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iBanqule elimnyama
or eliBomvu.



eEomvu

uEuBende

uFipha

iHhemu



iHungqu
iHwanqa



Masculine

uKholo



iKlila, iKlilathi



iklilathikazi the throat.



32 A

iLunga

eMavovo



uMdaka
iiMduBu



iMfezi t



uMhlophe
uMlaza



iMpemvu

iMpofu

iMpunga
uMsheko



Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter
ilungakazi



umdakakazi
umdiiBukazi

imfezikazi



umhlophekazi
umlazakazi



impemvukazi

impofukazi

impungakazi
umshekokazi



uMthuku



umtlwkukazi



black beast, with
white patches over
stomach, legs and
back.

skimmel or straw-
berry coloured
beast.

dun-coloured beast.

yellow, sandy-
coloured beast;
dark yellow.

beast with a white
stripe, or white
collar round its
throat.

white beast.

whitish beast, with
thin, scattered,
black streaks over
the body.

beast, black, yellow,
red or brown, with
white face.

pale, red- yellow
beast.

grey beast.

black beast with a
dash of white on
the side and on-
ward to the shoul-
der.

mouse - coloured
beast.



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



33



eMvuSomaSele

Masculine

iNala

iNco



iNhlamvu
uNhlekwane

iNkone



iNkone elele umuntu
esiswini

iNsasa



skimmel or straw-
berry coloured
beast.

Feminine English

inalakazi red or black beast

with small white
spots about the
legs and sides.

incokazi red beast, speckled

with white spots,
that is, white
patches here and
there.

inhlamvukazi red beast without
spots.

unhlekwanekazi black beast with
white stripes run-
ing from the shoul-
ders to the sides.

inkonekazi beast of any colour,
i.e., black, red,
yellow, brown,
with white
speckles down the
ridge of the back.
OR a white beast
with large red
spots on stomach,
white beast with
large black spots
on stomach.



inkonekazi
elele umuntu
esiswini

insasakazi



skimmel or straw-
berry coloured
beast.



34

iNsundu

iNtenjane

iNtulo

iNtusi



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



Masculine

iNyaluthi

iNzima
iNzotha



ePhuzingweBu
i Qola



uThuthu
iWaBa, iWasa



insundukazi
intenjanekazi

intulokazi
intusikazi



Feminine

inyaluthikazi

inzimakazi
inzothakazi



iqolakazi



uthuthukazi

iwaBakazi,
iwasakazi



dark brown-coloured
beast; d u n -
coloured beast.

lightish-yellow beast
with white patch
running up one or
both hind legs.

beast, black or red,
with a white head.

red-coloured beast,
with a small white
spot on the side,
in front of one or
both of the hind
legs.
English

dark yellow, almost

brown beast,
black beast.

red or white beast,
generally with
white and brown
spots on side ; also
red brown and
white.

beast with a white
snout.

black or red beast
with white from
small of the back,
downwards.

dust-coloured beast.

black or red beast
with white belly.



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



35



iBeka



isiCengeza

umDlovu
uluGelekeqe

isiGqala
isiGudwa
isiHleza
iMbedula

iMpothane, iMpothela
iMpoxela

iMpoxeyana

iNdlezane



iNgcungu
iNgquthu



one of the cattle given as part
of Io6olo. Each of these cattle
is called " ibeka, " the plural
is " amabeka ".

beast with widely spread horns,
curving in and forming the
shape of the sides of a basin.

ox with horns turned downwards
or round the face.

beast with horns pointing back-
wards.

cow with very little milk.

cow milked without calf.

beast with a broken horn.

beast with horns pointing back-
wards.

beast with twisted horns.

beast with sharply pointed and
erect horns.

beast with horns of about two
inches.

cow with calf, within a week or
two since with calf. NOTE
" umdlezane " is a woman
with an infant at breast.

beast with horns curving so as
to almost meet.

beast given to a mother-in-law
by a son-in-law, in connection
with her daughter whom he
has married or deflowered.
N.B. This beast is solely the
property of the mother of the
girl impregnated, and she may
do anything she likes with it.



