o5th Biennial Report, have been continued and expanded durinp; the
present biennium to include a personnel of three from the Bureau of
Fish Conservation and eight from the Bureau of Patrol.
The Detail has maintained a frequent and more complete patrol
covering areas where production, refining, loading, shipping, storage
and use of oil and petroleum products constitute a potential hazard
to aquatic life in State waters. In this work the cooperation of Fed-
eral enforcement agencies has been extended ; patrol by boats and
planes, together with effective backing on enforcement having been of
inestimable benefit in the investigation and control of pollution from
this source. ]\Iany new and modern oil separating units, particularly
at the car loading, tank cleaning and roundhouse stations of the rail-
roads have been constructed during the period covered by this report
with resulting improvement to aquatic conditions. A further step, to
remove suspended solids, hazardous chemicals and final traces of oil
has recently been taken, on our insistence, by a concern handling oil
field waste waters where an installation costing over $100,000 is now
being completed for this purpose.
Pollution resulting from mining has, next to oil, required the most
active efforts of this Detail. Repeated inspections, suggestions on
proper control measures and emphasis on protection of recreational
values as well as fish life, combined with a more insistent public
demand, has served to initiate a greater degree of cooperation on the
part of mining company officials than has been evident in past years.
Thus, the improvements have largely been through suggestion, request
and the weight of public opinion rather than enforcement, but this
method is inadequate for the minority who delay action until forced to
do so. The same situation applies to the Klamath and Trinity area
where the legislation now in effect (Section 482) does not guarantee
stream clarity and efforts to preserve suitable conditions for recreation
and fishing depend on cooperative work and good will rather than
compliance with the law.
This situation emphasizes the need of factual data to establish
more definitely the damage caused by pollution from placer mining,
on which a study will soon be under way, and also initiates the thought
that legislation to control pollution from this source would be justi-
fied on the basis of damage only to the recreational use of State waters.
Control of tailings from quartz mills is less difficult, potential damage
THIRTY-SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT 29
being more definitely established, and permanent impounding areas
have been constructed and put in satisfactory operation at many addi-
tional mills during the biennium.
A study to determine the extent and methods of controlling future
damage to waters of the Shasta Dam reservoir by tunnel drainage con-
taminated with copper and acid from abandoned mines will be con-
cluded shortly after the present biennium, the data now indicating that
a project to exclude air by sealing tunnel entrances would be effective.
FOOD AND BEVERAGE PLANTS
The food and beverage industries produce wastes causing pollution
of a different type but equal in importance to that from oil and mine
tailings. The large contributors to pollution in this classification are
the fruit, vegetable and fish plants, wineries, distilleries, beet sugar
refineries and milk products. Two factors have been primarily respon-
sible for delays in securing complete remedial measures to eliminate
pollution from these sources. First, seA'eral of the large industries have
had sufficient influence to request and secure deferred action. For-
tunately, during the present biennium the Fish and Game Commission
took a firm stand authorizing strict enforcement of pollulioii laws.
Second, complete remedial and treatment measures are de|)enilent on
further research and investigation, sufficient data not being available
for the design and installation of proper pollution control facilities.
In this connection, while the burden of responsibility rests with the
industry, it is essential that this Division be familiar with suitable
methods, and conduct sufficient research of a practical character to
offer suggestions to the industry, thus avoiding further delays when
it is claimed that treatment methods are not available. Employment
of a Junior Sanitary Engineer, recently approved by the Fish and
Game Commission, and construction of adequate laboratory facilities
are urgently needed to carry on this program.
Notwithstanding the difficulties above stated, material progress
has been made in reducing pollution from the food and beverage indus-
tries. Celery packers in the Terminous area installed flume, elevator
and bin units at a cost of $50,000 for handling waste celery; this mate-
rial now being taken away by truck and utilized for stock feed.
