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NYU IFA LIBRARY



3 1162 04538700 9



BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY

IN EGYPT

AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT
TWENTIETH YEAR, 1914



LAHUN I

THE TREASURE



BY



GUY BRUNTON



LONDON

SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, GOWER STREET, W.C.



AND



BERNARD QUARITCH
11 GRAFTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, W.

1920



The

Stephen Chan

Library

of
Fine Arts




NEW YORK UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

A private university in the public service

INSTITUTE OF FINE ARTS



1 : 1



LAHUN. PECTORAL OF SENUSERT II, AND AMETHYST NECKLACE.




111'"*

■ M0 J- 1 ^ J' \\ 1\



BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT

AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT

TWENTIETH YEAR, 1914



LAHUN I

THE TREASURE



BY

GUY BRUNTON



LONDON
BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, GOWER STREET, W.C.

AND

BERNARD QUARITCH, n GRAFTON STREET, NEW BOND STREET, W.

1920



PRINTED BY

HAZELL, WATSON AND VINEY, LD.,

LOr^DON AND AYLESBURY.



INST' TS

NF ' TY



5-7



f\ -y



BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT
AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT

PATRON:
F.-M. VISCOUNT ALLENBY, G.C.B., G.C.M.G.



GENERAL COMMITTEE (* Executive Members)



Lord Abercromby

Henry Balfour

Rev. Dr. T. G. Bonney

Prof. R. C. Bosanquet

Rt. Hon. Viscount Bryce of

Dechmont
*Prof. J. B. Bury
•Somers Clarke
Edward Clodd
Sir W. Boyd Dawkins
Prof. Sir S. Dill
•Miss Eckenstein
Sir Gregory Foster
Sir James Frazer
•Prof. Ernest Gardner
Prof. Percy Gardner



Rt. Hon. Sir George T. Goldie

Dr. Gowland

Mrs. J. R. Green

Rt. Hon. F.-M. Lord Grenfell

Mrs. F. Ll. Griffith

Dr. A. C. Haddon

Dr. Jesse Haworth

Rev. Dr. A. C. Headlam

D. G. Hogarth

•Basil Holmes

Sir Henry H. Howorth

Baron A. von Hugel

Prof. A. S. Hunt

Mrs. C. H. W. Johns

Sir Henry Miers



Honorary Treasurer— *H. Sefton-Jones

Honorary Director — Prof. P"linders Petrie

Honorary Secretary — Mrs. H. F. Petrie



J. G. Milne

Robert Mond

Prof. Montague

Walter Morrison

•Miss M. A. Murray

P. E. Newberry

F. W. Percival

Dr. Pinches

Dr. G. W. Prothero

Dr. G. A. Reisner

Sir William Richmond

Prof. F. W. Ridgeway

Mrs. Strong

Lady Tirard

E. Towry Whyte



AMERICAN BRANCH

THE EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT

President
James Henry Breasted, Ph.D.



Francis Brown, Ph.D., D.D., LL.D.
William J. Holland, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D.
Edmund J. James, Ph.D., LL.D.



Vice-Presidents

F. W. Shipley, Ph.D.

Charles F. Thwing, D.D., LL.D.

Benjamin Ide Wheeler, Ph.D., L.H.D., LL.D



William Copley Winslow, Ph.D., L.H.D., LL.D.

Hon. Secretary
Prof. Mitchell Carroll, Ph.D.

Hon. Treasurer
Rev. William C. Winslow, D.D,



fcj



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I



THE WORK AND THE SITE



SECT.

i. Introduction

2. The Workers

3. The Site





SECT.




PAGE




23. Tomb 8. The clearing . - .


• 17




*4-


, Sarcophagus and coffins


. 18


.r


25-


, Contents of sarcophagus


. l8


7


26.


, Canopic chest


• 19


7


27-


, Canopic jars .


. 19


7


28.


Contents of canopic jars


. 20




29.


, Stone with Queen's titles


. 20




30.