36



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



iNkom'cchophe ngomsila

iNkom'egqizile

iNkom'emahlawe

iNkomo yesondlo

iNqudulu (ingudulu)

iNsizwakazi

iNxahi

iNyumbakazi
uPhishilili

um Qholiso



umThantazana

umThantikazi

isiThokazana

isiThokazi

isiThole

iZi6ulekazana



beast with a white brush of the
tail.

beast with a sock, or white on
one or all the legs.

beast with horns that are short,
curved, and hang down on
the surface of the skin.

beast paid for having nourished
and brought up a child.

poly beast (hornless).

poly cow (hornless).

bull that has been castrated
when full-grown.

queen cow, sterile cow.

beast with tall horns sloping and
pointing backward.

beast slaughtered by an in-
tended bridegroom in honour
of his fiancee on her betrothal
visit to his kraal.

young or small heifer.

full-grown heifer.

young or small heifer.

full-grown heifer.

heifer.

heifer that has had only the
first calf.



Cattle Diseases in English and Zulu



English

Abscess
Actinomycosis Lumpy

jaw
Anthrax



Zulu

ithumba
umadilwana

umBendeni



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



37



Black quarter Spons-

siekte
Constipation droegal-

siekte
Diarrhoea
East Coast Fever

Foot and Mouth Disease

Gall sickness

Heartwater

Lumpy Skin Disease

Lungsickness

Mange

Nagana

Pneumonia

Red Water

Ringworm

Stiffsickness (thrce-day-

stiff sickness).
Tuberculosis



uphezukomkforto ; umanyongana
ukuqumba

ukusheka ; ukuhuda ; isihudo
umanyonyoBa ; ukufa (kwezi-

nkomo) ; kwamakhizane
ukufa komlomo
inyongo ; isashu
ukufa kwenhliziyo
umakluikhumesana
umahagane
utwayi
uNakane
isidlanga
isikhuBa
umBandamu
uthathamela

isifuBa



Colours of Horses



English

Bay

Black

Blue-dun

Brown

Chestnut

Cream

Grey

Piebald Black and

white
Skewbald Red and

white
Star (with any colour)



Zulu Masculine Zulu Feminine

eliBomvu inhlamvukazi

elimnyama inzimakazi

elimdaka, umdaka umdakakazi
elinsundu ensundukazi

ifosi ifosikazi

ulaza ulazakazi

elimpunga impungakazi

ilunga ilungakazi



inco



indonya



incokazi



indonyakazi



38 A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter

White elimhlophe umhlophektzi

Yellow-dun elimdaka, umdaka umdakakazi



Horse Sicknesses



Brokenwind

Horse-sickness

Mange

Nagana

Saddle-sore

Worms



iphika

isimoliya

utwayi

unakane

isilonda, isikofu

amapapisi



English

Black

Black and White

Black and White

spotted
Blackish-grey



Brownish-grey



Colours of Goats

Zulu Masculine

emnyama
ilunga, ibanqule

emafahlafahla

umzondo (or
ingwevu ngoku-
mnyama)

ingwevu ngokun-
sundu

emdaka

insundu



Dark-brown
Light-brown
Light-red with yellow insele

muzzle

White emhlophe

Yellow empofu



Zulu Feminine

inzimakazi
ilungakazi, ibanqu-

lekazi
emafahlafahlakazi

umzondokazi (or
ingwevukazi ngo-
kumnyama)

ingwevukazi ngo-
kunsundu

umdakakazi

insundukazi

inselekazi

emhlophekazi
empofukazi



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



39



Common ear- marks placed on
Cattle, horses, sheep and goats

Description
English of ear -mark

Half-moon portion so cut off that the

remaining mark re-
sembles a half-moon

Hole hole through any part of

any ear

Skey (skei) portion so cut off that the
remaining mark re-
sembles the nick of a
skey, into which the
strop is hooked