Wineries in the Lodi area constructed sumps and land disposal areas
for still slops following a severe fish mortality from pollution of the
Mokelumne River. Asparagus packing and canning plants, together
with a few peach and tomato canners have eliminated a portion of the
garbage like wastes by land disposal, but further remedial measures
are urgently needed. Several sugar refineries improved land areas for
waste disposal and another refinery is now installing a treatment
plant. On the whole, pollution from sugar refinery wastes was greatly
reduced during the biennium. Pollution from milk product plants lias
been decreased over former years, but seasonal inspections are still
necessary to safeguard certain streams during summer and fall periods
of low water flow.
Control of pollution from fish canning and reduftion j)lants con-
centrated at San Diego, Terminal Island, ^Monterey and the San Fran-
cisco Bay areas, estimated to produce wastes equivalent to the raw
sewage of 2,500,000 persons at Monterey and 5,000,000 persons in tlir
30 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION
San Francisco Baj^ area during days of peak operation, has only been
effected to a minor degree, the principal improvement being removal
of fish scales and large fish particles from purse seine bilge water and
plant effluents. Greater oil recovery and reduction of solids in press
liquor has also been provided at a few plants. However, steps to elim-
inate pollution from all plant effluents are progressing with research
under way by the City of Los Angeles, various fish plant operators and
private engineering concerns.
SEWAGE AND GARBAGE
Pollution of State waters from sewage is still a serious problem.
Data contained in a recent Federal bulletin reveals that 10 per cent
of the investment needed throughout the Nation for abatement of
sewage pollution is required here in California. While laws relative
to sewage disposal do not come under the jurisdiction of the Division of
Fish and Game, the Pollution Detail indirectly has been active in
advocating, requesting and securing sewage pollution abatement in
a number of instances. Complete treatment units have been installed
at several smaller communities and the cities of San Diego, Los
Angeles, Oakland and Sacramento have plans and programs well under
way for sewage disposal improvements.
Garbage and similar refuse which periodically pollutes many water
areas in California, causing severe complaints, is not specifically pro-
hibited under the pollution act enforced by the Detail. Certain sec-
tions of the Public Health Code cover this matter adequately, but
the Department of Public Health does not have the personnel for
enforcement. A plan is therefore being considered, whereby officers
of the Pollution Detail would be authorized to enforce these sections of
the Health Code, and if adopted a marked decrease in harbor, beach
and stream pollution from this source can be anticipated during the
Definite aquatic improvement has also been effected during the
biennium from control measures installed at the request of this Detail
at many plants of other types such as saâ– v^^nills, chemical and manufac-
During the biennium, under the efficient supervision of Warden
C. L. Towers, 134 cases were prosecuted with fines totalling $26,355,
of which amount $20,280 was paid in cash. In this connection the
installation of short wave radios has been of great value in answering
calls immediately and securing proper evidence. The use of motion
picture cameras has also greatly aided in collecting convincing evidence.
THIRTY-SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT 31
REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF GAME CONSERVATION
By J. S. Hunter, Chief
The work of the Bureau of Game Conservation in assisting in the
management of game in our State has grown year by year with the
taking over of new problems the solution of which will add to the game
supply and assure posterity of a continuation of the pleasures of field
sports for years to come. Conditions, generally, are satisfactory but
there are many problems that must be worked out before we can rest
on our oars and say our work is finished.
There is no doubt that the number of ducks has increased during
the past several years. This is due to the work of the various inter-
ested agencies that have brought about better protection and breeding
conditions. The work of the Federal Government through the Fish
and Wildlife Service can not be too highly commended nor can the
accomplishments of Ducks Unlimited in improving conditions in the
north go unmentioned. Our own part in setting aside of sanctuaries
where millions of birds have found security during the open season
and have been able to survive and go to their northern breeding
grounds, must not be overlooked.
