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tk. ' « ifi'tfiAM.







ef GRAY'-s-INN, Efq;

Vol. XL

l O N J) O N.

Priitcd for R. Franckliw, in Rufei,
Street, Covm-Gardev. M,dcc^xxvjj.




V n (1 VI o A


^n-T-M .'*%^.; /->.A;\^;ri:>'-A^y;V6



N"" 356. Saturday, Jpril iSy 1733.

I R Walter Raleigh obferves, that there
are few or none great with Ki?7gs^ wha
have not ufed their Power to opprefs ; who,
have not grown infolent and hateful t9
the People ; yea^ infolent to thofe Princes,
who advanced Them.
Do6lor Prideaux goes farther, and makes it a Doubt,
whether 'the Benefit, which the World receives from
Government, be Jufficient to make A?nends for the Ca-
lamities, zvhich it Juffersfrom the Follies, Mifiakes and
'Mak'AdminiJlration ^Tho'e, zvho manage it,

Theie melancholy Obfervations of two fuch excellent
Writers aroie, no Doubt, fi-om thofe frequent Inflances
of tyrannical and opprejji-ve Governors, which occurr'd
to Them in their biilorical Refearches. The Truth of
them hath been already illultrated by fevcral particular
Examples in the Cour'e of thefe Papers, and might be
corroborated by a Multitude of other IiT^ances, v/hicK
abound in the Hiltories of all Nations; but That would
be a needlels Trouble at preient, and 1 chufe to make
Vol. XI. A fome

fome general Remarks on this Propenfity of Me/i in
Fewer to opprefs the People.

There is not a more demonlliable Proportion in Eu-
tlid than this Maxim in Politicks, that the Happinefs of
the Governors and the Governed is reciprocal \ elpecially
in free Countries ; and yet, I know not by what Fata-
lity it happens, the former feldom think Themielves
eaiy in their Adminiftration, unlefs the latter yield an
abfolute and implicit Obedience to all their Meafures.
This creates a Diffidence between Them, and hath often*
ended in the moll fatal Confequences to Both.

It hath been a Queftion, much agitated of late,
whether the Misfortunes of Nations, in general, have
been more owing to the unreafonable Jealouiies of the
'People^ or to the provoking Infolencies and Opprelfions
of ^hofe in Authority. To fpeak impartially on this
Head, it ought to be allow*d that Both have been of-
«en to blame, and involved (heir Country in irretrivea-
ble Calamities ; but I think it evident from Hirtory that
Governors have commonly been the AggrefTors, and
led the Way to publick Confufions. The Body of the
People, who fubfift upon Trade and Induftry, are
naturally flow in their Refentments ; and, being unable
to difcern Dangers at a Diftance, are not eafily work'd
up into Oppofition ; but when They are thoroughly
cxafperated, and fee Oppreffion faring Them full in
the Face, They are apt to grow violent, and fometimes
run into dangerous Extremes.

There is fomething fo bewitching in Power, that
We cannot wonder to fee Governors ufmg all their
Endeavours to extend it ; but as the Happinefs of the
People depends on keeping it within due Bounds, I
cannot forbear fuipecfling fome ill Defign in any private
Many who becomes an Advocate for the Enlargement
of Power, in a free Country, whatever Regard He may
pretend, at the fame Time, ior popular Liberty.

As I was dipping, this Morning, into Cato^s
loiters, I found fome Remarks there, fo appofite to


N^ 356. The Craftsman. 3

my prefent Purpofe, that I fliall take the Liberty to

quote them.

* <' When We hear any fort of Men complain, as
fome fort of Men do frequently complain, that the
Cko\^-^ wa?its Power ', We fhould ask Them, whe-
ther They mean ov&xThemfel'uesP And if They an-
fwer, m; as certainly They will, if They fpeak
Truth; We may farther ask Them, why They
fhould judge for The fnf elves any more than Others ;
or claim to Themfekes a Liberty and an Exemption,
which They will not allow to Others ? The Truth
is J They, who complain thus, do only want to
increafe the Tower of the Crown^ becaufe by it their
own would be increafed, and other Advantages