Slit a straight cut through

middle of ear near the
tip

Square one side of the slit cut

(winkelhaak) away

Stump tip of ear cut off

Swallow-tail tip so cut away that the
end of ear resembles
end of tail of a swallow



Zulu

ugegeBu

imboBo
isikeyi



indleBe edatshuli-
weyo

isikwde

isihunu
inkonjane



CHAPTER VII
Common Human Diseases

For some of the terms I am indebted to The Native
Teachers' Journal (Vol. XXIII, No. 3 of April, 1944, and
Vol. XVIII, No. 2 of January, 1939).



English

Appendicitis



Zulu

ukuvuthwa kwetunjana elilenga ku-
bobobo



40



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



Asthma

Blister

Boil

Bronchitis

Bulla

Cancer in Abdomen

Chicken-pox

Cold

Colic

Constipation

Consumption

Diarrhoea

Dropsy

Duodenal ulcer
Dysentery

Eczema

Enteric

Epidemic outbreak

Gastric Ulcer

Gonorrhoea

Heart Disease

Indigestion

Influenza

Leprosy

Malaria fever

Measles

Meningitis

Miners' Phthisis

Mumps

Palpitation



umBefu (ufuBa) ; isifuBa somoya

ishashaza

intumbane (ithumba)

isishiso semithambo yomoya

ibanyaza

ixhwala esiswini

inqiiBukinjwana

umkhuhlane

isisu esisikayo

ukusongeleka

ixhwala (isifuBa)

ukusheka ; ukuhuda

umzimba ogcwele amanzi ; (isikhu-

hlukhuhlu)
isilonda ethunjini
isihudo samatheketheke ; (isihudo esi-

negazi)
ukuquBuka okuvuzamanzi (umsasa-

ndla) ; (umuna)
imbo yesihudo segazi
ubadane (imbo)
isilonda esiswini
iBuBa, ugcunsula
isifo senhliziyo
isilungulela
imfuluyeza
uchoko

uhlonzane (umalaleveva)
isimungumungwane
isifo esivuvukisa imithambo yentamo

nomhlandla
isifuBa sasemgodini
uzagiga (uqilaza)
.ukushaya kwenhliziyo (ukugquma)



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



41



Papillonia or Wart

Pimple (on face)

Pleurisy

Pneumonia

Rheumatic Fever

Ringworm

Scabies

Smallpox

Syphilis

T.B. of the lungs

Typhus

Whooping-cough

Miscellaneous

Abscess

Apoplexy

Birthmark

Cataract

Collapse



Concussion
Conjunctivitis

eyes)
Convulsions



(sore



Deformity

Discharging ear

Dizziness

Ear-wax

Faint

Fit (epileptic)

Germ

Gland

Heat and Sunstroke

Hysteria



insiimpa

induna eBusweni

ihlaBa ; isiboBo

isishiso samaphaphu (isidlanga)

umkhuhlane wekhunkulo

umBandamu

ukhwekhwe

ingxoBongo ; iiPokisi

isipatsholo

isifuBa se-T.B.

imbo yezintwala

wnpe Iwezingane

izinhlo6onhlo6o

ithumba

ukutheleka kwegazi eBuchosheni

umkhangu

umlanga ehlweni (phakathi)

ukuphela amandla ; ukufumbeka

phansi

ukungquBuzeka
amehlo aBomvu

ukudlala, ukuthuthumela komzimba

kwenziwa isifo
ixhwala

indleBe ephumubovu
isinxi (inzululwane)
isigonogono
ukuquleka
isithuthwane

igciwane (lesifo] ; (inungunungwana)
indlala

isifiithafutha sokmhiswa yilanga
umhayizo or ihaBiya



42



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



Insanity
Lumbago
Miscarriage
Mucus from lungs
Navel-cord
Neuritis

Obstructed labour
Paralysis

Pass loose stools

Placenta (after-birth)