, Discussion of khnumt ncjo


' hczt . 20




3i.


, Pottery, etc..


. 22





CHAPTER


II














DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMBS






CHAPTER IV




4-
5-


Tomb 9. Shaft and stairway .
,, Upper tomb .




. 8
. 8




THE EXCAVATION OF THE JEWELLERY


6.


,, Lower tomb






• 9


32.


Catalogue of the jewellery


. 22


7-


,, Conclusions






• 9


33-


Method of working and condition of


8.


Tomb 10. Upper tomb






• 9




materials ....


. 22


9-


Lower tomb






. 10


34-


The various areas in the recess defint


d . 23


10.


,, The water pit






. 10


35-


Contents of Area B (Crown group) .


. 24


11.


,, Conclusions






. 11


36.


11 ,. c ...


. 24


12.


Tomb 7






. 11


37-


,, ,, D (alabasters)


• 25


13-


Tomb 8






. 12


38-


,, ,, E (Jewel Casket) .


• 25








39-


Area F .


. 26




CHAPTER III






CHAPTER V






THE CONTENTS OF THE TOMBS






DESCRIPTION OF THE JEWELLER


Y


14-


Tomb 9. Late pottery .


. 12


40.


Preface ......


. 26


15-


Tomb 10. Sacrificial deposit




. 12


41.


The crown and gold ring beads .


. 26


16.


,, Pyramid pottery




• 13


42.


The pectorals ....


. 28


17-


,, Pyramid lamps




• 13


43-


The drop-beads ....


. 29


18.


,, Beads under blocking st


ones . 13


44-


The gold necklaces and gold lions


• 30


19.


Tomb 7. Sarcophagus and coffins


. 14


45-


The other beads


• 33


20.


,, Contents of sarcophagus


• 15


46.


The clasps ....


• 34


21.


,, Canopic chest and contei


its . 16


47-


The bracelets and anklets


• 34


22.


„ Pottery, etc.


.





• 17


48


The scarabs ....


• 35



CONTENTS



49. The toilet objects and alabasters

50. The jewel casket and alabaster box

51. The plain box

CHAPTER VI

52. Probable order of the four tombs

53. Different dates of the jewellery

Index



36
37

4i



4i
42



sect. page

54. But not two sets . . . . 42

55. Is the crown a ceremonial one ? . -42

56. The jewellery all personal . . .42

57. Alterations in the jewellery . . .42

58. Close resemblance to Meryt's jewellery . 43

59. The designs of the pectorals . . -43

60. Senusert III not mentioned . . -43

61. The robbing of the tomb . . . -43



LIST OF PLATES



SEE PAGES
28,33

3i, 32, 35
30, 32

33. 34, 35
. 26
28, 29



i. Pectoral of Senusert II

ii. Lion's-head necklace .

iii. Cowry necklace .

iv. Bracelets and anklets .

v. Crown ....

vi. Backs of the pectorals

vii. Drop-beads, rhomb-beads, and lazuli

scarab .... 29, ^, 36

viii. Amethyst and claw necklace . 32, 33, 39

ix. Alabaster and obsidian vases . 36, 37

x. Razors and gold ring-beads . . 27, 36

xi. Mirror, pectoral of Amenemhat III, etc.

29. 36, 37. 38



Xll.

xiii.

xiv.
xv.

xvi.

xvii.
xviii.

xix.
xx.

xxi.

xxii.
xxiii.



Plan of recess, and reconstruction of

casket
Details of jewellery
Canopic jars

Inscriptions : Queen's titles
Views of Tomb 8
Views of Tomb 9
Pottery



SEE PAGE*



Lamps and tools
Tomb plans

General plan



• 37
15.34
. 19
. 20

12, 18
. 8

13. 17
13, 17

• 13

• 9
8, 9, 11, 12



THE TREASURE OF LAHUN



CHAPTER I



THE WORK AND THE SITE



I. The work of the British School of Archaeology
in Egypt during the winter of 1913-14 was carried
on at two different localities. Professor Petrie,
on 6th Dec. 1913, began operations round the
pyramid of Lahun, near the entrance to the Fayum ;
this work closed on 9th April. Mr. Engelbach's camp
was at Harageh, five miles away.