*' The Fox in the Fable, wanting to rob an Hen-
rooft, or do fome fuch Prank, humbly beibught Ad-
mittance and Houfe-Room only for his HcW; but
when He got in his Head, his zvhole Body prefently
foUovv'd J and Courts, more crafty, as well as more
craving, than that defigning Animal, have fcarce
ever got an hich ofPozver, but They have Hretch'd
it to an Ell ; and when They have got in but a
Finger, their whole Train hath folio vv'd. Pifijlratus,
having procured from the City o{ Athens ^Sly Fel-
lows, arm'd only with Cudgels, for the Security of
his Perlbn from falfe and lying Dangers, improved
Them into an Army, and by it enflaved that free
State. And I have read fomewhere of the States of a
Country, who, having wildly granted to their
Prince a Power of railing Money by his own Autho-
rity, in Cafes of great Neceftty ; every Cafe ever
afterwards was a Cafe of great Necefit-^ i and his
NeceJJities multiply'd fo faft, that the whole Wealth
of the Country was fwallow'd up to fupply them j

* See CatoV Letters, Vol. 2,fp,2>z.

A 2 '» as

4 ^he Craftsman. N^ 356,

** as it will always be in every Country, where Thofiy
" who ask, are fufFer'd to judge what ought to be
** gwe/2 — A Prafiice, contrary to common Senfe, and
** which renders Liberty and Property perfeflly pre-
"^ carious ; and, where it is continued, will end in
" taking, without asking.

I have hitherto fpoken of Governors in general,

■without diflinguilhing between Princes and their Mini-

Jiers ; but being always willing to make Allowances for

the farmery I fhall confine myfelf to Thofe, who abufc

their Favour.

It leems unaccountable that Men, in full PoflelTion
of Power and Redundancy of VVealth, fhould fo rarely
be latisfied with their Condition ; and, not content
with the great Prcheminence over their Fellow-Subjeds,
be almofc continually hunting after new Inventions to
oppre fs and provoke Them- In many Cafes, one would
think Them intent upon Mifchief, purely for Mifchief-"
fake, by devifmg Schemes, which They know will ex-
asperate the People, and perhaps alienate their Affefti-
ons from the Throne, without any apparent Neceffity,
or Temptation for fo doing.

There are Infcances oiMmiflers^ who, having blun-
deiM Themfelves out of a long Series o'i foreign Blun-
ders, and made an hard Shift to patch up fomething
like a Peace, could not reil: in Qoict even for a Year or
two, but were pufn'd on by the fame bufy Genius to
run their Heads in the dark againft Stone Walls at home ;
as if They were refolved to verify the Allegations of
their Adverfaries, and took a Pride in betraying the
fame Ignorance in Adatters of domejiick Government,
which They had before difcoverM in foreign Affairs.

We have feen fuch Men obflinately puriuing a
Scheme, big with Deftruftion, and irfoleady declaring,-
in Oppofition to the known Senle of a whole People,
that it muft and Jhall go dozvn ; becaufe They had gone
100 far to retreat, without difcovering their Weaknefs,
and giving their Ene?nies an Advantage over Them.


N^ 3i^« ^^ Craftsman. 5

Thus a Natien ought to be min'd, according to this
modeft Do6lrine, for no other Reafon than to divert a
Storm, which one or two rajh and guilty Men had
drawn upon Themfelves.

It mull: be the greateft Satisfaction to a People, who
have been treated in this Manner, to fee fuch Men
defeated in their Attempts ; and. Thanks to Heaven !
They have often been fufficiently humbled and mor-
tify *d. We have feen an irifolent, do??iineeri?2g Minijier
reduced, after all his Defiances, to the wretched Necef-
fity of recanting his abujive Refieffions, and giving up
his infamous ProjeSfs, with Tears in his Eyes, which
feemM to flow from an equal Mixture of impotent Rage
and Pufillanimity. We have feen Him hurried, by
the Confcioufnefs of his own Guilt, into dreadful Ap-
prehenfions of Danger, and skulking through private
Paffages for the Security of his Perfon, even whilll He
hath been fupported by Power, and environ'd with
Guards, in a very extraordinary Manner. Nay, He
hath fometimes condefcended, in the meaneft Manner,
to implore the Proteflion of th^t AJfembly, which He
had long endeavour'd to render vSM^, and hath h^tvi
obferved to fhudder with Horror at every Propofition
for nevj E?iquiries. In fhort, his Charafler and Anions
have been branded with fuch popular Mark? of In-
dignation, Derifion and Contempt, in all Parts of the
Kingdom, that the following Paffages of Cicero'' s
Oration againil the fame wicked Minijier, - whom I
mention'd in my lall Paper, may be literally applied
to Him.