There is, however, work yet to be done. Duck disease, lead poison-
ing, and other causes take a great toll which may or may not be pre-
vented. We must carry on and make every effort to find a cure for
these destructive agencies. Breeding areas in our State must be pro-
vided. It is evident there can be no great increase in breeding areas
in the wintering localities, but there is a wonderful opportunity to
better conditions in the real duck breeding areas in the northeastern
part of the State.
Ducks by the millions have been using our waterfowl refuges as
loafing and feeding areas. Year by year their numbers are increasing.
The first birds arrive in August and increase so that by the end of the
season there are thousands upon thousands of birds. Tliose birds have
successfully escaped the hunters' shotguns and will continue on to
their northern breeding grounds. Were it not for these protected areas
the duck situation in California would be in a serious condition.
It has been possible during the past two years to maintain a satis-
factory water area on all the refuges. At Los Banos during the duck
season w^e could have used more water, but with the development of
the interior valley project, the water situation on this refuge will be
more satisfactory. During September, 1939, in Imperial Valley, tor-
rential rains flooded the refuge but caused no damage, in the Spring
of 1940 flood conditions prevailed in the Sacramento Valley. During
32 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION
the flood of 1937 we thought we had seen the highest water we would
ever have. However, the 1940 flood was four feet higher, even exceed-
ing the record flood of 1907. The newly finished superintendent's
house on Gray Lodge Refuge had been built, we believed, so that the
floor would be at least 18 inches above the highest flood. At its peak the
water was 19 feet deep in the house. Fortunately, very little damage
The status of our chief upland game bird is not satisfactory. There
remains much work to be done and it is for this reason that we have
undertaken an extensive study with Pittman-Robertson funds of the
quail problem and we hope it will bring about results satisfactory to
the thousands of our sportsmen. Whether the situation is caused by
disease can not be stated at the present time, but we are aware of con-
ditions and will carry on until w^e know the cause and, we hope, the
cure. Excellent work can be done in improving quail conditions by
the development of w^ater, feed, cover and roosting places and in trap-
ping birds in heavily stocked localities and transferring them to areas
that are underpopulated.
In certain parts of California the mourning dove is the main game
bird. In years past when the season opened well ahead of September,
doves were being reduced in numbers but since September 1st was
made the opening date, the supply has remained constant and in
sections has increased. In the greater part of the State, unless the
season opens the first of September, there is very limited hunting.
The nesting season is then over and the birds leave the locality where
they have been abundant. Probably the greatest concentration area
is in Imperial Valley. In that section the season can be opened the
first of October and the hunters be assured of good shooting on
practically any day of the season.
The success of the pigeon hunter depends greatly upon the
abundance of feed. In the areas commonly frequented by these birds,
unless there is a good supply of acorns and berries, there will be few
birds. Usually the best hunting is in the lower central coast counties.
Last year in the Pleyto section in southern Monterey and northern San
Luis Obispo counties, more than 20,000 pigeons were taken during the
open season. In doing so hunters used more than 14,000 boxes of
shells. Pigeons are not the easiest of game birds to hit. We are sure
that this kill did not injure the supply as the birds were as abundant
by the end of the season as at the beginning.
The ring-necked pheasant can now be considered as a thoroughly
established game bird in our State, particularly in that section where
rice growing is carried on. No less than 125,000 birds are taken
annually. In that part of the Sacramento Valley covered by flood
waters in the Spring of 1940 there was a heavy loss of birds. However,
THIETT-SIXTF BIENNIAL REPORT 33
the species is a prolific breeder and under favorable conditions will
There has been a very encouraging; increase in sagehens during
the past several years in Modoc, Lassen and Mono counties. It is hoped
that with the attention now being given them, they will continue to
increase so it will be possible to put the species back on the list that
can be taken by hunters.
There are few States in the Union that can offer more in the way
of deer hunting- than we can in California. With a season extending
through August to the middle of October, with a limit of two deer, and
with an excellent supply to draw from, what more could the hunter
desire? Since the deer tag law was adopted in 1927 the deer harvest,
according to postcard returns, has been more than doubled and there
are few parts of the State where conditions justify worry. On the
other hand, there are sections where it seems deer may be too abundant
and it may be necessary to reduce their numbers. Crop protection
from deer is becoming a serious problem.
