California. Dept. of Fish and Game.

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Volume 16

San Francisco, July, 1930

Number 3 1

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San Francisco, California

Fish and Game Commissioners appointed by the Governor. Term at pleasure of

Governor. No compensation

I. ZELLERBACH, President San Francisco

REGINALD S. FERNALD, Commissioner Santa Barbara

JOHN JL. FARLEY. Executive Officer San Francisco

EUGENE D. BENNETT, Attorney San Francisco

Ralph W. Scott, Assistant Attorney San Francisco

510 Russ Building, San Francisco. Phone Sutter 6100.


W. H. SHEBLEY, In Charge__ San Francisco

J. H. Vogt, Assistant to Chief or" Bureau San Francisco

A. E. Burgliduff, Field Superintendent San Francisco

L. Phillips, Field Superintendent Sacramento

George A. Coleman, Biologist Berkeley

Alex Culver and A. E. Doney, Surveyors Sacramento

G. H. Lambsoii, Superintendent Mt. Shasta Hatchery and Klamath

River Stations Mt. Shasta

Geo. McCloud, Superintendent Mt. Whitney Hatchery Independence

J. C. Lewis, Superintendent Fort Seward Hatchery Alderpoint

E. V. Cassell. Foreman Fall Creek Hatchery Copco

Peter Topp, Foreman Yosemite Hatchery Yosemite

C. L. Frame, Foreman Big Creek Hatchery Swanton

J. W. Ricker, Foreman Cold Creek Hatchery Ukiah

J. J. Shebley, Foreman Feather River Hatchery Clio

Ed. Clessen, Foreman Kaweah Hatchery Three PJvers

George E. West, Foreman Tahoe Hatchery Tahoe

Wm. Berrian, Foreman Clear Creek Hatchery Westwood

D. A. Clanton, Foreman Bear Lake Hatchery Pine Knot

H. E. Cole, Foreman Mormon Creek Hatchery Sonora

K. H. Shebley, Foreman Burney Creek Hatchery Burney

Guy C. TaTDler, Foreman Kings River Hatchery Fresno

Raymond Hadden, Foreman Yuba River Hatchery Camptonville

John Marshall, Foreman Brookdale Hatchery Brookdale

James L. Stinnett, Foreman Beaver Creek Station Gottville

Archie Thompson, Foreman at Mt. Whitney Hatchery Independence

Clarence A. Nixon. General Foreman at Mt. Shasta Hatchery Mt. Shasta

Donald Evins, Superintendent Distribution Car 01 Mt. Shasta

Ross McCloud, Superintendent Distribution Car 02 Mt. Shasta


N. B. SCOFIELD, In Charge San Francisco

H. B. Nidever, Supervising Captain Terminal Island

S. H. Dado, Supervising Captain San Francisco

C. H. Groat, Captain Terminal Island

R. F. Classic, Captain Monterey

Coburn F. Maddox, Captain San Diego

W. L. Scofield, Acting Director State Fisheries Laboratory Terminal Island

W. F. Thompson, Consultant, State Fisheries Laboratories Terminal Island

Commercial Fisheries Patrol

Paul Bonnot San Francisco Ross W. Markley Terminal Island

R. S. Cleaveland Pismo Beach Tate F. Miller Terminal Island

N. C. Kunkel Terminal Island L. G. Van Vorhis Terminal Island

Launch Patrol

Walter Engelke Launch "Bluefln," Terminal Island

Jos. F. Childs Launch "Bluefln," Terminal Island

Glen F. Grant Launch "Bluefln," Terminal Island

L. F. Weseth Launch "Albacore," Monterey

Erol Greenleaf Launch "Albacore," Monterey

H. R. DUNBAR, Assistant Executive Officer and In Charge Sacramento

LEO K. WILSON, Acting Director San Francisco

Earl Soto, Assistant to Director i^ San Francisco

Rodney S. Ellsworth, Educational Assistant San Francisco

D. D. McLean, Field Naturalist San Francisco

E. S. Cheney, Photographer Oakland

Paul A. Shaw, Toxicologist San Francisco

Mrs. Bessie W. Kibbe, Librarian San Francisco


J. S. HUNTER, In Charge San Francisco

Jay C. Bruce, State Lion Hunter San Lorenzo

JOHN SPENCER, In Charge San Francisco

Clarence Elliger, Assistant San Francisco


AUGUST BADE, In Charge Yountvllle

E. D. Piatt, Assistant in Charge Cbino

GEORGE NEALE, In Charge Sacramento

California Fish and Game


Volume 16 SACRAMENTO, .HILY 1930 No. .1





Waltpr R. Welch 2(»4


CRAYFISH I'uiil Jionnot 212



(Jeorge A. Coleman 221



TAI AND CARP Lif,m-l A. Walford 'SU

LUMINESCENT FISHING Miltan J. Lindner 2:17






Violations of Fish mikI (!aine Law.s 273

Fishery Products, January. February, March, 1930 274