His Ego Rebus pafor, his dekffor, his ferfruor i
quod de Vobis hie Or do opinatur ?io:i fecus ac de teier-
rimls Uofibus ; quod Vos Equites Romani, qiiod ctsterl
Ordines, qmd cunSta Ciz/itas odit ; quod nemo bonusy
71 erne denique Civ is eft, qui mofpfe Civ em effe ?ne miner it,
qui Vos non Oculis fugiat, aurihus refpuat, mi mo
afpernetur, Recordatione deiiique ipsa Confulatus veftri
pcrhorrejcat-^^is enimTQ Aditu, quls ulh Honsre^

A 3 cm

6 ^e Craftsman. N^ 3 j6,

quis deftlque communi Salutatione dignum futet ? Omnes
Memoriam Confulatus ttii, FaEla^ Mores, Faciem denique,
ac Nomen a Republicd detefiantur.

As I "was ruminating very intenfely on this wicked
and foolifh Condaft o^ Men in Pozuer, I took a little
Nap in my greac Chair, and fell into the following
Dream, or Vifion, which will not perhaps be unac-
ceptable to my Readers.

I fancy'd myielf convey'd, on a fudden, to a fump-
tuous Edifice, in the North-Eafl Part of this City ;
over the Gates of which were infcribed the following
Words, in large Capitals; NO JURIES; NO
MAGNA CHART A. After I had pafs'd
through a little Yard, I came methoughts into a
fpacious Apartment, which had the Appearance of a
Court of Judicature. The Walls were all around
adorn'd and diverlifyM with feveral uncommon Em-
blems of Power. At the upper End of the Room fate
eight or nine elderly Perfonages, who feem'd to affedl
the Gravity of fo many Judges ; often laying their
wife Heads together, whifpering, and nodding, with
an Air of magiiierial Importance. Each of Them held
a little Cane, or Rod, in his Hand, mark'd with
arithmetical Numbers, and other mathematical Figures.
Whilft I was furveying thefe odd Sages, and conje^lu-
xing with myfelf what Office They might bear in the
Commonwealth, I heard a confufed Noife at the Door,
and turning myfelf about, faw a Parcel of ill-loolid
Ruffians, v/hom I at firll took for Bum-Bailiffs, drag-
ging in a venerable Matron, whofe Image I have often
feen in Painting and Sculpture. She had a long Spear
in one Hand, and a Shield in the other ; which thefe
brutal Fellows endeavour'd, amongft other Indignities,
to wreft from Her ; but She clinch'd them fait, and
maintainM her Hold, with a Smile of Indignation
and Contempt. Having forced Her to the Bar, She
was commanded to hold up her Hand, in order to
be arrr.ign'd ; but She demurr'd to the Jurifdidion of


N* 356. The Craftsman. y

the Court, and infifted on her antient Privikges with
fuch admirable Strength of Argument, and fuch a be-
coming Mixture of Modefty and Refolution, that it
drew Tears from the Eyes of all the Spedators, except
her favage Judges and ProfecuiorSy who feem*d inexora-
bly combined againft Her, and determined on her
Ruin. They inhfted very peremptorily on her Plead-
ing ; which She continuing to refufe, with the lame
intrepid Conftancy of Spirit, They threaten'd to
proceed to farther Violence, and were going to give
the neceffary Orders ; but, juft at that Inftant, the
whole Room was dlarm'd with the chearful Sound of
Bells in all Parts of the City, and loud Conclamations
of Joy in the Streets. The Court was immediately
crouded with another Body of Men, drefs'd in plain
Habits, with the Figures of Looms, Plough-pares and
Anchors embofs'd on their Breails. One of Them ad-
vanced before the reft, with a little Scroll in his Hand,
which appear'd to be a Decree of the Senate. Having
read this Paper aloud, the pretended Judges and their
little Officers were ftruck with a fudden Confternation,
and fneak'd out of the Room, one after another, with
vifible Marks of Shame and Confulion. The Gentle-
man then approach'd the captive Matron, with a chear-
ful Gravity of Countenance ; and, making a low Obey-
fance, took Her by the Hand, and led Her from this
Bar of Mock-Jufiice. As foon as She got without the
Gates of the Court, She was received by a vaii Con-
courfe of People, who faluted Her with repeated Shouts
of Congratulation, and conduced Her in Triumph to
her old Manfion, the Temple of Liberty, fituated on
the Banks of the neighbouring River. Methoughts, I
made one in this glorious Cavalcade, and felt an inex-
preffible Satisfa6lion of A/Iind, upon obferving fo grate-
ful a Concern of the People for the Deliverance of their
antient Patronefs. Having taken our Lcive of the good
did Lady, with a thoufand Wifhes for her Profperity,
We return'd into the City -, where We foimd one


