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C-a-mornia. fept."or Kisn an
Biennial Report 1940-1942.



ame.



C.2



STATE OF CALIFORNIA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES

KENNETH I. FULTON, Director



THIRTY-SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT

OF THE DIVISION OF

FISH AND GAME



FOR THE YEARS 1940-1942




25467



CONTENTS



Page

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 5

ANTELOPE HEAD 6

REPORTS—

Executive Secretary, George P. Miller 7

Fish Conservation By A. C. Taft 10

Pollution Detail By Paul A. Shaiv 23

Game Conservation By J. S. Hunter 27

Game Farms By August Bade 40

Patrol and Law Enforcement By L. F. Chappell 44

Marine Fisheries By Richard Van Cleve 46

Engineering By J. Spencer 54

License Distribution By H. R. Dunbar 58

STATISTICAL REPORTS —

License Sales 60

Pish Distribution 72

Predatory Animal Take 86

Game Bird and Animal Take 87

Arrests and Convictions 88

Deer Kill Between 88 and 89

Mountain Lion Bounty Paid Between 88 and 89

California Fresh Fishery Products 94



(3)



It is with much regret the Division reports the following deaths and
retirements of members of its staff during the biennium and wishes at
this time again to give recognition to the faithful and efficient service
rendered by these employees.

Entered Service Died

Merrill Brown 6/15/30 12/ 8/40

Harrison A. Laws 3/23/31 5/29/41

J. H. Vogt 5/14/27 12/20/40

Retired

H. B. Nidever___ 6/29/08 9/1/41

George M. Null 9/ 1/27 10/ 9/41

Iva G. Porter 9/ 3/26 9/ 1/39

John J. Shannon 5/ 7/21 6/30/40

J. W. Thornburg 9/27/27 4/ 2/41



(4)



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL



July 1, 1942

To His Excellency, Culbert L. Olson,
Governor, State of California,
Sacramento.

Sir : We, the members of tlie Fish and Game Commission, are happy
to submit our Biennial Report covering the period July 1, 1940, to June
30, 1942.

The following report covers the activities of the various functions
within the division.



Kespectfully submitted.



Nate F. Milnor, President
Germain Bulcke, Commissioner
Edwin L. Carty, Commissioner
Lee F. Payne, Commissioner
W. B. Williams, Commissioner



(5)




Fig. 1. Antelope head. Antelope was taken
by Lee Mead of Bill, California, under permit No.
270, June 14, 19 42, on the Carlo Mesa, Lassen
County.

Weight dressed, 110 pounds
Horns: Length, left 15g", right 154"
Prong, 4"
Spread 14"
Tip to tip, 51"
Base, 6g"



(0)



REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY

Gkorge p. Mili.f.u



The impact of the war on the Division of Fish and Game struck as
it did all types of American life with the rapidity that for the moment
disrupted its orderly functioning?.

The day after Pearl Harbor, the Division of Fisli and Game was
called upon by the Twellth Naval District Headquarters and the Sheriff
of Contra Costa County to lend its aid in guarding vital bridges in the
Bay area. The division responded immediately and for approximately
three months successfully guarded one or more of these structures. We
were particularly entrusted with guarding the fSouthern Pacific Car-
quinez Bridge from the waterside.

Because of their training in police work, great demands were made
upon the services of our law enforcement personnel by the Federal Bureau
of Investigation, Naval Intelligence and other groups in the internal
security of California, and in ferreting out draft dodgers and enemy
aliens.

A Defense Advisory Committee was set up under the Chairmanship
of Commissioner Edwin L. Carty who made an independent investigation
of coastal security and worked in conjunction with other public and
quasi-public agencies charged with internal security.

Immediately upon the outbreak of the war, steps were taken to insure
the free flow of commercial fish through the ports of California, the com-
mission modifying its rules and regulations to meet the emergency con-
ditions brought about by the war effort. One of the phases of this
problem directly affecting the sardine fishery was the hermetically seal-
ing of the ports of San Francisco and San Pedro by the Navy. In
February, 1942, Commissioner Carty and the Executive Secretary made
a trip to Washington, D. C. for the purpose of laying the problem before
high ranking naval authorities. Working in conjunction with Mr. Jeff
Kibre of the International Fishermen and Allied Workers Union of
America, we were successful in our mission and as a result of it, a series
of conferences were initiated by the Commandants of the Twelfth and
Eleventh Naval Districts that resulted in allowing the fishing fleets to
proceed to sea.

