
individual soldier to whom this copy of the original inscription was
given, one Neb. Tullius, a veteran of the fifth praetorian cohort
of Philip at Aelia Mursa in Pannonia. The grant of full matrimonial
privileges was a considerable one, for it meant that the veteran's
wife and children gained the privileges of Roman citizens, if, as was
often the case, the wife was not possessed of citizen rights at the
time of marriage. The two holes in the middle of the tablet were used
for the wire thread, which was passed round the tablets three times
according to the usual official custom, and had the seals of seven
witnesses affixed to it. Fig. 9_b_ is a restoration showing the
original form of the document opened, the exterior of the two tablets
being seen. This _diploma_ was found in Piedmont. Parts of similar


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