Statement of Expenditures 278

Statement of Income 280


By W. W. Mackie

[With mic iilidtosraiili by the author]

The reduction in the nnmber of wild ducks, accordinj^ to federal
authorities, is due in a large measure to the reduction of their natural
feedin": grounds. These areas, usually swamps or lakes, have been
drained for agricultural purposes, many of them without profit to
agriculture. This situation particularly affects the fall and winter
feeding grounds of waterfowl. The wild goose is not so seriously
affected in his feeding habits as the wild duck, for the goose feeds in
the grain fields and uses the lakes and swamps for resting or loafing
places between flights. After providing a loafing place, it is largely a




Fig. CI. Wild rice (Zizania aquutUa). UpptT portion ol" tlie panicle bears female,
or seed, llorets only, and the lower portion male, or stamlnate, florets only'
The female florets bloom much earlier than the male.


matter of protection from excessive hunting for him. With tlie excep-
tion of the sprig, or pintail, the (lucks do not, to any considerable
extent, follow the geese to the grain fields. The baiting of their feeding
grounds in protected areas of the gun clubs is therefore an easy way to
attract ducks, provided there are sufficient numbers of ducks to be
attracted. Large quantities of grain sorghum are fed to ducks by gun
clubs during the hunting season, b^^t this does not extend beyond into
the ]u-otected season. The prol)len ies in supplying this feed through
j)lants which naturally reproduce : lemselvcs. This condition is par-
ticularly pertinent for those areas now being set aside by the state for
perpetual protection of ducks and similar waterfowl.

The native feeds which support ducks are not sufficiently plentiful or
attractive to adequately meet the situation. Many coarse herbaceous
plants afford fair to good holding or carrying foods, but they do not
provide the concentrated food like seed-producing plants. Sago pond
plant, with its bulb-like seeds, frequently affords a good deal of fine
feed, especially for Mallard and Canvasbacks, but it demands pond or
lake conditions and may be entirely destroyed by excessive numbers of
undesirable mudhens.

IMillet, the barnyard grass (Echinoachloa crus-galli) is good duck
feed and is usually found abundantly in rice fields. Cleanings from
rice mills furnish cheaply large quantities of this seed, but the continu-
ous swamp condition of the feeding grounds of ducks does not favor the
growth of millet. Growing millet in areas adjacent to duck clubs or on
state protected areas in the same manner followed in growing rice
would produce this feed in abundance, even in localities not adapted to
cultivated rice. This procedure, however, calls for the expenditure of
money and energy. A naturally self-sown and perpetually reproducing
seed plant is desired.

Wild rice (Fig. 61) has frequently attracted Californians in their
efforts to secure a self-perpetuating duck food of good quality. The
high value placed on wild rice for duck food in the eastern, northern,
and even southern states has created a demand for wild rice seed which
supports several regular firms of seedsmen. For forty years or more
attempts have been made to establish wild rice in California, but entire
failure has resulted until recently. These failures were due, we now
know, to failure in keeping the wild rice seed cool and moist in transit
and until it was sown. If the seed dried out after the first two weeks
following harvest its viability is destroyed in a very few days. This is
why much of the wild rice purchased in the market will not grow. In
the natural habitat of the wild rice the seed shatters and falls into the
shallow water just before it has fully matured, much in the fashion
of our Avild oats. The seed does not rot, but remains fully protected in
the nuul until the spring season, when it sprouts and grows. Such wild
rice fields are covered with water continuously throughout the year.