One of the vexatious problems that heretofore confronted the com-
mission was the matter of issuance of permits to take birds, tlieir nests
and eggs, and mammals for scientific purposes. Unquestionably there
had been an abuse of the privileges granted individuals for the purpose
of the advancement of scientific knowledge. Commissioner Germain
Bulcke was appointed chairman of a special committee consisting of
representatives of the scientific institutions in California to study and
suggest a new method of issuing permits. As a result of the work of
this committee, all of the then-existing permits were rescinded and a
system was devised whereby designated scientists would pass upon the

(7)



8 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION

qualifications and integrity of those people seeking permits. The plan
has worked exceptionally well.

The establishment of the trout hatcheries at Hot Creek, Mono
County, and Fillmore, Ventura County, marked a new milestone in fish
culture in California. Mr. Nate F. Milnor, President of the Fish and
Game Commission, through his intense interest and practical knowledge
in this field encouraged the change in technique that is responsible for
increasing the efficiency of the division 's hatcheries.

Under the Chairmanship of Commissioner Lee F. Payne, an intensive
study was made of the game management area law and out of a committee
appointed for this purpose, came a series of recommendations to be acted
upon by the commission and presented to the Legislature to bring about
more workable legislation.

During the biennium, the first antelope hunt in over 40 years was
held under a new section of the Fish and Game Code enacted in 1941.
Commissioner W. B. Williams of Alturas took a personal interest in the
rules and regulations governing this hunt and it was through his intimate
knowledge of these animals and the country that the hunt was made a
success.

Commencing with December 7, 1941, a close check was kept upon the
daily license sales of the Division of Fish and Game without regard to
the calendar or fiscal year so that we could readily gauge the effect the
war was having upon our revenue. This study has been continued, on
that basis and it is interesting to note that the sale of angling licenses
decreased only six per cent for the comparable period between December
7, 1941 and with that commencing with December 7, 1940. The sale of
hunting licenses showed greater decrease and with the sale of deer tags
went down about 21 per cent for the comparable period of the preceding
year. This, it was felt, was brought about by lack of gasoline, control of
travel due to the war emergency, and inability of hunters to obtain shells.

Foundation for better and more intimate relationships with the
administrators of fish and wildlife of our sister states of Oregon, Nevada
and Arizona was initiated during this period. The problems of the West
as they pertain to wildlife are common problems and differ from those
. throughout other sections of the country. It is through the fullest
cooperation with our sister states that we can best achieve the maximum
benefits arising out of rational, wildlife management.

The competition for the use of the waters of California for agricul-
tural, industrial and other purposes and the effects of the disruption of
the natural flow of streams as the result of it has begun to manifest
itself. The necessity for a rational program of water conservation is
becoming more evident as the effects of building such dams as the great
Shasta Dam on the Sacramento and the Friant Dam on the San Joaquin
rivers begin to materialize. The studies of what these dams will do to
the anadromous fishes, particularly salmon, point to the losses that will
be sustained by the commercial fishing industrj^ and those who take this
fish for recreational purposes. The closest cooperation must be obtained
between the agencies of government and those who benefit from the
storage of water, and a program of education undertaken that will estab-
lish with these groups the full value of the fish life in our streams.

As the war progressed, the Division of Fish and Game began to feel
tlie pinch in both personnel and material. Many of our people were
taken into the armed forces because of special training, education or other



THIRTY-SEVENTH BIENNIAIi REPORT »

qualifications. Some of them were attracted by the higher salaries being
paid in the defense industries in California.

Finally, I want to pay compliment to tlic st;df and employees of the
Division of Fish and Game for their loyalty and devotion to duty. In
these times of stress brought about by the war effort, they have been called
upon to make sacrifices in time and energy, and they have unhesitatingly
and wholesomely given of both to carry on the important work of the
Division of Fish and Game.



LIBRARY

By Bessie W. Kibbe, Departmental Librarian



During the past few months of this biennial period, while many of
our force have left for service in the Army or Navy, and other defense
work, the volume of Library reference, loans, bibliography cataloging
and other library details have been maintained and enlarged.

