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of Pesaro ; to the first two from a general similarity in the cha-
racter of their design. On the other hand, the initials I. P.
occurring in large characters on the reverse of some of the pieces
were presumed to be those of the words " In Pesaro," and led to
a confusion of them with others really painted at the Lanfranchi
works at Pesaro and marked with the same initials but in a
smaller form; standing for the signature of the artist, "jiacomo
pinsitr These last, then unknown' to collectors, were cited by
Passed who was supposed to refer to the far more beautiful
works now under consideration.

The acquisition, however, of a pavement of tiles from the Pe-
trucci palace at Siena, dated 1509, and the knowledge of the
existence of others of a similar stamp in the church of San
Francesco in that city, the style of handling as well as the design
and colouring upon which agreed closely with these works; a
fine dish in the British museum in the same manner, and on
which occurs one of the same coats of arms as those upon the
pavement of the Petrucci ; and the further acquisition of a small
plate, the painting of which in blue camai'eu is assuredly in the
manner of the finer examples above referred to, and which is



MAJOLICA.



97



signed on the reverse "fata i Siena da m bencdttto ; " form to-
gether a chain of evidence conclusive as to the existence of this
fabrique, and the origin of the various pieces in question.

The South Kensington museum possesses very important
specimens of this master's work ; and the connexion of the




several examples is very minutely traced in the large catalogue of
Maiolica. We need only, therefore, generally observe that they
are worthy of being ranked among the most excellent productions
of the potter's skill in Italy during the earlier years of the 16th
century ; and that in respect of their technical characteristics, „and
the tone and manner of their colouring and design, they are-'more'
nearly allied to the productions of the CafTaggiolo furnaces, from
which in all probability the inspiration of them was derived. We
give woodcuts of three of these beautiful pieces : nos. 1569,
1792, and 4487. The last of these is very interesting on account
of the mark and inscription upon the reverse (also engraved
p. 99), showing that the painter was probably Benedetto himself,



H



98



MAJOLICA.



who was then the head of the establishment. The drawing of the
central figure is masterly and finished with the utmost care.





One of the finest specimens of this master belongs to Mr.
Henderson ; the central subject is that of Mutius Scaevola before
Porsenna ; it is painted with great care and is surrounded by a
border of grotesques on orange ground. On the reverse is the



MAJOLICA.



99




mark in the accompanying woodcut. The grotesques upon the




m ^



L



I



border of a large dish in the British museum are painted upon a
black ground, an unusual style which also occurs on some of the
tiles of the Petrucci pavement, and is we believe almost peculiar
to this botega.

We lose sight of the Sienese pottery for two centuries, when it
again appears under the then best ceramic painter in Italy,
Ferdinando Maria Campani who is said, but we do not know on

H 2



ioo MAJOLICA.

what exact authority, to have worked also at Castelli and at San
Quirico. A piece signed by him is at South Kensington. His
subjects, as in this instance, were frequently taken from the Bible
series of Raffaelle as rendered by Marc Antonio's engravings^
and from the works of the Caracci. Some extremely well
executed tiles, plates, &c. copied and adapted from the old,
have also been produced within the last few years at Siena
under the superintendence of signor Pepi, a druggist, opposite
the Prefecture. We have occasionally met with some of these,
scratched and chipped by other artists to suit the modern-antique
market.

The small town of Monte Lupo, nestling under its " rocca " on
the southern bank of the river at the opening of the Val d' Arno
inferiore, is on the road from Florence and near to Empoli. Its
pottery is distinguished (or we should rather say notorious) for
having produced the ugliest and most inferior painted pieces that
bear the signature of their maker and the place where they were
made.

But a ware of a different kind formed of a red clay and glazed
with a rich treacle-brown or black glaze, the fonns of the pieces
being sometimes extremely elegant, has been also assigned to this
locality. Some of them are enriched with gilding and with
subjects painted in oil colours, not by a ceramic artist. We are
informed, however, by signor Giuseppe Raffaelli that wares of
this description w r ere made at Castel Durante, and that a fine
example of them, with portraits of a count Maldini and his wife,
is preserved in the library at Urbania. He describes them as
made of a red earth covered with an intensely black glaze, on
which the oil painting and gilding were executed. It is neverthe-
less probable that Monte Lupo produced a similar ware, and pieces
occur ornamented with reliefs and with raised work, engobe, with a
white or yellow clay on the brown ground, by the process known
as pate sur pate. Certain pieces marbled on the surface to imitate
tortoiseshell, agate, &c. are ascribed to this pottery.