Experiments made by the author to introduce wild rice into Cali-
fornia for the past three years were in part successful.* It was found
that wild rice seed secured in Wisconsin, expressed to California packed
damp in spagnum moss and kept cool in transit, arrived in good viable
coiulition. The seed which gave the best germination was placed in

* These te.sts were made possible tlirouKh the generosity of Major F. K. Burnliam,
>>f the State Park Commission of California.


cold storage and frozen at a temperature below 32° F. "Water was
added from time to time to prevent drying due to the evaporation of
the ice. The seed which grew best was sown in May. Wild rice does
not stand alkali or very brackish water, or stagnant water covered
with green scum or algae. A slight movement or drainage gives the
best results. The soil should be muddy and not sandy. The best depth
of water is about one foot, but wild rice will grow in less or in greater
depths, provided the water is kept continually over the land.

The adaptation of wild rice to California climatic conditions pre-
sents some obstacles. Tests made at Davis, Biggs, Williams, Clear
Lake, Berkelej^ and Shasta County, showed that rice planted in April
or May matured very early, beginning in the middle of July and com-
pleting development by the latter part of August. The rice seed
remains dormant in the mud, even in California, until the next spring,
when it sprouts. For many reasons these dates are too early. The
species of wild rice tested (Zizania aquatica) is indigenous to such
northern regions as northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Canada, and
must therefore mature in a very short season. A later maturing, taller,
and somewhat different species {Zizania palustris) is found on the
Atlantic seaboard in the vicinity of Washington and southward. This
variety matures into September, and has grown well at Berkeley.
Further experiments with this southern species may solve these diffi-
culties of too early maturity.

Wild rice outcrosses due to the arrangement of the female and male
florets in separate spikelets. The female florets mature later than the
male, and occupy the upper portion of the head or panicle, therefore
necessitating pollination by wind or insects from other ad.jacent plants.
This method of fertilization gives rise to considerable variation through
which new forms adapted to the altered conditions in California may be

The various recent attempts to establish wild rice in California have
been frustrated mainly by the voracious appetites of mudliens and carp.
These pests are always with us. Further attempts to establish wild rice
in spite of these disadvantages are being made.

Today and Yesteryear

By Walter R. Welch

Not many years ago at a session of the legislature of the state of
Vermont, a member thereof arose in his place in the House of Repre-
sentatives and proposed to abolish all the game laws of that state
except those which were intended to protect song birds. This was,
indeed, an extraordinary manifestation of the spirit of the times, and
it is significant of the general lack of information on the subject of
wild life protection.

To think that in these days of general diffusion of knowledge, an
intelligent and probably conscientious legislator should favor such a
proposition is astonishing, and goes to show the absolute necessity of
educating the public on the vital problem of wild life protection, and



yet that act was not without its encouraging feature to game pro-
tectionists, as it proved that this legislator did appreciate the value of
the song and insectivorous birds at any rate, and we may now hope
that he has been convinced as to the value of all wild life.

After years of work, struggle, and sacrifice, the advocates of wild
life conservation have definitely agreed as to what is the most pressing
need at the present time to forward this great movement. That need
is the education of the masses of people as to the value of wild life and
the necessity of wise laws strictly enforced for its protection and

Fig. 62. A fish and game deputy (W. H. Armstrong)
in 1900 in a costume often worn in those days.

It is difficult to ascertain in what year the first fish and game legisla-
tion was enacted by white men on this continent. It is known that the
Indians or aborigines long had tribunal laws in force regulating the
killing of wild life before the white man arrived here, and so important
did their wise chiefs consider such measures that in case of some
offenses, such as killing an albino or white deer, which was considered
sacred game, the penalty was fixed at death.