Pus

Rash

Scurvy

Sputum

Sterility (of female)

Still-birth

Stupor

Swelling

Tapeworm

Threadworms

T.B. of spine

Tumour

Varicose veins

Worm



ukuhlanya

iqolo (umnyuka waseqolo)

ukuphuphuma kwesisu

isikhwehlela

inkaBa

uBuhlungu Bemizwa

ukiixakela

ukuqedwa amandla nokuzwa ;

kwemithambo (ukoma]
huda

umzanyana
uBovu
umquBuko
umsheshaphansi
isikhwehlela
uBunyumba

uphumefile (umphunzo)
isihlwathi
ukuvuvuka
isilo esimhlophe

oshobishobi Bezilo (izimpethwane)
i-T.B. yomhlandla
ihlumela (isimila]
ikhunkulo lemithambo
isilo



Bones of the Body
Amathambo omzimba



English

Ankle

Anterior frontenalle

Atlas (root of back of

neck first cervical

vertebra)
Calf bone (Fibula)



Zulu

iqakala

ukhakhayi

isahlulampisi



isithumbu



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



43



Canine (side tooth 2)
Cervical Vertebrae
Cheek-bone (Zygomatic

bone)
Chin

Coccyx (tail)
Collar bone (clavicle)
External acoustic meatus
External occipital Pro-
tuberance
False Rib

Femur (thigh-bone)
Floating Rib
Foramen Magnum
Front tooth (incisor)
Frontal bone
Frontal eminence
Funny-bone (elbow)
Hip-bone

Humerus (upper arm bone)
Inner bone of Forearm

(ulna)

Knee-cap (patella)
Lower jaw (mandible)
Lumbar Vertebra
Molar

Nape of neck
Nasal bone (nose-root)
Nasal Cavity
Nose-bridge
Occipital bone
Outer bone of Forearm

(radius)

Phalanges of Foot (or toes)
Phalanges of hand



elenja

isizunguzungu

isidindi

isilevu

umsinsila

ingqwa6a6a

isiqhoma

incengela (umantshasa)

uBambo olunqumunqumu

elenyonga, or inyongd

umpethwane

isikhonkosi

elingaphambili

iBunzi, isiphongo, isimongo

ihlonhlo

indololwane

itheBe, igeBe

elifuphi (lengalo)

ithambo logalo

ivi

umhlathi

ungceshana

elomhlathi

isijungujungu

imvelelo

amankanka

umBombo

isiphundu

imbilathi

amathambo ezinzwane
amathambo eminwe



44



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



Prominent part of the
face, just above the
eye, on which the eye-
brow grows

Rib

Seat-bone (Ischium)

Shin-bone (Tibia)

Shoulder-blade (scapula)

Side of head or Parietal
bone

Skeleton

Small of back

Spine

Sternum (breast-bone)

Temporal bone

Tooth

True Rib

Wedge (sacred) bone
(sacrum)

Wisdom tooth

Wrist

Xiphoid process of
sternum

Zygoma



ithundit



uBambo
isitiUli
umondlo
isiphanga
ucezu Iwekhanda

ukhehle
idanda ; iqolo
umhlandla
uvalo

isikhala soBuso
izinyo
uBambo
ihoho

eloBambo
isihlakala
ucaBanga, uvalo

inhlafuno



Parts of the Body
Okomzimba



Adam's apple
Arm-pit (axilla)
Back of shoulders
Biceps or arm muscles
Big toe
Blood-vessel
Buttock
Calf of the leg



igilo

ikhwapha

amagxalaBa

izinkonyane

uqukula

umthambo

isinqe

isithumbanja



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



Cheek

Clitoris ..