Due to the growing difficulties attendant upon war, literature from
Nazi occupied countries has ceased coming to the library. Luckily we
are still receiving scientific and other material from China and from
Great Britain and her colonies.

We have been most fortunate in completing one set of the Division 's
Biennial Reports dating from that of 1870, tlius adding materially to
the Division 's historical records.

The law library of 711 bound volumes, previously in the custody of
the librarian, was offered to and accepted by the California State Library
at Sacramento.

Our two years' annual preparation of periodicals and worn books
for binding was made.

During this period, 289 bound volumes were added to the library
of which $150.05 represented gifts and $915.45 purchases. With these
additions, the total number of bound volumes held by the library as of
June 30, 1942, number 2914 with a total value of $10,340.69.

The scientific and subject miscellaneous pamphlet collection totals
7279 with an appraised value of $1,222.78, of these 904 were added dur-
ing this biennial period, $119.30 by gifts and $43.53 as purchases. The
Library's present holdings represent $11,563.47, with a replaceable value
far in excess of this amount.



10 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION



REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF FISH CONSERVATION

Bv A. C. Taft, Chief



The fisheries management program for interior waters, which is
largely under the supervision of the Bureau of Fish Conservation, has
been extended and improved in numerous ways during the biennium.
Some phases of the work have only been changed in minor ways such as
might be expected under normal growth and as the result of experience,
other parts of the work have been changed radically and merit recording
and description in this report.

For many years trout and salmon hatcheries throughout the country
have in large part depended upon beef liver as the principal food for fry
and fingerlings. This material has become increasingly expensive and
at the same time it has become evident that an increasing production in
terms of the pounds of fish reared was necessary if more fish of larger size
were to be planted. During the last year of the preceding biennium a
program was initiated whereby condemned fluke liver could be obtained
for our hatcheries. During the following two years the program has
been expanded and we are now using more than 800,000 pounds of food
per year of which over 600,000 pounds is fluke liver obtained at a cost of
about eight cents per pound delivered at the hatcheries. Even this
increased amount of liver would be inadequate in amount and overly
expensive for the production of trout that is now contemplated, and as a
result Ave have sought for even cheaper and more plentiful substitutes.
During 1941 there were used in addition to fluke liver, 23,619 pounds of
condemned canned fish, 35,210 pounds of fresh fish, 141,286 pounds of
horse meat, 26,940 pounds of fish meal, 23,871 pounds of miscellaneous
meat and cereal products. It appears at the present time that the use of
fresh marine fishes such as anchovies and sardines can be greatly increased
and supply additional food at low cost.

The following table shows the number of pounds of trout and salmon
produced and planted each year since 1935.

TABLE I

POUNDS OF TROUT AND SALMON PLANTED
(Not including rescued fish)

Year ' Pounds

19.36 143,868

1937 119,758

1938 84,760

1939 95,142

1940 133,948

1941 167,647

1942 243,000

The poundage for 1936 was abnormally increased by the planting of
52,937 pounds of trout taken from excess brood stock. In 1938 produc-
tion was at its lowest level for the period covered, largely as a result of



'rimrrv-SKVKN'i II i'.iinniai, kki'out 11

the flood damage of tliai .year. Since thai lime I lie increase lias been con-
stant and this year the amount produced and planted will l)e nearly
twice as gi'cat as dni-inp: any previous year.

Tables T and II, in conjunction, show to what extent the planting' of
trout has kept pace with the increase in the nuinl)er of licenses sold each
year and at the same time with only a moderate increase in the total oper-
ating expenditures of the bureau.