Previous to the record-breaking cold winter of 1936-37 the antelope
herd increased to such an extent that we believe it would soon be pos-
sible to have a limited open season. However, so many were winter
killed there was a serious setback and an open season must be delayed
until complete recovery has been made. Close watch will be kept on the
antelope population. During the winter when the animals bunch and
when climatic conditions permit, a census will be taken. Last year a
census taken in February indicated there were somewhere near 6,000
liead in Modoc and Lassen counties.
The valley elk that were moved to Owens Valley have continued
to increase. When Owens Valley was not farmed the elk were welcome
and were not a problem but with the change in the agricultural pro-
gram of the Los Angeles owners, crop protection from elk is serious.
Plans are under way which, if perfected, will lead to the fencing of an
area where the elk may range without disturbing anyone.
The 200 or 300 Roosevelt elk that are fouiul in tlie redwood
country in Humboldt County also continue to give some trouble 1o the
agricultural interests. It is hoped that arrangements can be made
whereby this most interesting species can be held in some park area
where damage to crops will be of little consequence.
The elk on the refuge in Kern County are slowly iucreasing.
Some loss in the herd is occasioned each year by the fact that certain
morons think it is sport to sneak up on the outside of the fence and
shoot at the animals with 22 rifles. A number have been killed by sucli
bandits. Two shooters who were caught were given a term on tiie road
gang but this has apparently not cured the trouble.
34 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION
Diirino- the biennial period trappers working in this bureau
accounted for 5,797 coyotes, 1,917 wildcats and 3,411 lesser predators.
In taking these 11,125 animals trappers covered 510,734 miles of trap-
lines and made 487,279 sets, working 10,664 man days. In this work
we cooperate with other agencies engaged in predatory animal control.
Our men work in game areas that are not covered otherwise. Pred-
ators are not equally distributed in the various sections of the State.
In some regions a record breaking catch can be made while in other
areas much harder work will produce a poor take.
Since mountain lion control was undertaken by the division
there have been taken up to the end of the biennial period 8,523 lions.
Without doubt this work has reflected, generally, on the deer popula-
tion, deer being the primary food of lions. Certainly it has been a
great help to sheepmen. It has been truthfully stated that every lion
in sheep country will cause the loss of hundreds of dollars worth of
sheep. In addition to the bounty of $20 on male and $30 on female
lions, the division employs four lion hunters who spend all their time
on this work. These men account for from one-fourth to one-third of
the lions taken annually. During the biennium 527 lions were killed.
Our Pittman-Robertson program was begun during the biennium.
Money for the projects under the authority of the Federal act is
secured from the tax on arms and ammunition. In order to be eligible
a State must contribute 25 per cent of the amount received from the
Government. Six projects are now under way. We realize that par-
ticular attention should be given to the quail situation. Accordingly,
a study of all conditions affecting quail is being carried on in the lower
central coast counties. Information gathered here will be of value in
all parts of the State. An extensive study of the southern mule deer
is being carried on in Santa Barbara County. This is a continuation
of the work undertaken by the Forest Service which that agency was
coni])e]led to drop on account of insufficient funds. Study of the desert
regions with the particular idea of improving game conditions is under
Avay. The fur resources of our State are being thoroughly studied.
The Pittman-Robertson program will enable us to carry on studies of
the many problems that confront us in the management of our game.
Disease, parasites, feed and water conditions, relationship of the various
species one to another, in fact all the thousand and one questions that
come up repeatedly and for which there have been no research funds,
can now be undertaken.
Finally, I wish to express my appreciation for the assistance the
bureau has received from commissioners, executive officers, and the
other bureaus of the Division, to employees of the Department of
Finance and other State agencies, and to a loj^al and cooperative staff
in the Bureau of Game Conservation.