MAJOLICA.



101



At Sevres is a tazza with ill painted subject on white ground
and inscribed, —

" Dip into, Giovinale Tereni
" da Montelupo."

and a dish in the hotel Cluny at Paris, painted with the subject of
the rape of Helen somewhat in the manner of the Urbino wares,
has at the back,

" Vrate delina
"fate in Monte"




f



jfatt mTh oTitfc j



/:



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^\ //III

7 ih I




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6




This, we think, more likely to have been the production of
Monte Lupo than of Monte Feltro, to which it has been ascribed.

There can be little doubt that potteries existed in the neigh-
bourhood of the important commercial city of Pisa, and it is more
than probable that the painted and incised baciiii, which are
encrusted into her church towers and facades, are mostly of local
manufacture during the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries. On
this subject we must refer the reader to the remarks in the



io2 MAIOLICA.

chapter on Persian and Hispano-moresque wares. Among the
latter, references will be found to two writers who stated that
a commerce existed between Valencia and Pisa, from whence
faience was imported into Spain in exchange for the wares of that
country. It does not however follow that this faience was
entirely of Pisan production, although exported thence ; but it is
not improbable that a considerable quantity was made there for
exportation.

Antonio Beuter, praising the wares of Spain, says that they are
equal in beauty to those of Pisa and other places. This was
about 1550. Early in the next century Escolano says, speaking
of the wares of Manises, " that in exchange for the faiences that
Italy sends us from Pisa, we export to that country cargoes of
that of Manises."

In the collection of baron Alphonse de Rothschild, of Paris, is
a large and well formed vase with serpent handles, under which
the name PISA is inscribed on tablets. It is much in the manner
of the later Urbino wares, having grotesques on a white ground,
but more nearly approaching those examples at South Kensington
(nos. 321 and 323) having the arms of the Medici, which we
have ascribed in the large catalogue to Caffaggiolo or Florence.
It has been suggested that this vase may be of the Pesaro
fabrique, and that the word upon it was merely a variation in
spelling the first half of the name Visd.ro; but we see no reason
for accepting such an explanation or that Pisa should be denied
the small honour of having produced this example, the only one
inscribed with her name.

There can be very little doubt that a manufactory of glazed
earthenware existed at Pesaro or in its immediate outskirts
from a very early period, and that it probably succeeded to the
works established there in Roman times, the remains of which
have occasionally been brought to light ; but with the exception
of the recorded names of certain potters, occurring in deeds and
records which are preserved among the public archives of the



MA 10 LIC A. 103

city, we are uninformed, and unable to recognize the produce of
these potteries or to know their characteristics.

Anterior to 1540 we have no signed and dated example, and
should therefore be reduced to the position of entire ignorance as
to their previous productions but for the work of the indefati-
gable archaeologist Giambattista Passeri. Born in 1694 at
Farnese in the Campagna di Roma (where his father, of a
patrician family of Pesaro, practised as a physician) and educated
at Rome, he subsequently settled in his parental city and
published the " Istoria delle pitture in Maiolica fatte in Pesaro e
in luoghi circonvicini," in 1758. To him we are indebted for the
notice of the potters above alluded to, and in his work he gives
us an account of the mode pursued in the manufacture, much of
which however he appears to have derived from the earlier manu-
script of Piccolpasso. He tells us that the large early bacili
enriched with a madrepcrla lustre were the produce of Pesaro ;
and in corroboration states that many of them are painted with
the coats of arms and portraits of the members of noble Pesarese
families, instancing one with the arms of the " Bergnana " family
then preserved in the Casa Olivieri. It has been objected that
Passeri was influenced by local partiality in favour of the native
city of his family, and that he ascribed to her furnaces what may
in equal likelihood have been produced at Gubbio or Diruta;
and the discovery of a few pieces of lustred ware, marked as the
produce of the latter Castello in the middle of the 16th century,
was hailed by several critics as conclusive evidence against his
assertion.