Double Chin

Ear drum

Epidermis (outer skin)

Eyebrow

Eyelash

Eye pupil

Female breast

Female mons veneris

Groin

Gums

Hard Palate

Head of Glans Penis

Heel

Hip

Index finger

Knuckle

Labia majora (folds of

the vulva feminae)
Lap

Leg (leg of a person)
Leg (lower foreleg)
Little tongue (uvula)
Lobule of the ear
Lower lip
Male public region
Man's breast
Nape of neck
Navel
Neck (i.e., the whole

trunk lying between

the head and collar

bones)



isihlathi

umsunu

iBilo

iso lendleBe

imveBu

ishiya

likhophe

inhlamvu ycso

iBele

isidumbu

imbilapho

izinsini

ulwanga

inkanda

isithende

inqulu

unkomba

iqupha

amaleBe

ithanga

umlenze

ugalo, intungwa, isilho, umBala

ugovana

isicuBu sendleBe

udeBe

uBumbu

isiBele

isijingo

inkaBa

intamo



46



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter
isitshako



Opening between front

teeth
Penis

Rectum (Anus)
Shin
Shoulder
Side of head
Small finger
Small Toe
Spinal cord
Testicle
Thigh (all that part of

the leg between knee

and hip)
Thumb
Tip of tongue
Toe

Tongue
Tonsil

Upper limb (forearm)
Upper lip
Vulva
Waist
Wind-pipe



umphambili, umthondo

ingquza, ididi, igolo

umBala

ihlombe

ucezu Iwekhanda

ucikicane

uzwani oluncane

umnqonqo

isende

ithanga



isithupha

inkotha

uzwani

ulimi

ilaka (uvula]

umkhono

udevu

inhlunu

ukhalo (iguma]

uqhoqhoqho



Internal Organs
IziBilini



Bile

Bladder
Brain
Colon

Diaphragm (outer cover-
ing of the bowels)
Duodenum



^nyongo

isinye

uBuchopho

inanzi

untu

ithumbu lenanzi



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



47



Gall-bladder

Heart

Intestines

Kidney

Large intestine

Liver

Lung

Marrow of bone

Pericardium

Small intestine

Spleen

Stomach

Injuries

English

Abrasion
Contused wound
Contusion
Haemorrhage
Incised wound
Lacerated wound
Punctured wound
Weal (caused by a blow

from a stick or strap)
Wound (on head)
Wound (a wound caused

by a sharp instrument

on any part of the

body)

Fractures
Ukwaphuka kwamathambo

Comminuted fracture uvithithambo

Complicated fracture umchachathambo

Compound fracture uthambokhoxe



isikhwama senyongo

inhliziyo

amathumbu

inso

ithumbu likapopopo

isi6indi

iphaphu

umkantsha

ulwambesi

usinyaka

uBende

isisu

Ukulimala

Zulu

isihuzu

iphuphusi

ithuBulela

ukopha

inxe6a elisaluhlanga

inxeda eliqhaqhaBulekile

inxeBa elichambuzekile

umvimbo



tngozi
inxeBa



48



. A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



Depressed fracture
Green-stick fracture
Impacted fracture
Simple fracture



umfehlezathambo
ufecethambo
umqwalathambo
uthambophoqo



CHAPTER VIII
Seasons in Zulu

intwasahloBo spring ; beginning of summer

isilimela the ploughing season ; ALSO, a

group of stars which may be
observed in the early morning
during the month of August.
They are so called because
they appear at a time when
ploughing begins
the green-mealie season
summer .(generally)
midsummer
winter (generally)
midwinter

Summer

In his Zulu English Dictionary (1905), page 251,
Bryant gives the following valuable statement of the divi-
sions of summer, as known to the Zulus.



ukwindla

ihloBo

ihloB' elikhulu

uBusika

u6usika oBumpofu OR

uSusika oBukhulu



1 . lethwese ihloBo



2. sekululiBo OR sckuyi-
sikhathi soliBo



the summer has come round, i.e.,
at the time of the first rains,
when the new grass begins to
cover the land.