Of the Anglo-Saxon settlers, who established the original colonies in
Virginia and Massachusetts, we find little on record which tends to
prove that at the beginninjT as a jjeople they considered game legisla-
tion necessary. The fact that many of them came to this country for


the distinct purpose of escaping tlie penalties of the harsh game laws
of the mother country, leads to the belief that they despised such meas-
ures. In their new homes they found game of all kinds in abundance,
and suffice it to say they took immediate advantage of their opportunity
and advantage, and soon became a veritable race of hunters and expert

The earliest authentic evidence of colonial legislation according to
the modern notion of game laws, was that of New Jersey in 1679, when
the general assembly of that province prohibited the export of any
dressed deer skins from deer killed by Indians.

From that time on. New Jersey continued in the enactment of game
laws of various kinds.

In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, an act to protect deer was passed
in 1698, and in New York deer received the first attention of the law
makers in 1705. In 1769 South Carolina passed an act protecting deer
by a regular closed season from January first to July first, while in
1797 Vermont enacted a similar law. In 1774 Tennessee forbade night
hunting for deer.

As showing the abundance of game in that state during the early
days of its settlement, we have the record of a legislative act of a
different cliaracter as a living witness. It seems that a portion of the
present state of Tennessee had later established itself as an independ-
ent, separate state, and was known by its natives as the state of
Franklin. In 1788 the legislature of the state of Franklin met. At
that time money was scarce with which to pay the officers of the new
state, so in October of that year the legislature of the state of Franklin
enacted the following law to provide for the compensation of their
officers :

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the slate of Franklin and it is
hereby enacted by the authority of the same, that, from the first day of
January. A. D. 1789, the salary of the Civil Officers of this Commonwealth
be as follows, to wit :

"His Excellency, the Governor, per annum, one thousand deer skins, his
Honor, the Chief Justice, five hundred deer skins, the Attorney General, five
hundred deer skins, the Secretary to his Excellency, the Governor, five hundred
raccoon skins, the Treasurer of the State, four hundred and fifty otter skins,
each County Clerk three hundred beaver skins, Clerk of the House of Com-
mons, two hundred raccoon skins, members of the assembly, per diem, three
raccoon skins, Justice fee for signinR a warrant, one muskrat skin, to the Con-
stable for serving a warrant, one mink skin,

"Enacted unto the law this 18th day of October, 1788, under the great seal
of the State."

The above not only shows the abundance of game which inhabited
that section of the country at that time, but also what a race of hunters
and trappers the settlers were ; in fact, hunting and fishing and trap-
ping seems to have been the principal occupation of the people ; also in
the absence of proi)er mea,sures to conserve the supply of wild life, we
can readily understand how and whither the wild game has gone from
the land.

Fish and game protection, as the term is understood, in this country
at this time, consists largely in the enactment and enforcement of laws
regulating the time when, the manner and means by which, and the
amount of fish or game that may be legally taken, caught, killed, or
had in possession by the public.


These laws are eiiactetl by the state legislature and are enforced by
reeoonized officers of the state commonly called <i;ame wardens.

While laws for the protection of <?ame in California were enacted as
early as 1852, and while as early as 1870, by the ci'eation of a state
board of fish eoiumissioners, provision was made for tlie enforcement of
the laws enacted for the protection of fish, and while in 1878, the juris-
diction of the fish commission was extended to include same, it Avas
not until 181)5 that a law was enacted providing: for the appointment of
fish and game wardens by county boards of supervisors. Under the
provisions of this law, the salaries of county fish and game wardens was
fixed at from $50 to $100 per month, according to the classification of
the various counties. In addition to a salary, the wardens were allowed
not to exceed $25 per month for expenses.

As an indication of how little the people in general were interested
in the protection of fish and game, and in the enforcement of the fish
and game laws at that time, we find that during the five years next
succeeding the passage of this law, only six counties within the state,
viz : Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Mendocino, Sacramento, Los Angeles,
and Fresno, took advantage of it and appointed county fish and game

To these county fish and game wardens, and about an equal number
of regular salaried deputy fish commissioners, employed by the state
fish commissioners, augmented by the help of a few men who volun-
teered their services prior to 1907, and the enactment of the Hunting
License Act, were entrusted the enforcement of the fish and game laws
in the State of California.