It appears to the writer that such evidence is equally unsatis-
factory, inasmuch as the works in question were produced some
century and a half anterior to the earliest dated piece of Diruta
ware. Passeri wrote in the middle of the last century, when the
art was no longer in existence and its specimens only preserved
in the cabinets of the curious ; but he was a man of erudition and
research and probably had means of obtaining information with



104 MAJOLICA.

which we are unacquainted ; we think therefore that as his state-
ments have not yet been met by proofs of their incorrectness, or
by counter-statements of greater weight, we are bound to accept
them until additional light be thrown upon the subject. He tells
us that remains of antique furnaces and ruins of a vase shop of
classic times, with fragments of red and black wares and lamps
marked with the letter G, were found in the locality known as the
" Gabbice " where the Lanfranchi works were afterwards estab-
lished in the 16th century, and where .the earth is of fine quality.
He traces the use of this earth in the time of the Goths, and states
that it again revived under the government of the Malatesta; and
that soon afterwards a mode of adorning churches was adopted
by the insertion of discs of earthenware at first simply glazed
with the oxide of lead, but that coloured ones were subsequently
used.

The wares were made by covering the crude baked clay with a
slip or engobe of white earth, the "terra di San Giovanni'''' from
Siena, or with that of Verona, and glazing it with " marzacotto"
a mixture of oxide of lead, sand and potash. The colours used
were yellow, green, manganese black, and cobalt blue (from the
" zaffara " of the Levant). During the government of the Sforza
the manufacture greatly developed and was protected, for on ist
April i486 a decree was made prohibiting the introduction of
earthenwares for sale from other parts, except the jars for oil and
water. This was confirmed in 1508. In 15 10 a document
enumerates " Maiolica " as one of the trades of Pesaro, naming
also "figoli" " rasai" and " boccalari ; ; ' and we must bear in
mind that there is good reason for believing that at that period
" Maiolica" was a name technically understood as applying only
to the lustred wares.

Passeri states that about 1450 the " invctriatura" or glazing
had already begun to perfect itself under the Sforza, when those
early pieces were produced decorated with " arabesque" borders
encircling coats of arms, portraits, and ideal heads outlined with



MAJOLICA.



io5



manganese and coloured with the " madrcpcrla " lustre, leaving the
flesh white. He ascribes the improvement in the manufacture by
the use of the stanniferous glaze to the discovery of the Delia
Robbia, and adds that, although the art of making it was known




earlier at Florence, the fine ware was only introduced at Pesaro
about 1500 : near which period the beautiful portrait dish which
we engrave (no. 4078 at Kensington) was probably made. Here
he again says that the lustred ware derived its name from the
pottery of Maiolica, and that the earlier and coarser varieties
were known as " Mezza-maiolicaP Guid' Ubaldo II. greatly en-
couraged the art, and in 1552 granted to Bernardin Gagliardino,
Girolamo Lanfranchi, Ranaldo and others an edict prohibiting
the importation of other wares for sale, thus confirming the former



jo6 MAI O LIC A.

acts, which would appear to have fallen into neglect : and in the
year 1562, on the 1st of June, he granted another, confirming to
Giacomo Lanfranco a protection of his art or patent for apply-
ing real gold to his wares.

Passeri then (after some further historical details) describes
examples of the glazed and enamelled pottery of Pesaro which he
had seen, and the earliest he refers to are floorings of tiles existing
in his time, upon one of which, brought to him by a workman,



was inscribed



adi 4 de Genar , ,-, ,,

• ^ and on the other

o . in Pesaro.




A considerable period elapses between this and the next dated
example, a plate, with the subject of Horatius Codes, inscribed, —

Orazio solo contro Toscana tutta.
Fatto in Pesaro. 1541.

On another (a companion of a plate preserved in the Louvre),

/ Pianctto di Marte
fatto in Pesaro 1542
in bottega da Masiro Gironimo Vasaro. IP.

He further mentions a plate having a mark consisting of the
initials O A connected by a cross, and a bas-relief with the same
initials which again occur sculptured over a door, which he
suggests may have been that of the potter's house ; we should,
however, be more disposed to regard it as a conventual or
cathedral monogram.

We will now leave the work of Passeri and quote another
record of the pottery made at Pesaro a short time before the
1 6th century, returning to him for information on the revival of
the art at that locality in the last.

Dennistoun in his history of the dukes of Urbino (vol. 3, p. 3S8)



MAJOLICA.