it is now the time of the first
fruits, when green pumpkins,
gourds, and the like are eaten



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



49



3. sckusekwindla OR se-
kuyisikhathi sokwi-
ndla



4. sekulihloBo elikhulu ;
sekuphakathi kokwi
ndla



5. sekuphele ukwindla ;
sekuphele ihloBo



sekungena u6usika ;
sekuyisikhathi soku-



it is now the time of the new
food, when the new mealies
(not amaBele} are eaten, when
the amaBele are just commen-
cing to produce ears and the
birds to give trouble

it is now great or midsummer,

it is now the middle of ukwindla-
time, i.e., when the amaBele
are in full ear and the mealies
ripening

the ukwindla-time is now at an
end, the summer season is now
finished, i.e., when the ama-
Bele and mealies are already
ripe and are drying on the
stalk

the winter-season is now coming
in ; it is now harvesting time



vuna



Phases of the Moon



The periods of the reign of a moon as known to the Zulus,
are set forth, in the subjoined statement, which I quote from
page 465 of Bryant's Zulu English Dictionary (1905).

Faye has made two minor additions to this statement,
which are shown in brackets vide page 57 of his book en-
titled Zulu References.

the moon is just appearing, as

on the day of the new moon
it has appeared, as a new moon

in the -first day or two
it is in the first quarter
it is now full moon



inyanga iyethwasa



ithwese



isilucezu

isihlangene or isidilingene
(or isigcwele]



50



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



isihlephukile or isilucezu
isifulathele ezansi or isi-
phethele ezansi



isilibamuza



it is in the last quarter
it is towards the end of the last
quarter when the crescent gets
to lean down flat towards the
east, not standing vertically
as before

it is the last day before dis-
appearance, or sometimes also
it is already full
it has gone or disappeared
it is the black or very dark day
today, i.e., the one immediate-
ly following the moon's dis-
appearance, and with the
Native, a day of solemn
retreat, abstinence from work
and pleasure-seeking
it is a white or brighter day
today, i.e., the second after
disappearance of moon and
one immediately preceding its
reappearance, upon which the
Natives are free again to work
it is coming in or appearing
it is laughed at by the (chatter-
ing) birds, i.e., when setting
just before sunrise
it is now overtaken by dawn,
i.e., sets during daylight, after
full moon

Many an apparent discrepancy may be conveyed by
interpreting chronological sequence of events in the exact
calculation of calendar months, whereas a perfectly honest
and truthful, illiterate, Native witness may be giving evidence
and basing his calculations of time in accordance with truly



ngolumhlope namuhla



isiyethwasa
isihlekwa yizinyoni



(isiyaselwa)



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



51



Native custom, on the lunar months which can only approxi-
mately be made to synchronise with the calendar months
of the year.

Even when these lunar months are used with their
Native names, there are, today, not many Natives who will
agree with the exactitude, demanded by a court of law, on
the names of the months in their correct sequence in order
to ensure accuracy of date when an event occurred.

It stands to reason, therefore, that infinite caution must
be exercised in interpreting chronological order of events as
given by 'an illiterate witness, in order to avoid discounten-
ancing his evidence on the grounds of discrepancy. For
example, if a witness is thinking in terms of lunar months,
his statement " Ngenyanga efile " and " Ngokuthwasa
kwenyanga " may stand for " During the last lunar month "
and " At the commencement of the new moon" respectively,
and should not be interpreted as " Last month " and " Next
month " at the risk of conveying a false impression to the
Court.

This point may best be illustrated by giving the following
lists of lunar months taken from lists given by men who
might claim to be experts in the matter :



A.

(Prof. Doke's Text-
Book of Zulu Gram-
mar, page 370)



1. uncwaBa

(also called
Unhloyile, the
month when
kites appear),
the month



B.