Pyramid work in 1889-90 had proved the
builder to be Senusert II, and had disclosed an
entrance into the pyramid on the S.E. (see
plan, Petrie, Illahun, pi. ii) ; this, however, was too
small to admit the sarcophagus, which is still in
position in the burial chamber. A passage running
south led to the foot of another shaft which required
investigation, as well as a pit filled with water
close to the foot of the entrance shaft (see Well,
pi. xxiii). In view of subsequent discoveries round
the xiith dynasty pyramids at Dahshur and Lisht,
it was obviously most desirable to move all the
debris which encumbered the site, and search every
foot of rock surface within the brick enclosure wall
for possible royal tombs.

This programme was carried out, and the pyramid
with its surrounding constructions completely
planned, while a considerable number of tombs in
the adjoining cemeteries were examined, though
with poor results. The delay in the publication of
the season's work, owing to the war, has been so
great, that it was considered advisable to place an
account of the discovery of the princesses' tombs
with the great find of jewellery, in the hands of
students as quickly as possible after the cessation
of hostilities, and to hold back the record of the
rest of the work for next year's volume.

My thanks are due to Professor Petrie for his
unfailing help in the preparation and revision of
this work ; to Miss M. A. Murray, Mr. H. E. Win-
lock, and Mr. Battiscombe Gunn for many sugges-



tions ; and to my wife, who has done much of the
drawing, and all the inking in of the plates.

2. The party of workers at the Pyramid comprised
Professor and Mrs. Flinders Petrie, Mr. C. T. Cam-
pion, and Mr. and Mrs. Guy Brunton ; while Dr.
Walter Amsden, Mr. R. Engelbach, Mr. F. Frost,
Mr. Battiscombe Gunn, and the late Mr. D. Willey
divided their work between Harageh and Lahun.

Beside the nucleus of men and boys from Quft,
a large gang of natives was engaged from the
neighbouring villages of Lahun, Hawara, and Ham-
mam. The clearing of the pyramid site lasted from
6th Jan. to 31st March 1914, and a further three
weeks were spent on tombs in the vicinity.

The tomb-planning was largely the work of Mrs.
Petrie, while Mrs. Brunton did the greater part of
the drawing. Mr. Campion's share consisted in
supervision of the workmen, and in care of the
antiquities discovered. Professor Petrie, in addition
to the general direction of the work, surveyed and
planned the whole site. He also took most of the
photographs. The general management and record-
ing fell to me. Mr. Engelbach helped us with his
engineering skill when the water in the pyramid
well had to be dealt with, and in other matters.

3. The rock formation of the site consists of a
soft marl, with veins of sulphate of lime. This is
in places overlaid with a hard compact limestone.
The ground on the S.E. of the pyramid is of
this hard rock, while the marl outcrops all over
the S.W. of the pyramid enclosure, and also
on the east. The site was originally a rocky slope,
high on north and east ; this slope was levelled by
cutting down into the rock, and building up the
wide area of the temenos around the pyramid with
chips on the S.E. The full details of the con-
struction will be given in a subsequent volume,
but some description is necessary in order to under-
stand the relation of the tombs of the princesses to
the pyramid itself.

The plan of the southern part of the area is given



8



DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMBS



in pi. xxiii. The pyramid was immediately sur-
rounded by a wide and shallow trench filled anciently
with clean sand and enclosed by a stone wall.
This, again, was encompassed by a brick wall 16
.feet thick and some 30 feet high at the N.W.,
while only a course or two at best remained on the
south. Outside this, a single line of trees had been
planted in circular pits sunk in the rock and filled
with soil. In the space between the stone and brick
walls, on the south, lay the four shaft tombs for
members of the royal family.