S ?"/?^ CrA FTSMAN. N^ 357.

general Scene of Mirth ; the Rejoicings of the Night
being equal to the Bleffings of the Day. The Streets
blazed with huge Piles of Faggots ; and the Houfes
were illuminated with an infinite Profufion of Tapers,
which difpeird the Darknefs of the Night, and made
it appear like Noon-Day. Our Eyes were fealled, on
every Side, with a numerous AlTemblage of joyful
Countenances, and our Ears with various Kinds of
Mulick. The Windows and Balconies were thronged
with Perfons of higher Rank ; and the Populace below
exprefs'd their Joy, in their ufual Manner, by burning
the Effigies of T^hofCt whom They look'd upon as their
Enemies. Yet notwithftanding the Height of their
Provocation, as well as the Urong Senfe of their Deli -
verance, the whole Scene appear'd to be conducted
with great Decency, and as little Outrage as could
poflibly be expeded from an exafperated Multitude, on
fo important an Occalion. T>.

]S[^357. Saturday, M^V 5, 1733.

. In eft fua Gratia parvis.


H E EngUJh Language hath been often
charged with an Objeftion, which,
though fpecious enough, I cannot think
jufi. It is laid that we have too many
MonofyUables. Some of the greatelt
Cri ticks have, indeed, frequendy indul-
ged their Spleen againil them ', and it is grown a com-
mon Reproach in the Mouth of moll Foreigners. Nay,


N^ i^y. ^he Craftsman. p

oar own bell Poets have not been lilent on this Head 5
fo that I begin to fear a dangerous Confpiracy is form'd
againfl this littie Fraterm^ ; and I know not how foon
they may be doom'd to Banifhment, unlefs they meet
with fome charitable aiid timely Vindication.

For my Part, I cannot help.confidering thefe little
Bodies as the nobleil and moft fenfible Part of our
Language, which give us a material x^dvantage over
mofi: other living Languages. Methinks, they breathe
the very Genius of the Britijh Nation ; and hovv^ever,
like That, they may be too often infulted ; yet I muft
obferve that they are not, like many other Words,
bluftering only and empty, pitiful and cil-eminate ; but
in Reality and on moft Occafions, like our own Nation,
ftrong, bold, good and great.

I may, perhaps, fome Tim.e or other, treat this Ar-
gument thoroughly ; and demonilrate the Importance
End Neceffity not only of retaining, but even of en-
larging the Number. This only I (liall premife at pre-
fent, as to my future Defign ; that I propofe to write
it (tho* it v/ill be an ElTay of no fmall Extent ) wholly
in Monofyllables ; wl greas, I believe, I may def/ the
moil voluble, long-winded, long worded Orator to put;
together two or three tolerable Sentences without any
Monofyllables at all.

Nay, if my Delign meets with a favourable Recep-
tion, I may be arrogant enough to make an hum.ble
Propofal, that all but true. Haunch Monofyllables fliall
be utterly difcarded ; and I flatter myfelf that in this
Attempt I fhall have the Concurrence of moil People^;
iince I perceive that the Generality of our Writers, for
near an Age pall, contract their Words as much as
They can j and, as llrange as it may feem, have been
clipping the Coin, to make it the more current.