(A. I. Molefe &
T. Z. Masondo
EzomdaBu We-
zizwe ZaBansu-
ndu, page 191)

uncwaBa
(June)



C.

(P. Lamula, Isa-
Belo sikaZulu,
page 139)



uncwaBa
(August)



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



when the grass
is green, starts
about the
middle of July

2. umandulo (used

as " hlonipha "
for Umpandu,
also called Iso-
kanqangi), the
month when
the first gar-
dens appear
starts towards
the middle of
August

3. umfumfu

the month
when the new
shoots show
starts early in
September

4 . tdwezi

the month
when the grass-
hopper larvae
appears on the
grass starts
early in
October

5. uziBandlela

the month
when the paths
are overgrown
(also called
Udlolo), starts



umandulo

(July)



timandulo
(September)



uziBandlela
(September)



umfumfu
(October)



ulwezi
(November)



umasingana
(October)



uziBandlela
(December)



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



53



10.



very early in
November

umasingana
(also called
Ungcela), the
month for
looking after
the pumpkins
starts at the
beginning of
December

unhlolanja

the month of
the mating of
dogs starts at
the beginning
of January

undasa

the month of
the abundance
of new mealies
starts at the
very beginning
of February

umBasa

(also called
Um6aso), the
winter fires are
first lit, starts
at the end of
February

ungulaziBuya
( als o called
Undida), starts



ulwezi



umasingana



(November) (January)



ungcela
(December)



undasa
(January)



utnBaso
(February)



unhlolanja
(February)



undasa
(March)



um6aso
(April)



unhlaSa
(May)



54



11



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter



towards the
end of March



unhlangula
(April)



unhlangula
(Unhlangulana)
(June)



umaquBa
(May)



untulikazi, ( Uma-
quBa, Unhlangu-
la}. (July)



unhlaSa

the month of
the aloe flowers
starts late in
April

12. unhlangulana

(also called
Uluthudlana or
U m a, q u 6 a
omncane), the
month of the
early winds
starts about
the middle of
May

13. umaquSa

(also called
Untulini, Umpo-
fu, Untulikazi,
Uluthuli, Unhla-
ngula), the month
of dust blowing
starts in mid-
June

The natural conclusion is that no interpretation of time
can possibly give the accuracy reflected by a Police report
such as " at 6.15, on the morning of August the 17th, 1946."
and the witness' evidence cannot be dismissed as contra-
dictory merely on the time or date factor.

Professor Doke sets forth the terms used to indicate
various Periods of Time during the Day and Night, as known



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter 65

to the Zulus, in the subjoined statement, which I quote from
page 372 of his Text-Book of Zulu Grammar (4th edition).

ngokukhala kwezinkuku zokuqala (1st cockcrow)

fngokukhala kwezinkuku zesi6ili (2nd cockcrow)
\ngokuphuma kwekhwezi (at the appearing of the morning

star)

fngokukhala kwezinkuku zesithathu (3rd cockcrow)
\ngokuphuma kwendosa (at the appearing of Jupiter)

fngokwehla kwezinkuku (at the descent of the fowls)
\^kumpondozankomo (very early morning)

fngovivi ~\
\kusasa J (at early dawn)

Cngokuphuma kwenhlamvu (at sunrise)
< ngokuphuma kwelanga
[ekuseni kakhulu (in the early morning)

ekuseni (in the morning)

ngokufudumala kwelanga (when the sun is hot)

f ngenhlanzane (at milking time)
\ekuseni kwasemini (mid-morning)

femini (at midday)
\ukuqopha kwelanga (sun in zenith)

emini yantambama (early afternoon)

ntambama (in the afternoon)

selimathunzi (at time of mountain shadows)

Cseli6antu6ahle \ (sun at the base of the trees)
\selikhalazemithi J 3i



56



A Guide for the Zulu Court Interpreter


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