These tombs, with the pyramid shaft opened in
the previous excavations, are the only pits that
have been found in the enclosure. Reference to
the general plan in pi. xxiii will show the position
of these tombs, where they are numbered 9, 7, 10,
and 8. The pyramid shaft appears just inside the
stone wall. The " trench " marked on the plan to
the east of the shaft is for the foundation of the
stone wall, not the sand-filled trench referred to
above.



CHAPTER II

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMBS

Tomb 9. The Stairway Tomb

4. The construction of this tomb is very curious
in more than one respect, there being two distinct
sets of chambers, and two modes of entrance. The
plans and sections are given on pi. xxii. There
are no remains whatever of any buildings on the
surface, which is here soft marl, neither stone chip-
pings nor signs of brickwork. There still remains
a course or two of the pyramid enclosure wall close
by to the south, though it has entirely disappeared
further westward. It seems possible, therefore,
that no mastabas in connection with these tombs
ever existed here, a point which is strengthened by
the irregularity in the position of the four shafts
with regard to each other. There is no sign of a
system in their arrangement.

All the shafts are of the usual type, rectangular in
plan to allow of the sarcophagus and coffins being
lowered horizontally. They show no traces of a
brick lining, the rock for the upper portion being
of good quality. There is no evidence as to how
the shafts were closed, whether they were filled in
or were roofed over. The debris at the mouth of
the shaft of Tomb 9 contained animal bones, but



too fragmentary for identification ; and it was
impossible to determine the reason of their presence
there.

The shaft is sunk into soft marl, and is 36 ft.
5 in. deep. The unusual feature of this tomb is
the long stairway of forty-four steps, descending to
the east until it reaches the foot of the shaft, where
it turns to the north with a further five steps. The
steps are roughly cut in the rock, and some 75 inches
in width (pi. xvii). The shaft was sunk first, and
the steps later, as they curve somewhat to the
south so as to strike the foot of the shaft. Near
the surface in the rubbish at the head of the stair-
way, some fragments of wood were found, which
Professor Petrie considered might conceivably have
come from a trap-door. A view looking up the
steps is given in pi. xvii, 3. The stairway was ap-
parently intended to descend in a tunnel, but the
rock for the first half seems to have fallen in, and
left the passage open to the air. PI. xvii, 2, shows
the bottom of the shaft looking down eastward
through what is left of the tunnel. The poor
nature of the rock is well shown here and in 4.

5. The two tombs to which these entrances led
may be referred to as the upper and lower tombs.
The upper tomb (see pi. xxii for plan and sections) ,
which was at the level of the foot of the shaft, is
separated from it by a secondary shaft H descending
for a further 13 feet. It consists of a main chamber
D', with the canopic recess C, and offering chamber
E, opening out of it to the east. It has been pre-
pared to receive its fine limestone walls and floor,
and possibly roof as well, but there are no traces of
demolition, and it would seem that the masons had
never completed their work.

Underneath the main chamber D' is another one,
D", which has only been roughly hollowed out, and
the purpose of this is unknown. It may be
noted here that the slope of the stairway, when it
turns north, is roughly such that it would have
reached the floor level of chamber D" at its entrance
if the secondary shaft had not been sunk.

A rather distorted view into this upper tomb,
showing the canopic recess C with the ledges and
cuttings made to receive the limestone casing and
flooring, was taken from the south edge of the second-
ary shaft, and is given in pi. xvii, 4.

The secondary shaft drops down from the edge
of the last stair. The rock above has all fallen in
(see section pi. xxii) ; originally it would have been
more or less level with the roof of D'. Opening



THE STAIRWAY TOMB



out of the shaft on the west is a rather roughly-
cut chamber, the walls of which are not smoothed.
Out of it leads a long corridor, J', running north for
40 feet, leading to the lower tomb. The walls of
the corridor are slightly smoothed, but not prepared
to receive a stone facing.