Of all the V/riters, that Antiquity has left us, ^alufi
and Thucydides are the Ihorteil ,* and as fuch, I own
that I reverence Them. The latter of Thefe (as w&
have his Chara^fler by the luofl copious Orator in the

Worid )

lo The Crat T sUAii, ^ 3S7»

World) feems to have more Se?i fences than Words. But
future Writers, according to my Plan, may exceed Him
a Bar's Length. They may have, perhaps, as ?nany
Sentences as Syllables.

Indeed, I am the more inclined to this Projeft, be-
caufe the clofer we follow all Languages to their Foun-
tain-Head, the more W5 fhall find them fimple, clear
and unmixt. The Languages of the Eajf, from whence
all others flow, have the fhortell Words. . The Chinefe
is faid to be infinitely the moil copious ; and yet we are
informed that it confifts almoft intirely of iingle SyJla-
bles. In Imitation of that great and virtuous People, I
declare againft all Sorts of unnatural Alliances ; againlt
all Sorts ol compounding.

But to proceed to my Projeft. I am .fenlible

that, in this Undertaking, I ihall raife many Enemies,
and I fee new Objeftions flarting up every Day. Yet,
at the fame Time, I make no Doubt, that when my
Scheme is fully open'd to the World, I fhall have Mulr
titudes to join Me by Degrees.

One great national Advantage will evidently ariie
from my Projeft ; for which I may reafonably expect a
publick Reward. We all know, by full Experience,
that Treaties and Negotiations take up a great deal of
Time in Tranfadion, and are too often inveighed a-
gainft as tedious. Now, i^MiniJlers would but intro-
duce my /hort Language into all Congrefies, Prelimi-
naries, Memorials and CommifTions for adjuiiing Dis-
putes ; what a Length of Time, what a Profuiion of
Words, and confequently of Expence, would be faved
by it ? This might be eafily brought about by the dex-
terous Management o^Thofe, who are confeifedly Ma-
flers of the moft engaging Arts oi Pacification ^ and have
long fmce rival'd the greateft Politicians in their happy-
Knack of perfuafive Inftru£iions.

It hath, indeed, been generally thought that a great
Man ought to be Mailer of many Words ; but I would
lelTen his Trouble, and am fully convinced that if He


N^ 337' ^^^ Craftsman, ii

hath but tzvo little, fnug Monofyllnbles intirely at Com-
mand, He may do his Buiinefs effedually. By the
Help of Ihefe, and a magick Wand, He may perhaps
fee his Charm laft, till a noble Fortune is raifed. But
it fometimes happens that He may over-exert Himfelf ;
and then, with all his Art, He w^l never be able to lay
( what was raifed at the fame Time) the ^irit of the

I have already the Satisfadlion to behold one of the
moft important AfTemblies in the World giving a Sandli-
on to my Scheme, and I glory in the Honour of it.
We fee the whole Wifdom of the Nation frequently
employed with the utmoft Vehemence, and to the
greateft Length of Debate, whether Ay e, or N O fhall
carry their Point. So little a Thing is it as tzvo, or
three Letters, that hath often engaged us in an honou-
rable War, or a glorious Peace, and fometimes kept us,
like Mahomefs Tomb, is an odd State of Sufpence be-
tween both. Old hath been the Enmity and frequent
the Skirmifhes between thefe tzvo Particles ', though it
is obfervable that the Aye's have commonly got the
.better, being always fupported by a large Body of pozu-
erful and wealthy Auxiliaries. But, on the other Side,
the N O's have frequently difcover'd an undaunted
Spirit, amidft all their Difadvantages, and not long ago
obtain'd a very fignal and compleat Vi6lory. To Them
it is intirely owing that a Scheme, for \vsy^ox\m%wooden
Shoes into this Kingdom, hath been lately defeated r
jand the Publick hath Reafon to exped; fome farther
Benefits from the honeft, vigilant and induflrious Ser-
vice of thefe little Patriots.

All the Nations in the World are divided into two
■great Bodies oi Mono fy II able s, of near AfHnity to the
Aye's and the N O's, who are ufually diftinguifh'd.
hy the Names of the Ins and the Outs. The Ins
.are always the richefl: and moll confiderable Party ; but,
if I may fpeak my private Opinion, the Outs are
xiommonly the honefteftMen, and pay the greateft-Re-
* gard

II The Craftsman. N^ 357.

gard to the Intereil of their Country. However, as I
am one of the Outs myfelf, and may befufpedled of
Partiality in this Cafe, I fhall fay no more upon it.