When we recall the fact that prior to 1907, the salary of game
wardens in this state did not exceed $100 per month, from which it
was necessary for the M^arden to defray all of his expenses, we must
realize that those who sought appointment to the position did so more
from their desire to protect wald life than in the hope of increasing
their bank account.

In those days it was necessary for game wardens to maintain horses
and rigs as a means of transportation, and to camp out in the hills, and
cook their meals along the bank of some stream, in order to curtail
their expenses.

In the past, the mission of game wardens seems to have been mis-
understood. They w-ere criticized, abused, and misrepresented in a
shameful manner by the very people who were most benefited by their
services, and their work has indeed been onerous and difficult.

In the first place, game wardens, although expected to be on the job
day and night in all kinds of weather, are the poorest paid officials in
the state, and three-quarters of them receive no compensation whatever
for their services.

The work of game wardens is decidedly of the most difficult and
strenuous character, and there is no glory in it. either. To be success-
ful, he must possess all the qualities of an accomplished detective and
at the same time be tireless, energetic, honest, courageous, and enthusi-
astic for the cause he represents.

What are some of the handicaps that confront game wardens? We
must remember that very few violations of the fish and game laws
occur in the cities or populous sections of the state. They are com-



initted where fish and game are to be found, in the lonely forests and
along the isolated streams and lakes. A game warden is necessarily,
.h Tefore, an executive and a prosecuting officer in one, for he must
secure his e\adence and produce his man in court before a conviction
can be had.

It is hard to secure evidence of a violation of the fish or game laws
in sparsely .settled districts. The natives, or "hill billies," in these
districts do not like to testify in court against a fish or game law
violator, and in many instances are themselves opposed to the fish and
game laws in general and sympathize with the violators of these laws,
so we find that the game warden must depend almost wholly upon him-
self in enforcing the law.

Fig. 63. A deputy on patrol — Walter R. Welch, game warden, Santa Cruz County,
1915. Photograph by W. W. Richards.

If a game warden is slow and timid about making arrests for vio-
lators of the fish and game laws, he is ridiculed and called "spineless."
If the warden is active and enforces the laws rigidly, he is abused by
those he prosecutes and is criticised by others for being " overzealous. "

While these are some, they are not all of a game warden's troubles,
for he must often face violators of the fish and game laws, who are
heavily armed, and who would take advantage of him and shoot him
down if he is not careful.

If the sportsman, who sits in his comfortable home and complains of
the inactivity or incompetence of the game warden, would undertake
the enforcement of the fish and game laws himself, he might have a
very different story to tell.


As the writer was appointed a volunteer deputy of the State Pish
Commission in iSiHj, county tish and {^ame warden of Santa Cruz
County, under a salary of $50 pci- month in 11)00, and Deputy State
Pish Commissioner under a salary of $1()0 per month in 1901, he was
among- those of the game wardens who pioneered in fish and game law
legislation and in the enforcement of these laws in California during
the early days, and believes he knows whereof he speaks.

While prior to 11)07 there were only about a dozen regular salaried
game wardens for the enforcement of the fish and game laws in Cali-
fornia, and while at that time the appointment of these wardens was
more or less influenced by polities, the activities of a majority of
them were not under any direct control or supervision. At the present
time there are about one hundred and twenty-five regular salaried
deputies of the Division of Fish and Game, including captains.

The regular deputies of the Division are required to pass state civil
service examination as to their qualifications to discharge the duties of
game wardens and are paid a regular monthly salary and traveling
expenses for their services. The regular deputies of the Division of
Fish and Game are required to wear a uniform, consisting of suit, hat,
shirt, tie, and shoes of like design, color, and material, and are located
in sections of the state where their services are most required for the
protection of fish and game and the enforcement of the laws.

The activities of the regular deputies of the Division are directed by
a chief of patrol through captains, who have control and supervision
of the deputies assigned to their respective districts.

In addition to the regular deputies of the Division, there are about
eight hundred and fifty volunteer deputies. About five hundred and
fifty of these deputies have been selected from the ranks of the sports-
men of the state, their appointment being sponsored by bona fide
fish and game protective associations and clubs located throughout the

About three hundred of the volunteer deputies are federal forest

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