THIRTY-SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT 35
REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF GAME FARMS
By August Bade, Chief
During the past two years the production and distribution of game
birds from our two main farms has been increased over previous
The main factor in this increased production and distribution is
further development of the holding pen program. At the close of the
previous biennium we were serving 987 pens. During the present
biennium this number was increased to over 1400. Many more clubs
have become interested and have constructed units of rearing pens in
their particular locality.
In order to meet the increased demand of young birds that are
raised in these sportsmen's pens our brooding units have been increased.
The Fresno brooding unit has been increased a third and a new brood-
ing unit has been installed at our Sacramento holding pens.
Soon after the first of the year of 1940 Federal aid in tlie form of
labor by the National Youth Administration was offered. Bureau of
Game Farms took advantage of this labor and have increased the
facilities at Fresno, Sacramento and "Willows. These units are all
located in excellent game bird country and it is planned to keep these
units as well as our Redding unit open the year around. These four
units are spaced well in northern California and will give good results.
In southern California two other brooding and holding pen units
are being constructed. One unit, of 12 double-colony houses and 48
rearing pens for Los Angeles County, is utilizing county labor, the
other unit of the same size for San Diego County is utilizing Federal
National Youth Administration labor. These two units will round out
the valley quail program in southern California. Still another unit of
20 rearing pens at the 22d Agricultural District Fair Grounds at Del
Mar has been built using Federal NYA labor.
The State Legislature passed a Game Management Area Law
during the 1939 session. The law went into effect so late in 1939 that
it could not be used. However, in 1940 tlie Game Management Law
ha,s created quite a lot of interest. This law allows farmers or land-
owners to manage their lands and agricultural practices so that they
can raise game birds as a crop. "With restrictions under tlie Game
Management Law the farmer may then sell the privilege of harvesting
part of the crop of game birds. Part of the crop must be left for the
following spring nesting season. We hope that this program will help
the farmer-sportsmen's situation.
This bureau realizes that our future upland game hunting and
recreation depends largely upon the fanner. "Witli this idea in mind
we are giving assistance to the farmer and landowner in helping them
raise game as a crop.
36 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION
Ring-necked pheasant, Mongolian pheasant, Chinese pheasant. Reeves
Ring-necked pheasant, Mongolian pheasant, Chinese pheasant, Reeves
Quail â– - 136
Ring-necked pheasant, Mongolian pheasant, Chinese pheasant. Reeves
August Bade, Chief
Bureau of Game Farms
THIRTY-SIXTH BIENNIAL REPORT 37
REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF PATROL AND LAW
E. L<. Macaxtlay, Chief of Patrol
Since the last biennial report an adtUtional patrol district has
been organized, the JMarine Fisheries Patrol, under the immediate
supervision of Inspector C. H. Groat. Inspector L. F. Chapped was
assigned to the vacancy in the Central District caused by the death
of Inspector S. H. Lyons on September 26, 1938. The Commission
authorized an increase in the patrol force of 20 Avardens and request
has been made to the Personnel Board for a promotional examination
to fill these positions.
A new twin-screw patrol boat, the "Perch" M'as placed in com-
mission in November 1938. This vessel is of sliallow draft design
and will be used on the Sacramento River. The patrol boat "Alba-
core," an ocean-going vessel originally built in 1917, was sold, having
outlived its usefulness, and the launch "Hunter" was disposed of for
the same reason.
The motorvessel "Bluefin," while en route to Mexican waters,
struck a reef off North Coronado Island at 2.30 a.m. November 12,
1939, during a dense fog. The captain was able to back off and pro-
ceed towards the mainland after sending a radio message for assist-
ance. The vessel finally sank a quarter mile from Point Loma while
being towed. The boat has been raised and repaired, and should
give many more years of satisfactory service.
Conferences with all wardens present were held in Saci-amentn