I am very glad to find that a certain great JJ/embly
hath unanimoufly taken Exception more than once a-
gainft the Word Pensions, as of too great Extent;
and though the Time of its Annihilation hath been de-
ferr'd from Year to Year by aiiother pious Set of Men y
the Day may come, when an honeft Impeachment of
fuch an overgrozvn WordY^iM fucceed, and deftroy that
formidable Engine of Power, which hath already in-
curr'd thejuft Refentment of the whole Nation.

We have the more Hopes of This, iince the fame
Affembly hath already demolifh'd one Word, very nearly
ally'd to it; a Lofs, which I ought to lament as a
PrcjeSfor ; but, as an Englijhman, I rejoice with my
Country that, in all future Elections for Members of
Parliament, there can be no fuch Thing as a Bribe.

And here I mufi: do myfelf the Jullice to acquaint
the World, that though I profefs myfelf an Admirer
and Patron of MonofyllableSy I would not be thought
fo much prejudiced and bigotted in their Favour, as
to defend them all, without Diftindion. There are
many of thefe Laconick Expreffions, which I fhould be
highly pleafed to fee expunged out of our Language.
The Word Frauds, for Jnflance, fliall never have
any Quarter from Me ; and to fhew you, Sir, that I
am not a Man of atiti-monarchical Principles, I heartily
wifh that the Committee, lately appointed to enquire
into them, may not prove a Com?nittee ^Safety.

Since I have mention'd my political Principles, I
mulf not forget to take Notice that there have been
melancholy Times, Vvhen the Body of the Nation rofc
in Arms againil two of my grcatell Favourites, and
intircly abolifli'd Them; I mean Church and
King ; but as They are now happily reltored to us, I
hope in God We fhall never be iuch Fools, or Mad-
men, as to enter into any Meafures, which may de-

N^ 357* ^^ Craftsman. 13

prive us of Them again. At the fame Time, I have
the Pleafure to- obferve that the People, in general;
have not lately difcoverM any Inclination to be made
Slaves ; but feem defirous to preferve a due Ballance
between the Power of the Crown and the Protedlion
of the Laws.

I fhould likewife be glad to fee the Word Screen
fcratch'd out of our EngUJh Vocabulary; it being a
Term, which has been fo much hackney 'd about for
feveral Years pall, and proftituted in the Caufe of every
paltry Fellow, who happen'd to Hand in Need of it,
that it is grown quite infamous in our Language. In-
deed, the great Engr offer of it hath lately endeavoured
to patch it up for his qw7i Ufe ; but it is h far worn
in the Service o^ Others, that it will be very difficult,
if not impoffible, to make it anfwer his Purpofe. It
may, perhaps, ferve a prefent Turn or two ; but can*
not, I think, prove any lafting Security to Him.

There is one pretty Monofyllable, which I am fure
will always keep its Ground ; and as long as our Lan-
guage lafts. We Ihall never be at a Lofs to underftand
what is meant by a Tax. It mull be confefs'd, in-
deed, that this Word is become neceflary in all Coun-
tries ; and, when moderately ufed, may be of great
Advantage to Them ; but when it is made common,
upon all Occafions, it not only grows naufeous, but
grievous and infupportable ; efpecially if it exceeds all
Bounds, and endeavours to fwell itielf into an Excise,

For the fame Reafon, I fliail never attempt to fup=
prefs thofe faihionable JMonofyllables, Ways and
Means; which are become almoil conilitutional, and
as it were Mulick to an Englfh Ear. They are, in-
deed, the Favourites of the Favourites ; and therelbie
all Endeavours to rcti-ench Them would not only be
highly prefumpiuous and unpolite, but even imprac-
ticable and ridiculous.

Since Ihivc enteiM upon this Subjeft, I fhall no
Doubt have many Panegyricks fent Me upon the

Vol. XL B Virtues,

14 ^foe Craftsman. N^ 357.

Virtues, the Beauties, and Rhetorick of Gold; or
what We call a good round Sum ; and the moji e7nine72t^
mlnifterial Writers will give us undeniable AiTurances

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