107



refers to a letter among the diplomatic archives of the duchy
preserved at Florence dated 1474, from pope Sextus IV. in
which he thanks Costanzo Sforza, lord of Pesaro, for a present of




most elegantly wrought earthen vases which for the donor's sake
are prized as much as gold or silver instead of earthenware. An-
other letter from Lorenzo the magnificent to Roberto Malatesta
of Pesaro, thanking him for a similar present, says, " they please
me entirely by their perfection and rarity, being quite novelties in
these parts, and are valued more than if of silver, the donor's arms



108 MAJOLICA.

serving daily to recall their origin." There is every reason for
assuming that both these presents consisted of wares produced at
the Pesaro furnaces.

These wares must have been looked upon as " novelties " at
Florence, not simply because they were painted on flat surfaces
covered with stanniferous glaze (for Luca della Robbia had done
this many years before) but because, being decorated with rich
metallic glaze and madreperla lustre, they probably were novelties
to the Florentines as productions of an Italian pottery. If this
inference be correct, may not another be drawn from it ? t That
these presents being the produce of Pesaro, and enriched with
the metallic lustre, we may derive from the whole matter an
additional proof that the early lustred pieces, whose origin has
been disputed, were really made at that city ; and that we may
agree with Passeri in ascribing the well-known " bacili " to that
place. Engraved p. 107 is a fine lustred bacilc at South Ken-
sington, probably of Pesaro ware, and about the year 15 10.

The earliest dated Pesaro piece is in the possession of the writer.
It is a "fruitiera" on which is painted the creation of animals by
the Almighty, Who, moving in the midst, is surrounded by animals
rising out of the ground ; a distant landscape, with a town (!) on
the side of a steep mountain, forms the background.

On the reverse is inscribed as in the woodcut oil the next page,

1540.

Chrianite anim
allis Christtus
fatto in Pesaro.

We have seen some large dishes decorated with raised masks,
strap work, &c. and painted with grotesques on a white ground,
and subject panels, and other grandiose pieces which are ascribed
to the Urbino artists, but which may in equal likelihood be attri-
buted to the Lanfranchi of Pesaro. A triangular plateau in the



MAJOLICA. 109

possession of Mrs. Hope has the character of their finest produc-
tions.

The art at Pesaro rapidly declined after 1560, wanting the
encouragement of a reigning ducal court ; and Passeri ascribes



/



11 1 % i|#ii






V "r/ifft^;






/

much evil influence to what he considers the bad taste of pre-
ferring the unmeaning designs of the oriental porcelain, which
was greatly prized by the wealthy, and the painting after the
prints of the later German school of Sadeler, &c. to the grander
works of the old masters; the landscapes were, however, well
executed. He gives us also a history of the revival of the
manufacture in his own time, under the influence and encourage-
ment of the cardinal prelate Ludovico Merlini. In 17 18 there
was only one potter at Pesaro, Alfonzo Marzi, who produced the
most ordinary wares. In 1757 signor Giuseppe Bertolucci, an
accomplished ceramist of Urbania, in conjunction with signor
Francesco di Fattori, engaged workmen and artists and com-
menced a fabrique, but it was soon abandoned. Again in 1763
signors Antonio Casali and Filippo Antonio Caligari, both of
Lodi, came to Pesaro and were joined by Pietro Lei da Sassuolo
of Modena, an able painter on Maiolica; they established a



no MAI O LIC A.

fabrique producing wares of great excellence hardly to be dis-
tinguished from the Chinese. In the Debruge-Labarte collection
was a one-handled jug or pot, painted with flowers in white
medallions on a blue ground, and on the foot engraven in the
paste —

Pesaro 1771/'



u



A manufacture at present exists of painted tiles for pavement,
removed to Pesaro from Urbania, and which at one time produced
vases and plates in the manner of the Urbino istoriati pieces as
also lustred wares after the style of M. Giorgio. It has, we are
informed, ceased making these imitations and now confines itself
to the first-named class of goods.



CHAPTER XII.

GUBBIO AND CASTEL DURANTE.