TABLE II
OPERATING EXPENDITURES, BUREAU OF FISH CONSERVATION,

1937 TO 1942

p. , Salaries Materials Service Property Angling

Year ^"^ ""*' *"'' *"'' '^"^'^^ licenses

wages supplies expense eriuipmcnt sold

1935-36 87th $172,645 $104,435 $29,518 $6,913 $313,512 223,908

1936-37 88th 198,460 118,600 40.196 19,405 370,721 298.736

1937-38 89th 222.085 117,000 40.350 21,325 400.760 312.909

1938-39 90th 216,519 92,640 40,123 20,266 369,549 346,661

1939-40 91st 225.409 75,280 35,522 13,273 349,484 366.452

1940-41 92d 252,804 92,639 40,488 16,870 402,802 388,472

1941-42 93d 252,944 85,682 48,912 8,123 395,722 458,177

It will be noted that the principal budgetary increase has been in
salaries and wages. This resulted first from the raise to the minimum
authorized by the State Personnel Board in 1937 and secondly, in the
following years through annual salary increases provided for by action
of the T^egislature. To a lesser but wholly justifiable extent there has
been an increase in the total number of employees of the bureau. The
increase in the salaries and wages item has been largely compensated for
by economies in other items such as fish food and equipment so that the
total operating budget has only been increased by about 4.6 per cent
during the last three years as compared with the first four years of the
loeriod indicated in the table. In addition to operating expenditures
shown in the table there has been a considerable amount expended for
permanent improvements such as new hatcheries which will be described
in detail later in this report.

The question might naturally be asked as to whether angling, par-
ticularly for trout and salmon, is holding up under the additional drain
put upon the resource through an increase of over 100 per cent in the
number of licensed anglers in California between 1935 and 1941. In 1935
the Bureau of Fish Conservation instituted a system whereby annual
records of the anglers' catch throughout the State could be obtained from
year to year in order to answer the question as to the condition of our
game fisheries and thus supply information that would be of great value
in their management.

The first system of collecting the records was based on voluntary
reports made by the anglers on the license application form and was in
effect until 1939. There were several drawbacks to this system. The
fisherman's memory of his season's catch had become hazy by the time
he came to report it on his next year's license application. The publicity
and haste attendant upon buying the new license also made for poor
individual reports. Further, the records for any year were not complete
until all applications for the succeeding year had reached the statistical
department, with a resulting lag of over a year in the compilation of the
final report.



12 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION

To overcome these defects a new system was tried in 1939 and is
now in use. A random sample list of approximately 10 per cent of the
anglers was built up throughout 1939 as the license stubs reached the
statistical department, and in Jauary of 1940 questionnaires were mailed
to these names. The angler was thus enabled to make his report at leisure
and reasonably soon after the close of the season ; and inspection of the
returns shows great improvement over the earlier ones. Further, the final
consolidated report could be completed at least a year sooner than was
possible under the old system.

It should be noted that the voluntary report continues to be basic.
This means that not all anglers in the sample make reports, and that
estimates of the total catch of any kind of fish by all the anglers have had
to be based on the catches reported by those anglers who do make returns.
The proportion of report returns, under all systems so far tried, has been
in the neighborhood of 30 per cent. Even under the postal card question-
naire, this has involved close to 10,000 units, a number which would be
considered statistically adequate to serve as a basis of estimate provided
it constituted a true random sample, that is, provided the reporting
anglers were truly representative of the whole angling population.
Unfortunately, there is every reason to believe that this is not the case.
The consideration of only one factor serves to demonstrate this : men who
catch no fish obviously are less likely to report than those who do, and
the proportion of such men is therefore greater among the noureporters
than among the reporters. The game records, where the deer tags furnish
an absolute check unequaled in the fish records, have clearly demonstrated
the truth of this general proposition.

In an effort to shed light on the darkness surrounding the activities
of these noureporters, a ''second call" was sent out in 1938 to a sample
of the licensees who had failed to report their 1937 catches on their 1938
license applications. In this case only 18 per cent returned catch records,
leaving again a large blind spot. The principal piece of information
gleaned from this work was that at least 12 per cent of all licensees catch
no fish, of which about half do not fish at all, while the other half fish but
catch nothing. This figure has been adopted as a basic factor to use in
working up all estimates of total catches.

In spite of all questions as to the validity of the sample and as to
the reliability of the individual reports, information of great value is
none the less furnished by the catch records. The distribution of the
angling licensees by county of residence is factual matter to which no
shadow of question attaches; the distribution of their fishing effort by
species and by county of catch, while not factual, may be looked upon as
liaving considerable reliability.