6. In the lower tomb itself the usual parts are
all present (see pi. xxii for plan and 3 sections) ;
but the plan differs from that of the upper one.
The end of the corridor forms what may be called
the antechamber J". This feature is absent in the
first tomb, owing to the sinking of the secondary
shaft. To the north of J", and opening out of it,
lies the main chamber M, with the two recesses,
that for the canopies, K, being on the south instead
of on the east, while the offering chamber, N, is
in the same relative position and of the same shape
as that above, E.

The antechamber and the main chamber have
been walled and roofed with fine white limestone
slabs, unsculptured and uninscribed ; the two
recesses are not lined, the rock walls being only
roughly smoothed. The ceiling of J" is flat, that of
M has a slight vault, the roofing slabs being hollowed
as shown in the sections. The main chamber had
also been carefully paved with limestone slabs
resting on the marl. These have been mostly
broken up, leaving a ledge all round as shown in
the plan. In the S.W. corner is a curious trench
cut through the floor and into the rock, as shown
in the plan and section.

This would appear to be the work of the spoilers,
who have pulled up most of the flooring, and also
amused themselves by scrawling on the white
ceiling with their sooty lamp flames. More elaborate
drawings of apparently the same class were found
on the walls of the chamber in the pyramid of
Senusert III (De Morgan, Dahchour II, p. 95).

The present water level is 7 inches or so below
the floor, and the work which had to be done here,
to determine whether any further shafts had been
sunk, was a messy business.

The filling of this tomb, consisting of the usual
rubbish, chiefly fallen rock faces, extended almost
as far as the lower tomb ; but the debris in the
corridor was entirely fallen roof, while the lower
chambers, thanks to their limestone linings, were
practically clear.

7. The story of its construction seems to be that
it was originally intended for a tomb such as
Tombs 7 and 8 with shaft, antechambers, main



room, and two recesses. Then the excavation of
the main stairway was made connecting with the
shaft at the level of chamber D'. Before the upper
tomb was completed it was decided to construct a
second tomb on a lower level, the entrance to which
would be through the floor of D', and the stairway
was turned north and continued down to the level
of D." Desire for secrecy perhaps caused final
alteration to be made : viz. the sinking of the
secondary shaft H, down to the level of the corridor
J', and the running of that corridor to the north-
ward. The only reason I can offer for the length
of it is that the lower tomb was intended to be
below the inner temenos, the area on the surface
which was enclosed by the stone wall round the
pyramid. It will be seen in the general plan that
the tomb actually comes under the wall itself.

With the exception of some objects of the xxiind (?)
dynasty found in the debris near the head of the
stairway, not a single object of any kind whatever
was found in any part of either upper or lower
tombs, and it is highly improbable that a sarco-
phagus could ever have been placed in the main
chamber M. No chips of granite or other stone
(except limestone) were found, and the limestone
walls showed no signs of damage. Had any later
builders desired stone they would most certainly
have helped themselves to the limestone walling
blocks, as well as, if not sooner than, a tough sarco-
phagus. It seems quite evident that the tomb was
prepared, but never used, in the xiith dynasty.

The tomb of Senusert III at Abydos (Ayrton,
Currelly, Weigall, Abydos III, pi. xli) was con-
structed with a shaft and a sloping stairway some-
what similar to this. It is considered that the
stairway was here used to facilitate the removal of
debris during the construction of the tomb. This
type of tomb may also be compared with the tomb
of Adu (Petrie, Bender ch).

Tomb 10. The Pyramid Entrance Tomb

8. This tomb, of which plans and a section are
given in pi. xxi, is the most interesting of the four.
We have again the unusual state of affairs where an
upper tomb gives access to a second one at a lower
level. Here, however, there is no sign of change of
plan, except as regards the final use to which the
main tomb was put. The upper part, which was
finished, as far as can be seen, consists of a wide
shaft 28 ft. 4 in. deep, with the usual ante-



in



DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMBS



chamber, A, leading to the sarcophagus chamber,
D, out of whicli on the east open the canopic recess,
C, and the offering chamber, E. In the floor of the
shaft is a small pit, G, which contained offerings
(see Sect. 15), a feature not found elsewhere.