Although probably not among the earliest manufactories or
boteghe of Italian enamelled and painted wares, Gubbio un-
doubtedly holds one of the most prominent positions in the
history and development of the potter's art in the 16th
century. This small town, seated on the eastern slope of the
Apennines, was then incorporated in the territory of the dukes of
Urbino under whose influence and enlightened patronage the
artist potters of the duchy received the greatest encouragement ;
and were thus enabled to produce the beautiful works of which
so many examples have descended to us. Chiefly under the
direction of one man, it would seem that the produce of the
Gubbio furnaces was for the most part of a special nature;
namely, a decoration of the pieces with the lustre pigments,
producing those brilliant metallic ruby, golden, and opalescent
tints which vary in every piece, and which assume almost every
colour of the rainbow as they reflect the light directed at varying
angles upon their surface. The woodcut (p. 112) represents a vase
of great interest and beauty; no. 500 in the South Kensington
collection. It is early in date; probably about 1500. The
admirable way in which the moulded ornament is arranged to
show the full effect of the lustre, and the bold yet harmonious
design are worthy of observation. That the Gubbio ware was
of a special nature, and produced only at a few fabriques almost
exclusively devoted to that class of decoration, is to be reasonably
inferred from Piccolpasso's statement ; who speaking of the



112



MAIOLICA.



application of the maiolica pigments says, " Non ch' io ne abbia
mcii fatto ne men veditto fare? He was the maestro of an im-
portant botega at Castel Durante, one of the largest and most
productive of the Umbrian manufactories, within a few miles also




of those of Urbino, with which he must have been intimately
acquainted and in frequent correspondence. That he, in the
middle of the 16th century, when all these works were at the
highest period of their development, should be able to state
that he had not only never applied or even witnessed the process
of application of these lustrous enrichments is, we think, a con-
vincing proof that they were never adopted at either of those seats
of the manufacture of enamelled pottery. Although much modified
and improved, lustre colours were not invented by Italian artists,
but were derived from the potters of the east, probably from the
Moors of Sicily, of Spain, or of Majorca. Hence (we once more
repeat) the name " Majolica" was originally applied only to
wares having the lustre enrichment ; but since the decline of the



MAIOLICA.



1 1



manufacture, the term has been more generally given : all varieties
of Italian enamelled pottery being usually, though wrongly, known
as " Maiolica."

The Gubbio fabrique was in full work previous to 151 8 ; and




the brilliantly lustred dish, which we engrave, now at South
Kensington is before that date. That some of these early bacili
so well known and apparently the work of one artist were made
at Pesaro, whence the secret and probably the artist passed to
Gubbio, is far from improbable. The reason for this emigration
is not known, but it may be surmised that the large quantity



ii4 MAIOLICA.

of broom and other brush-wood, necessary for the reducing
process of the reverberatory furnace in which this lustre was
produced, might have been more abundantly supplied by the
hills of Gubbio than in the vicinity of the larger city on the coast.
That the process of producing these metallic effects was costly, we
gather from Piccolpasso's statement that sometimes not more
than six pieces out of a hundred succeeded in the firing.

The fame of the Gubbio wares is associated almost entirely
with one name, that of Giorgio Andreoli. We learn from the
marchese Brancaleoni that this artist was the son of Pietro, of a
" Castello " called " Judeo," in the diocese of Pavia ; and that,
accompanied by his brother Salimbene, he went to Gubbio in the
second half of the 15th century. He appears to have left and
again returned thither in 1492, accompanied by his younger
brother Giovanni. They were enrolled as citizens on the 23rd
May 1498, on pain of forfeiting 500 ducats if they left the city in
which they engaged to continue practising their ceramic art.
Patronised by the dukes of Urbino, Giorgio was made " castel-
lano " of Gubbio. Passeri states that the family was noble in
Pavia. It . is not known why or when he was created a
" Maestro," a title prized even more than nobility, but it is to be
presumed that it took place at the time of his enrolment as a
citizen ; his name with the title " Maestro " first appearing on a
document dated that same year, 1498. Piccolpasso states that
Maiolica painters were considered noble ' by profession. The
family of Andreoli and the " Casa " still exist in Gubbio, and it
was asserted by his descendant Girolamo Andreoli, who died
some 40 years since, that political motives induced their emigra-
tion from Pavia.

Maestro Giorgio was an artist by profession, not only as a
draughtsman but as a modeller, and being familiar with the
enamelled terra cottas of Luca della Robbia is said to have
executed with his own hands and in their manner large altar-
pieces. We were once disposed to think that great confusion


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