As for the estimates of total catch, it should be stated that these are
based on two general assumptions; first, that catch reporters and non-
reporters fish for each species in similar proportion ; and second, that the
average catch of the noureporters, after making allowance for the 12
per cent of all anglers who catch no fish, is the same as the average catch
of reporters. While there may be and probably are fallacies in these
assumptions v/hich make for errors in the absolute values of the estimates,
it seems none the less probable that the comparative values of the esti-
mates from year to year are highly significant, and that they do present a
fairly accurate picture of the yearly fluctuations in the total catch of any



THIRTY-SEVENTH BIENNIAL REPORT



13



fish — iuforiiiation which is more important in fisheries management than
the absolute values.

TABLE III
ESTIMATED TOTAL CATCHES OF INLAND WATER FISH



19351

Number of licensees— 223,098

Trout: Catch 11,700,000

Successful anglers. 112,000



103C



1937-



193S



igsg''



Average catch

Striped Bass: Catch—
Successful anglers _-
Average catch

Black Bass: Catch

Successful anglers—
Average catch

Crappie: Catch

Anglers

Average catch

Sunflsh: Catch

Anglers

Average catch

Salmon: Catch

Anglers

Average catch

Catfish: Catch

Anglers

Average catch



81



298,736


312,969


346,661


366,452


2,000,000


11,900,000


12,900,000


12,800,000


149,000


151,000


160,000


179,000


80


78


79


71


2,130,000


2,070,000


1,970,000


1,900,000


85,000


83,000


94,000


91,000


25


25


21


21


930.000


849,000


1,190,000


1,340,000


34,400


32,700


45,800


67,000


27


26


26


20


1,040,000


917,000


1,210,000


1,720,000


23,300


24,100


28,200


52,200


47


38


43


33


590,000


1,164,000


934,000


2,090,000


10,900


22,700


17,000


51,000


54


51


00


43


196,000


160,000


178,000


215,000


24,600


20,000


22,300


30,700


8


8


8


7


2,040,000


2,810,000


3,480,000


4,330,000


37,700


43,200


48,300


74,600


78


65


72


58



1940
388,472



19413

458,177

15,700,000

238,000

66

2,035,000

111,000

18

1,529,000

75,400

20.3

2,177,000

69,700

31

2,771,000

62,500

44

253,000

37,800

6.7

6,100,000

97,400

63



1 Estimates were not prepared for other species than trout in the 1935 catch.

2 1937 estimates are derived from "First" and "Second" Call combined.

3 1939 and 1941 figures derive from mailed questionnaire instead of license applica-
tion form ; also, the method of estimate is different. As a result, the estimates for trout
catch and anglers are lower than they would have been by the old methods (which
would have given 19,000,000 trout caught by 256,000 anglers for an average of 74 trout
per angler). At the same time, the estimates for minor species are increased, due to
the tendency of reporters to give more complete records on the mailed questionnaire
than on the application form.

TABLE IV

LEADING COUNTIES OF TROUT CATCH



Showing Rank in Each Year



1936



Mono

Inyo

Fresno

Plumas

Humboldt

Tulare

Mendocino 7

Tuolumne 11

Shasta 15

El Dorado 3

Siskiyou 18

San Bernardino 10



.937*


1938


1


1


2


2


G


7


3


4


4


3


15





7


11


19


10


8


s


9


5


5


12


10


20



1939**

1

2

6

O

O

4

7

n
10

5
11

8
20



19jil**

1
2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9
10
11
12



* By "First" and "Second" Call combined— 1937.
•* Postal card questionnaire — 1939 and 1941.

The statistical department of the Division of Fish and Game, thanks
to its excellent personnel and equipment, is able to produce reports giving
from all angles information on the number of fish of each kind caught in
each county by residents of every county in the State. These detailed
data have many uses. They are available in annual catch record reports,
but are too lengthy to present here. Only the major results are sum-
marized in the accompanying tables. Certain clarifying comments seem
desirable.

1. The 1940 catch has not yet been analyzed. Reported on the old
application blank system while the new mailed questionnaire was being



14 FISH AND GAME COMMISSION

tested out on the 1939 catch, the 1940 hidividual reports reached the
statistical department at the same time as the 1941 returned question-
naires, and it was thought desirable to put them aside in favor of the more
up to date material. They will be recorded later as time becomes available.

2. As the number of licensees has increased, the percentage of them
who fish for trout has remained comparatively constant at between 55
and 60 per cent (59.7 per cent in 1941). The total trout catch has
increased, but the average catch per angler has declined. Part of this
decline is due to the diiference between the estimates derived from the


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