The sarcophagus chamber, with its approaches,
are all lined with blocks of fine white limestone,
uninscribed. Blocks of the same stone were used
to close the tomb at the foot of the shaft, two of
them being still in position. The antechamber A
is only partly lined with the limestone, the upper
part of the walls being of plain smoothed rock,
and it may have been intended to roof it with slabs,
resting on the walling blocks. In the west wall
high up is a recess (marked B on the plan) of irregular
shape (for a statue?). One of the paving slabs
has been broken in two, and has fallen through into
the secondary shaft H, which underlies A. The
sarcophagus chamber shows no signs of spoilers'
work ; it was half filled with debris, which con-
tained nothing except a scrap of a late wooden
anthropoid coffin, and a green felspar scarab of
poor work with a plain base.

9. The long corridor, J, running north, connects
at its southern end with the bottom of the secondary
shaft H, out of which it opens on the east. It
differs in this way from tomb 9, where the corridor
runs from the west side of the shaft. All access
was prevented by blocking up the southern end of
the corridor with limestone blocks of various shapes
and sizes. The robbers, however, have easily over-
come this resistance by outflanking, i.e. breaking
away the corner of the rock formed by the west
wall of the corridor and the south wall of the shaft,
as shown on the plan. The corridor J has a vaulted
roof, and there are indications that the walls were
whitened. It leads to the lower tomb, which is
of the same type and arrangement as Tomb 9 (lower),
though the dimensions vary somewhat. No attempt
has been made to line the walls with cut stone,
and hence there is no counterpart to the ante-
chamber E in Tomb 9, which was formed by merely
lining part of the corridor. The barrel roofs are
exactly the same in arrangement as those of Tomb 9,
but cut in the rock instead of in the limestone
roofing beams.

These lower chambers were opened in 1889, when
the shaft, O, was discovered, and it was through
them that the pyramid passages were entered by
means of the corridor, the commencement of which
is marked L in the plan and section. But it was not



seen at the time that they formed a complete tomb in
themselves, nor was it possible to discover what
the corridor J and the shaft H led to on the
south. This was one of our objects in working
again at Lahun, but it was a considerable time
before the mouth of the shaft of Tomb 10 was dis-
covered. There was no clue at all as to what this
mysterious chamber by the blocking stones led to ;
and day after day we squeezed through the robbers'
hole, and tried to devise some safe means of explor-
ing the small black hollow which showed through
the gap in the roofing blocks above our heads.
Half of the broken beam was still in position, but
tilted over at a perilous angle ; and we could see
the mass of loose rubble above, apparently only
needing a small amount of coaxing to descend on
us with most unpleasant results.

Even the clearing of the space alongside the
blocking stones was a difficult matter, but this
arose from quite another cause. Ventilation was
so bad at this dead-end that, soon after we began
work there, candles ceased to burn; and matches even
refused to strike. The men were anxious to use a
hurricane lamp, which they knew we had in camp ;
they thought the candles were extinguished in the
same way as a lamp is blown out by the wind,
although they could feel no draught. We managed
to carry on very well with my electric torch, how-
ever ; and it was extraordinary to find that men
could work, work hard and work happily, in such
an atmosphere.

10. Another matter we had come to investigate
was the well or pit, P, in the lower tomb. It had
been sunk in what had originally been intended for
an offering chamber, N. It was full of mud and
water (the water level being shown in the section) ;
and it was a problem to discover the best way to
deal with this.

First, we tried a chain of men from the pit to
some way along the corridor, where the buckets
were emptied, but the water percolated so rapidly
through the rock that no permanent result could
be obtained. It was a difficult, if not impossible,
matter to rig pumps, owing to the depth and narrow-
ness of the shaft O ; and to pull up buckets of
water to the surface would have been a hopeless
proceeding. Finally we stationed seven or eight


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